Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy the study
Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Physiology the study of the function of the bodys structural machinery Anatomy and Physiology (Form and Function) Function always reflects structure Form drives Function What a structure can do depends on its specific form
Levels of Structural Organization Organ systems Organs Atoms Cells Molecules
Tissues Order from smallest, simplest to largest most complex. Levels of Structural Organization Smooth muscle cell Molecules 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Atoms
1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Smooth muscle tissue Heart Cardiovascular system
Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues.
Blood vessel (organ) 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Figure 1.1
Skeletal System Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments Protects and supports body organs Provides the framework for muscles Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals Figure 1.3b Respiratory System Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea,
bronchi, and lungs Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Figure 1.3h Cardiovascular System Composed of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body Figure 1.3f
Digestive System Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces Figure 1.3i
Urinary System Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood Figure 1.3j Nervous System Composed of the brain,
spinal column, and nerves Is the fast-acting control system of the body Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands Figure 1.3d Muscular System Composed of muscles and tendons Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
Maintains posture Produces heat Figure 1.3c Cardiovascular System Composed of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body Figure 1.3f Lymphatic System,
Immune System Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells involved with immunity Figure 1.3g Integumentary System Forms the external body covering
Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D Figure 1.3a Lymphatic System Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells involved with immunity Figure 1.3g Male Reproductive System Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus
deferens Main function is the production of offspring Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract Figure 1.3k Female Reproductive System Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
Main function is the production of offspring Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn Figure 1.3l Figure 1.2 Homeostasis Homeostasis ability to maintain a relatively
stable internal environment in an everchanging world Variables maintained within narrow limits. The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Stimulus produces a change in a variable in the body. Control mechanisms act so as to maintain stable internal conditions. Model: Stimulus Signal sent Response Feedback Control Mechanisms
In biology and other sciences, feedback is information that a system generates about itself, or its effects, that influences how its processes continue. Can be Negative or Positive Feedback Negative Feedback is GOOD for the organismit tends to keep important variables within a set range Negative Feedback A negative feedback mechanism functions to keep things within a range-that is, to maintain homeostasis. When a variable moves outside its normal range, Negative Feedback tells a process to start doing the opposite of what it is doing now. This will bring the
variable affected back into the normal range. (STOP!!!!!) Homeostasis depends on a vast array of negative feedback mechanisms Bozeman science Negative Feedback Control 3 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to Control center
Receptor (sensor) 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to Effector 2 Change detected by receptor 5
1 Stimulus: Produces change in variable Variable (in homeostasis) Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable
to homeostasis Figure 1.4 Signal wire turns heater off Set point Control center (thermostat) Stimulus: dropping room
temperature Receptor-sensor (thermometer In thermostat) Heater off Effector (heater) Stimulus: rising room temperature
Response; temperature drops Balance Figure 1.5 Balance Response; temperature rises Stimulus: dropping room temperature
Heater on Set point Effector (heater) Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Signal wire turns
heater on Control center (thermostat) Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater off Control center (thermostat) Set
point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Stimulus: rising room temperature Imb ala Heater off
Effector (heater) Response; temperature drops nce Balance Imb al a Response; temperature rises
nce Stimulus: dropping room temperature Heater on Set point Effector (heater)
Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Signal wire turns heater on Control center (thermostat) Figure 1.5 Similar to Fig 1.5 on p11 in text.
Illustrate Negative Feedback Regulation Use Fig 1.5 in text (p11) Answer questions at top of Fig 1.5. How is this a negative feedback loop? Homeostasis Question A high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and body fluid triggers an increase in breathing rate. Explain this in terms of feedback mechanisms and maintenance of homeostasis.
Positive Feedback In positive feedback systems, the effector enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus Example: Regulation of blood clotting Figure 1.6
1 Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated Feedback cycle ends after clot seals break 4 Clotting proceeds; newly forming
clot grows 2 Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals 3 Released chemicals attract more platelets Figure 1.6
Positive Feedback Loop Hemorrhage Stimulus: Hemorrhage Loss of blood causes blood pressure to decrease Cardiac output decreases Less blood circulates to the heart Heart function
declines Homeostasis Question 2 When we begin to become dehydrated, we usually become thirsty, which causes us to drink fluids. On the basis of what you know about control systems, decide whether the thirst sensation is part of a negative or positive feedback control system and defend your choice. Homeostasis Q #3 When a person has not taken in sufficient water, they become dehydrated. This may cause a loss of blood pressure which
will trigger the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the hypothalamus and pituitary glands. This hormone signals the kidney to allow reabsorption of water to bring the blood pressure back to normal levels. Homeostatic Imbalance Disturbance of homeostasis or the bodys normal equilibrium Overwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanisms allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over *Anatomical Position
Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Figure 1.7a Directional Terms *Superior and inferior toward and away from the head, respectively *Anterior and posterior toward the front and back of the body *Medial, lateral toward the midline, away from the midline
Directional Terms *Proximal and distal closer to and farther from the origin of the body part *Superficial and deep toward and away from the body surface Body Planes *Sagittal divides the body into right and left parts *Midsagittal or medial sagittal plane that lies on the midline *Frontal divides the body into anterior and posterior parts *Transverse or horizontal (cross section)
divides the body into superior and inferior parts Body Planes Figure 1.8 Body Cavities *Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions *Cranial cavity within the skull; encases the brain *Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column; encases the spinal cord *Ventral cavity houses the internal organs
(viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions *Thoracic *Abdominopelvic Body Cavities Cranial cavity (contains brain) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs)
(contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity (a) Lateral view Figure 1.9a Cranial cavity Body Cavities
Key: Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity Vertebral cavity Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) Superior mediastinum
Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Abdominopelvic cavity Pelvic cavity
(contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) (b) Anterior view Figure 1.9b Body Cavities
Thoracic cavity is subdivided into two pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity *Pleural cavities each houses a lung *Mediastinum contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs *Pericardial cavity encloses the heart Body Cavities The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the domeshaped *diaphragm It is composed of two subdivisions *Abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs *Pelvic cavity lies within the pelvis and contains
the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum Ventral Body Cavity Membranes *Parietal serosa lines internal body walls *Visceral serosa covers the internal organs *Serous fluid separates the serosae Serous Membrane Relationship Figure 1.10a Heart Serosae Figure 1.10b
Body Planes Figure 1.8 Cranial cavity Body Cavi A(contains brain) Thoracic D cavity (contains heart
and lungs) Dorsal Bbody cavity Diaphragm CVertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) E
Key: Pelvic cavity (contains bladder, reproductive organs, Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity F) and rectum (a) Lateral view Figure 1.9a
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