U.S. HISTORY EOC REVIEW Industrial Revolution (Late 1800s)
U.S. HISTORY EOC REVIEW Industrial Revolution (Late 1800s) Invention Oil Drill Inventor Edwin Drake Impact Made production of oil faster and more efficient Light Bulb Thomas Edison Made lighting easier and more accessible; longer workdays Alternating Currents George Westinghouse Made light available to rural areas Telephone Alexander Graham Bell Allowed more communication around country Transcontinental Railroad XXXXXXXXX
Bessemer Process William Kelly Connected the country and allowed for trade throughout the nation Allowed for faster and cheaper production of steel Industrialists Andrew Carnegie JP Morgan Industry John D. Rockefeller US Steel Standard Oil Company Banker Technique Vertical Consolidation Horizontal Consolidation Interlocking Directorates
Explanation Buy up all phases of production to cut out middle man Control all companies in the same industry Put members of company in every branch of business Example McDonalds buys up McDonalds works chicken farms, cows, with Hardees, wheat fields, and Oreo Wendys, and Burger Company King to keep prices the same The managers of all fast food businesses work for McDonalds corporation Piecework More Production = More Pay Sweatshops
Long hours, low wages, bad jobs Workplace Problems Division of Labor Child Labor Everyone gets different task Children as young as 5 work Labor Unions Purpose National Trades Knights of Labor First labor union in America Included all crafts Included workers from all crafts Accepted African Americans and Women Fought for shorter hours, better conditions, no child labor Did not fight for higher wages American Federation of Labor Included only skilled workers United workers of similar interests Did not have very many women or African Americans
Led by Samuel Gompers American Railway Worked to unite all railway workers, skilled and unskilled Led by Eugene Debs Trade union Labor Union Strikes Great Railroad Strike (1877) Haymarket Riot (1886) Cause: Wage cuts Cause: Wanted 8 hour workday Strike: Violence Erupts Strike: Violence erupts when anarchists bomb police Solution: Hayes sends federal troops to restore order Solution: Police broke up strike Gives people bad image of unions Pullman Strike
(1894) Cause: Wage cuts, Layoffs, Town Rules Strike: Interfered with US Mail Solution: Court order forbade all union activity against Sherman Antitrust Act Labor Union Techniques Strikes: op Working Boycotts: Collective Bargaining: Do not buy from Negotiate with Certain businesses employer The Populist Movement (Late 1800s) Remember: Wizard of Oz Who Demands
Farmers Increase Money Supply (Free Silver) Decrease Tariffs Progressive Income Taxtax the wealthy Government ownership of communications and transportation Candidate William Jennings Bryan Delivered Cross of Gold speech in Election of 1896 Lost election to McKinley (1896 & 1900) Political Party Populists or The Grange Immigration to the United States Time Period 1840s Immigrant Groups Northwest Europe (Irish, French, Germans) Problems Arising Beginning of Nativism Know-Nothing Party forms Tenements 1890s Central Europe (Austria-Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland )
Crowded Cities Tenements How The Other Half Lives Political Machines Nativism Grows 1920s Southern and Eastern Europe (Russia, Italy, Greece, Romania, and Turkey) Red Scare Rise of Ku Klux Nativism Continues Immigration Restrictions Voting Restriction for African Americans Poll Tax Pay to vote War Literacy Test Clause Grandfather Must be able to read to vote May vote if grandfather voted prior to Civil Booker T. Washington v. WEB Dubois Booker T. Washington
Similarities WEB Dubois Raised as former slave in South African Americans Raised in the North Blacks should get a vocational education Leaders at the turn of the century Blacks should get a liberal arts education Blacks should work to gain equality with whites gradually Educated Blacks should be equal now Founded Tuskegee Institute Working for what each believed best for African Americans Founded NAACP
Progressive Movement (Early 1900s) Who Middle class Americans, especially women Muckrakers: Bring problems of society to public attention Ida Tarbell : Book on the Standard Oil Company Upton Sinclair: The Jungle on meatpacking industry Jacob Riis: How The Other Half Lives poverty in tenements Jane Addams: Hull House, settlement houses for immigrants Ida B Wells: Organized anti-lynching crusade Demands Make government accountable to citizens Curb power of wealthy Be more active in the lives of individuals Solutions
Direct Primaries 17th Amendment Initiative Referendum Recall Candidates Political Party Theodore Roosevelt (1912) Bull Moose Party Foreign Policies (Early 1900s) Theodore Roosevelt William Taft Woodrow Wilson Foreign Policy Big Stick Diplomacy Dollar Diplomacy Moral Diplomacy Explanation
Use force and aggression in dealing with other nations Historical Usage Panama Canal China Mexican Revolution Usage Today Attack on Afghanistan and Iraq Investing money in Iraq Spreading democracy and ridding of tyrannical dictator Invest money in the Apply US morals in economies of other dealing with other nations nations Path of Imperialism to 1917 Spanish American War
Panama Canal Philippines Roosevelt Corollary Puerto Rico China Mexican Revolution Hawaii World War I The Square Deal (Teddy Roosevelt) Consumer Protection Controlling Corporations Creating Regulations Conservation of Resources Election of 1912 Republican Split Republican Vote Candidates Theodore Roosevelt Bull Moose William Taft Woodrow Wilson Democrat
Wins Election of 1912 World War I Overall Causes US Entry US Leaders Warfare Sides Militarism, Nationalism, Imperialism, Alliances, Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Violation of Sussex Pledge and Zimmerman Note (1917) Woodrow Wilson Trench Warfare, Tanks, Poison Gas Central Powers: Austria-Hungary and Germany Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, US, and Serbia Theatres All fought in western Europe Winners Allies Dates 1914-1918 Treaty Treaty of Versailles: Reparations, Redraw Map of Europe, League of Nations
World War I Causes Reasons for US entry Militarism Sussex Pledge Alliances Lusitania Imperialism Nationalism Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Ties to Great Britain Zimmerman note World War I Allies Central Powers Britain Austria- France
Hungary America Ottoman Empire Italy Russia Germany Characteristics of Life in the 1920s Term Isolation Prohibition Meaning Cutting country off from the rest of the world Banned consumption, sale, and use of alcohol in organized crime Airplanes Lost Generation The Wright Brothers launched first aircraft Writers disconnected with culture (Hemingway, Fitzgerald) Fundamentalism Interpreting the Bible literally Problems with evolution Scopes Trial Easy Credit Radio
More goods more to buy people buying now and paying later Nationwide stations allowed a common connection and culture in America Renaissance Literary and artistic movement among African Americans Jazz Age Automobiles Film Jazz music comes to the forefront and club open Henry Ford begins mass producing his Model T First sound films come out in America Warning Signs of the Great Depression 1.Uneven Prosperity (rich getting richer, poor getting poorer) 2.Lack of Savings (80% of families had no savings) 3.Personal Debt (more Americans buying on credit) 4.Buying on the Margin (buying stock for half the price and paying rest when money comes in) 5.Speculation (get rich quick schemes) 6.Troubles for Farmers (crop prices falling) 7.Overproduction (no business regulations warehouses overstocked and no one to sell to) Ripple Effect of the Stock Market Crash Market investors lose savings and cannot pay loans Banks who invested in high risk companies cannot get loans back Banks demand money from consumer borrowers Borrowers do not have the money to pay banks American panic at thought of banks running out of money Everyone goes to the bank to get their money Banks run out of money and fail Savings accounts are wiped out with no insurance Companies who lost money have to cut production and jobs
Rise in unemployment Herbert Hoover Versus Franklin Roosevelt Herbert Hoover Franklin Roosevelt Philosophy of Government Rugged Individualism (People should help themselves as much as possible without government assistance) Forgotten Man (Government should work for the people) Relief Type Indirect Relief (Give money to state and local governments and to businesses and let the benefits trickle down) Direct Relief (Federal government deals with problem by creating programs to assist Americans) Dealing with the Depression
Let it work itself out Relief, Recovery, and Reform Political Party Republican Democrat New Deal Policies (FDRs domestic reform programs) New Deal Program Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Acronym FDIC Purpose Insure bank deposits up to $5,000.00 Securities and Exchange Commission SEC Assures that all information about stocks and bonds is accurate Civilian Conservation Corps CCC Put young unmarried men to work doing
useful jobs Tennessee Valley Authority TVA Sought to build hydroelectric power plants on the to help poor area and create jobs Public Works Administration PWA Relieved unemployment through large scale work projects Works Progress Administration WPA National Recovery Administration (Wagner Act) NRA Constructed public buildings, bridges, and roads Reduced hours for factories, set minimum wage, restricted child labor, guaranteed collective bargaining Agricultural Adjustment Act Social Security AAA
_______ Federal government pays farmers not to farm Provided unemployment insurance, old age pensions, and benefits for the disabled Overall Causes US Entry US Leaders Warfare Sides Theatres Winners Dates Treaty World War II German Rearmament, Rise of Dictators, Invasion of Poland Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor(1941) Presidents: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman Generals: Dwight Eisenhower, George Patton, Douglas Macarthur Naval and Air Power, Blitzkrieg, Fox Holes, Atomic Bomb Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, and Japan Allies: Great Britain, France, Soviet Union, and US Pacific Theatre (against Japan) Atlantic Theatre (against and Germany and Italy) Allies 1939-1945 Treaty of Paris Nuremburg Trials
Organization of the United Nations Formation: San Francisco Conference of 1945 Goal: Peacekeeping organization to replace League of Nations Two Main Houses of the United Nations (1945) General Assembly Security Council Every Member Nation Participates Handles major issues of the UN Appoints various Subcommittees Responsible for keeping the peace 11 members, 5 that are permanent France, GB, US, SU, and China Cold War Escalation Abroad Event Year(s) President Yalta Conference 1945 Truman Divides Germany into 4 parts Divides Berlin into 4 parts (1. US, 2. GB, 3. Fr, 4. SU)
Marshall Plan 1947 Truman US offers aid to all European countries to help rebuild; only Western Europe accepts Truman Doctrine 1947 Truman US must protect free nations from communism Berlin Airlift 1948 Truman Stalin wants to run US out of , blockades city, Truman drops food from planes Formation of NATO 1949 Truman
Organization of western nations for collective security against Soviets Fall of China 1949 Truman Communists led by Mao Zedong overthrow democratic government in China Explanation Nuclear Arms Race 1949 Truman Purpose of Arms Race: Deterrence US Accomplishment: Hydrogen Bomb Soviet Accomplishment: ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile) Korean War 1950-1953 Truman Communist North Korea, with Eisenhower Soviet help, invades democratic South Korea; US helps South Korea
Eisenhower Soviet response to the creation of NATO; collective security for eastern Europe Eisenhower Soviet Accomplishments: Sputnik Kennedy US Accomplishment: First Man on Nixon Moon Warsaw Pact 1955 Space Race 1957-1969 Vietnam War 1954-1975 Eisenhower Communist North Vietnam invades Kennedy democratic South Korea ; US helps L. Johnson South Vietnam Nixon U2 Incident 1960 Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961
Eisenhower Soviets shoot down US spy plane flying over Soviet Union Kennedy Attempted overthrow of Communist Cuban leader Fidel Castro; Failed Berlin Crisis 1961 Kennedy JFK meets with Soviet leader Khrushchev and leaves feeling bullied; Soviets build Berlin Wall to separate East and West Berlin US finds Soviet missiles in Communist Cuba; US blockades leading to near nuclear disaster Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Kennedy Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963 Kennedy Dtente
1968 Nixon Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) 1972 Nixon Limited offensive nuclear weapons between the US and the Soviet Union Boycott of Olympics 1980 Carter Soviets invaded Afghanistan, US refuses to attend the Olympic games in Moscow Strategic Defense Initiative 1983 Reagan Aka Star Wars Wanted to create a massive shield in space to intercept and destroy Soviet missiles
Treaty signed between US, Great Britain, and Soviet Union to stop above ground nuclear testing Policy of relieving tensions between the US, China, and the Soviet Union Grenada Invasion 1983 Reagan Iran-Contra Affair 1986 Reagan Gorbachev Controls Soviet Union Fall of Berlin Wall 1985 Reagan 1989 Bush I USSR Collapses
1991 Bush I Pro-Cuban government took over in Grenada; US helps oust regime US sells weapons to and uses money to support anticommunist Contras in Nicaragua; illegal Gorbachev institutes glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in Soviet Union East Germany allows free travel for first time between East and West; People flood over Berlin Wall and tear it down Gorbachev resigns from presidency of the Soviet Union and collapses (The Red Scare) House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Formed Hollywood Ten Jailed and Blacklisted Alger Hiss Imprisoned for Communist Leanings Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Executed for Selling Atomic Secrets to Soviets McCarthyism Spreads Fear of Communism (Falsely Accused Thousands of US Officials) NASA created to Beat Soviets into Space National Education and Defense Act Established to Teach More Science and Math Duck and Cover Adopted as Emergency Procedure during Nuclear Fallout
Fallout Shelters Built Throughout America Deficit Spending Becomes Policy to Keep US Ahead of Soviets in Cold War Life in the 1950s Technological Advances Television Desktop Computers Polio Vaccine / Antibiotic Hydrogen Bomb Nuclear Energy Youth Silent Generation Baby Boom Generation Flock Back to Churches Billy Graham Under God and In God We Trust Religion Family Roles Male: Breadwinner Female: Homemaker Levittowns (Suburbs) GI Bill Music Rock and Roll Music Elvis Presley Shakes racial and moral barriers Business/Workforce
Franchise System (Ray Kroc-McDonalds) Change from Blue Collar to White Collar Jobs Presidential Domestic Policies Policy President Truman Ideas Improve Housing Increase Minimum Wage Extend Social Security Actions Unsuccessful No support from Congress Taft Hartley Act (Hurt labor unions) Modern Republicanism Eisenhower Conservative with Money Liberal with People Support Big Business Interstate Highway Act New Frontier Kennedy
Combat Poverty and Inequality Establish Space Program Increased Minimum Wage Promoted Urban Renewal 24th Amendment Equal Pay Act Great Society L. Johnson War on Poverty Head Start Medicare Medicaid Immigration Act of 1965 New Federalism Nixon Put More Power in Hands of States Deficit Spending Cuts Social Programs Watergate Scandal Fair Deal Deregulation Carter
Reduce Government Controls on Industries Deregulated Railroads, Trucking, and Airlines Department of Energy Three Mile Island Supply Side Economics Reagan Decrease Taxes for Businesses and Benefits Trickle Down to Poor Deregulation MLK Holiday Appoints Supreme Court Justices Challenger Explosion The Economy, Stupid Clinton Improve Economy Balance Budget Improve Healthcare Balanced Budget Budget Surplus Healthcare Reform
Failed Family and Medical Leave Reformed Welfare Impeached Korean Conflict Vietnam Conflict Dates 1950-1953 1954-1975 Presidents Eisenhower Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Ford Divisions N Korea: Communist S Korea: Democratic Parallel: 38th Parallel N Vietnam: Communist S Vietnam: Democratic Parallel: 17th Parallel Cause of Conflict
North Korea invades South Korea ; US pushes back to the 38th parallel Problems for America General Macarthur invades North Korea without permission; China becomes involved; Macarthur is fired US: General Douglas Macarthur N Vietnam invades S Vietnam; US sends in advisors and troops to assist the South Vietnamese in keeping democracy America is fighting both the Viet Minh (from N Vietnam) and the Viet Cong (from S Vietnam) Military Leaders Public Reaction Original Public Support Forgotten War US: General William Westmoreland N Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh Protest Movements Conscientious Objectors Kent State University Counter Culture Korean Conflict
Results Important Terms Vietnam Conflict Fight two year stalemate at Nixon institutes Vietnamization 38th; Call truce at the 38th and signs Paris Peace Accords; parallel Two years later, North Vietnam invades South Vietnam and it falls to communism Military-Industrial Complex Domino Theory Geneva Accords Gulf of Tonkin Resolution TET Offensive Agent Orange Napalm Ho Chi Minh Trail My Lai Incident Organizations National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Black Nationalism Movement Black Panthers The Civil Rights Movement People Events Thurgood Marshall Greensboro Sit-In Emmitt Till Freedom Rides Rosa Parks Martin Luther King, Jr. James Meredith John F. Kennedy Malcom X Integration of Ole Miss Letter from Birmingham Jail March on Washington I Have A Dream Speech Civil Rights Act of 1964 Freedom Summer Stokely Carmicheal Selma to Montgomery March
Robert Kennedy Voting Rights Act of 1965 1960s and 1970s Activism Supreme Court Decisions University of California v Bakke (1978): Affirmative action is legal, but no quotas Tinker v. Des Moines (1969): Students can wear armbands in protest of the Vietnam War Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972): Amish children do not have to attend school after 8th grade, freedom of religion Roe v. Wade (1973):Abortion in the first trimester is legal Womens Movement Title IX: Women cannot be discriminated against in educational programs or activities Betty Freidan: Wrote the Feminine Mystique stating women were not happy at home National Organization for Women: Activist group fighting for womens rights; Gloria Steinem = leader Equal Rights Amendment: Would make women equal under the law but failed Hispanic Americans Caesar Chavez: Formed the United Farm Workers to get rights for migrant workers Native Americans National Congress of American Indians: Activist groups wanting more government support of Native Americans The Counterculture Hippies: Dressed as a rejection of corporate world; Protested war; Pro Civil Rights Sexual and Drug Revolution: Free love, psychedelic drugs, Woodstock Environmental Awareness: Pressure government to form EPA
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