Framework for a Road Map to Magnetic Fusion

Framework for a Road Map to Magnetic Fusion

Framework for a Road Map to Magnetic Fusion Energy Status Report Dale Meade for Magnetic Fusion Program Leaders Working Group FPA Annual Meeting Washington, DC. December 10, 2013 Magnetic Fusion Program Leaders (MFPL) Initiative Magnetic Fusion Program Leaders: S.Prager, PPPL; T. Taylor, GA; N. Sauthoff, USIPO; M.Porkolab, MIT; P. Ferguson, ORNL; R. Fonck, U.Wisc; D. Brennan, UFA. Goal: Develop and assess three aggressive technically feasible, but constrained, paths for the US Fusion Program to support or motivate a commitment to DEMO on the timescale of ITER Q 10 experiments (nominally 2028). Task: Building on previous Fusion Community workshops and studies, assess the technical readiness and risks associated with proceeding aggressively along three potential paths: 1) ITER plus Fusion Nuclear Science Facility leading to a Tokamak DEMO 2) ITER directly to a Tokamak DEMO (possibly staged) 3) ITER plus additional facilities leading to a QS - Stellarator DEMO Each of these paths will include major aspects of a broad supporting research program. Process: 1. A core group (10) has been formed 2. Solicit review from a large (30) group of technical experts and external advisors 3. Aiming for interim report to Magnetic Fusion Program Leaders by Spring 2014 Road Map Study Group Members Dale Meade Steve Zinkle

Chuck Kessel Andrea Garofalo Neil Morley Jerry Navratil Hutch Neilson Dave Hill Dave Rasmussen Bruce Lipschultz/Dennis Whyte Background FESAC 35 Yr RJG ReNeW Study FESAC Materials SZ FESAC Priorities RR EU Road Map/Annex (2003) (2009) (2012) (2013) (2013) Chair Materials Power Plant Studies, FNSPA Toroidal Physics Blanket Technology University Experimental Perspective 3-D Toroidal, Road Map Studies Toroidal Alternates Enabling Technology, ITER Plasma Wall Interactions

Reactor Innovations FESAC Opportunity MG (2007) FNSP Assessment CK (2011) FESAC Int Collab DM (2012) FESAC Facilities JS (2013) China CFETR Plan (2013) All Road Map exercises start with where you are today, and where do you want to be at the end Today the scientific basis for MFE is very strong but incomplete Detailed understanding and predictive capability for plasma equilibrium, MHD stability, energetic particles, etc. Improving understanding of plasma material interactions,. Fusion energy production demonstrated 7.5-22 MJ/pulse, >1.5 GJ fusion energy total, alpha heating and alpha dynamics confirmed , fusion gain Q ~ 1 MFE has initiated, and is solving the challenges of building worlds 1 st reactor-scale fusion facility that will establish burning plasma physics, and demonstrate fusion gain Q 10, 500 MW, 200 GJ/pulse and fusion technologies. Ongoing research program is addressing technical issues to ensure ITERs success What additional issues need to be resolved for fusion power? - look back from the Fusion Demo. ARIES Studies Identified General Characteristics of Magnetic Fusion Demonstration Plants Compact Stellarator Advanced Tokamak

All steady-state at 1,000 MWE ARIES-ACT1 ARIES-ACT2 ARIES-CS 6.25 9.75 7.75 B(T) / B max-coil (T) 6.0/10.6 8.75/14.4 5.7/15.1 N tot 5.6/6.5 2.6/1.7 -/6.4 PFusion (MW) 1813

2637 2440 fbs (%) 91 77 ~25 < > MWm-2 2.5 1.5 2.6 R(m) Major Mission Elements on the Path to an MFE Power Plant Mission 1. Create Fusion Power Source Mission 2. Tame the Plasma Wall Interface Mission 3. Harness the Power of Fusion Mission 4. Develop Materials for Fusion Energy

Mission 5. Establish the Economic Attractiveness, and Environmental Benefits of Fusion Energy Restatement of Greenwald Panel and ReNeW themes Each Mission has ~ five sub-missions Technical Readiness Levels TRLs express increasing levels of integration and relevance to final product. More Work Needed here Need to review Compare with EU NAS IFE DOE TRL Guidelines Describe reqmts for each TRL with issues, milestones Note- this is linked to an active Excel spreadsheet Double click to open spreadsheet Mission 1: Create Fusion Power Source (AT DEMO Pathway) Attain high burning plasma performance Q~1 achieved in DT experiments in TFTR/JET & extended with DT in JET 2015 with a Be wall

Control high performance burning : Now TRL 3: Q~1 DT experiments in TFTR/JET see self-heating Now * TRL 4: DIII-D ECH dominated ITER baseline experiments JET DT experiments on TAE transport in Q~1 DT plasmas with Be walls Now Now TRL 4: Sustain fusion fuel mix and stable burn: TRL 5: NBI Tritium fueling in TFTR/JET & cryo pellet injection technology Sustain magnetic configuration-AT Configuration: Now Now * Sustain magnetic configuration-ST Configuration: Now Now

NSTX NSTX TRL 4: Bootstrap current widely observed; non-inductive sustained plasmas observed on JT-60U & DIII-D using NBI-CD/LHCD/ECCD TRL 5: DIII-D/K-STAR/JT-60SA observation of 80% bootstrap sustained plasma EAST/K-STAR/WEST observation of RF & bootstrap sustained SS plasma TRL 3: Bootstrap current observed in NSTX; CHI demonstrated non-inductive current drive TRL 4: NSTX-U demonstrate non-inductive start-up and sustainment extrapolable to FNSF-AT Attain high burning plasma performance compatible with plasma exhaust: Now Now * NSTX NSTX * TRL 3: TRL 4: TRL 4: TRL 5: JET/DIII-D/ASDEX-U demonstration of detached divertor operation JET/DIII-D/K-STAR demonstration of detached divertor in SS AT ITER like plasma NSTX-U demonstration of advanced divertor operation in FNSF-ST like plasma

Test stand validation of long lifetime divertor PMI material s) Mission 1: Create Fusion Power Source ITER FNSF DEMO 1000s Fusion Plasma Sustainment Time (sec) FESAC IC Version, Modification of Kikuchi figure Compare with EU assessment esp DTT ITER + FNSF => AT DEMO Pathway (Logic) 2000 Create Fusion Power Source Tame Plasma Wall Interface Harness Fusion Power Materials for Fusion Power

2010 ITER Basis 2020 FNSF FNSF FNSF DEMO CDA EDA Const CDA 2030 DEMO EDA 2040 DEMO Const TRL=4 5 7.5? 9 TRL=4 5 7.5? 9

TRL=2 3 7.5? 9 TRL=2 3 7.5? 8 Economic Attractiveness ITER Initiate Construction Legend Milestone Decision Point Goal DT Initiate Operation FNSF Initiate Initiate Initiate CDA

EDA Const. DEMO Initiate CDA Gain~10 DEMO 500 MW Basis Initiate Operation Initiate EDA Phase I Phase II Results Results DEMO OPS Initiate Construction Electricity From Fusion ITER + QS-Stell Program => Stellarator DEMO Pathway (Logic) 2000 2010 Create Fusion Power Source Tame Plasma Wall Interface

2020 QS Stellarator Basis Stell-NS Basis Confirm Basis ITER Basis QS Stellarator Basis Stell-NS Basis Confirm Basis Stell-NS Basis Confirm Basis Stell-NS Basis

Confirm Basis Materials for Fusion Power W7-X Initiate Construction Initiate Operation unlinked Initiate Construction Legend Milestone Decision Point Goal 2040 ITER Basis Harness Fusion Power ITER

2030 QS Stell Exp Initiate Install Stell-NS = Stellarator Next Step NS Mission Options: Burning Plasma (BP) or Pilot Plant (PP) Stell-NS Gain ~10 Confirm Basis Basis 500 MW Stell-NS Basis Decide NS Mission: BP or PP Confirm Basis Confirm Basis Stell-NS Initiate Design Initiate Construction

Initiate Operation Facilities for US Magnetic Fusion Program Road Map 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 C-Mod, DIII-D, ASDEX-U, JET NSTX-U, MAST-U AT or ST for FNSF? AT OK for Demo Basis? EAST, KSTAR WEST JT60-SA Adv Tokamak Pathway ITER ITER AT or ST FNSF OK for FNSF?

PMI Facilities Blanket Facilities OK for Demo Basis? DEMO Materials Facilities QS Stellarator Pathway QSSE Stellarator NS QSS OK for BP or PP Basis? W7-X LHD Stellarator Base Program DT Non-DT Materials Facilities for all Pathways 2000 2010 2020 2030

2040 Fission Neutron Tests Spallation SINQ, SNS, MTS Integrated Fission/Spallation Test Neutron Materials Simulations EVDA US Join EVDA? IFMIF US Join IFMIF? ITER TBM US join ITER TBM? Design EU DEMO CDA Const EDA FNSF Construction Operate Next Steps for Road Map Activity Complete draft framework for each path forward:

Review critical issues TRL assessments Milestones Decision points Review aggressiveness of the schedule (More or less) Compare relative technical gaps and risks Resource needs (more than hardware) Seek input and review by technical experts and the fusion community Continue working with international groups that are developing Road Maps for their National Programs (e.g., 2nd IAEA DEMO Programme Workshop, Dec 16-20, 2013) Comments to the working group or me [email protected] These slides will be posted on FIRE http://fire.pppl.gov

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