Lignin Digest with Detergent Solution Digest with Acid Cell Contents (Protein,
Starch, Sugars, Organic Acids, Pectin) Hemicellulose Ferment with Enzyme Fructans and Glucose
Cellulose and Lignin Ferment with Cellulase Glucose Lignin Agriculture has some decisions to make Energy independence Value added crops Competition for commodities
Interesting times for Price discovery My background is old school Cattle/forages/feed CRP acres show promise as a buffer (Average $50/acre, currently) Remember when?
For every actiona reaction Recent Biofuel research at Mizzou Switchgrass Cooperative project with 8 other states Cool-season CRP and CRP renovation with legumes and Switchgrass Cooperative project with 4 other states
Big challenges require teamwork MU Switchgrass data Latitudinal and Longitudinal Adaptation of Switchgrass Populations M. D. Casler , K. P. Vogel , C. M. Taliaferro , N. J. Ehlke , J. D. Berdahl , E. C. Brummer , R. L. g h b Kallenbach , C. P. West and R. B. Mitchell
a,* b c d e
f Crop Sci 47:2249-2260 (2007) Take home messages: Not all varieties of switchgrass are created equal A variety should not be grown more than 1 hardiness zone away from its ancestral origin
Cave-in-Rock most widely adapted to migration MU cool-season CRP data Switchgrass dominated warm-season mixture, ND Switchgrass dominated warm-season mixture with legume, KA Tall fescue dominated cool-season mixture with two-cut system, MO
Tall wheatgrass dominated cool-season mixture with legume, MT Switchgrass dominated warm-season mixture, OK MU cool-season CRP data Yields not tremendous Next logical step Integrate Switchgrass to beef up yields
legumes to provide N Yellow sweetclover Switchgrass Binary mixture
w/without glyphosate to establish Challenges Production Mandates Year 2013 2015
2020 2022 Billion gallons 16.5 20.5 30.0 36.0
Approx. 16 Billion gallons of ethanol from biomass At 100 gallons per ton conversion efficiency = 160 Million tons of biomass needed At an ave. yield of 5 t/a we need 32 million acres A typical 50 Million gallon/yr plant would need 500,000 tons of cellulosic materials about 1 million big round bales Challenges
Transport about 4 times higher for biomass than grains Corn 44 lb/ft3 Biomass 10 to 12 lb/ft3 Storage - where do you keep 1 million bales without having them deteriorate? Outside storage helps? Enough to fill Memorial Stadium level full with bales 5 times
Challenges Economic benefit to producers Current prices for a great deal of biomass greater as forage than fuel Most cellulosic models built on $35-45/ton feedstock Higher fuel prices would improve feedstock value Fertilizer costs for N-P-K $40/T for cool-season crp
$25/T for switchgrass Organic matter losses from removing crop residues gains under crp w/switchgrass (2.4 and 4 Mg/ha) N rate dependant (Lee et al., Agron. J. 99:462468 (2007)). Challenges Risk management
Can you hedge these commodities? Hedging? Hedging? Hedging? Summary
Find 3 million acres to grow corn on Ensure CRP acres can provide enough cellulosic material Figure out how to supply CRP with N from legumes
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