Rittenberg/Schwieger/Johnstone Auditing: A Business Risk Approach Sixth Edition

Rittenberg/Schwieger/Johnstone Auditing: A Business Risk Approach Sixth Edition

Rittenberg/Schwieger/Johnstone Auditing: A Business Risk Approach Sixth Edition Chapter 17 Communicating Audit and Attestation Results Copyright 2008 Thomson South-Western, a part of the Thomson Corporation. Thomson, the Star logo, and South-Western are trademarks used herein under license. 1 Audit Reports

Designed to promote clear communication between auditor and financial statement reader by clearly stating What was audited and the division of responsibility: management for the financial statements and the auditor for expressing an opinion (introductory paragraph) The nature of the audit process (scope paragraph) Auditor's opinion on the fair presentation of the financial statements (opinion paragraph) If an unqualified opinion cannot be expressed, reasons why (explanatory paragraph) The fourth reporting standard requires auditors to either express an opinion or state why an opinion cannot be expressed

2 What are the types of audit reports? Standard unqualified Unqualified opinion with modified wording Qualified Adverse Disclaimer 3 The Standard Unqualified Report Statements present fairly

No material departures from GAAP Disclosures are adequate All necessary audit procedures performed (no scope limitation) No change in GAAP with material impact Auditor is independent No going concern problems 4 The Unqualified Report with Modified Wording Statements present fairly, but auditor wishes to disclose additional information Substantial doubt about client being a going concern

Change in accounting principles Justified departure from GAAP Auditor wishes to emphasize particular event, transaction, or subsequent occurrence Reference to other auditors Changes in comparative statements, such as differences in the level of audit report or a change in auditors where the predecessor's opinion will not be reissued 5 The Qualified Report Statements present fairly except for....

Material unjustified departure from GAAP Inadequate disclosure Scope limitation 6 The Adverse Report Statements, as a whole, do NOT present fairly Pervasive and material unjustified departure from GAAP Lack of important disclosure 7

The Disclaimer of Opinion Auditor lacks independence Scope limitation Substantial going concern problem 8 Modifications Affecting the Opinion Departure from GAAP - whether the departure is justified or unjustified, amount and pervasiveness of the misstatement, and potential impact of misstatements on statement users determines whether an unqualified,

qualified, or adverse opinion is issued. Scope limitation - imposed by client or circumstance, materiality of the amounts involved, auditor's ability to form an opinion on the statements without the evidence determines whether qualified or disclaimer is issued Going concern - depending on auditor's assessment of client's ability to remain a going concern, auditor may issue unqualified opinion with modified wording, qualified opinion, or disclaim 9 Financial Statement Reviews Sometimes a client does not need an audit.

Practitioners can perform fewer procedures and report a lower, or no, level of assurance on the financial statements. The most common of these financial statement services are compilations and reviews. The standards for compilations and reviews of financial statements of non-public entities are called Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services (SSARS) 10 Financial Statement Reviews (continued)

Inquiry and analytical procedures are performed for each significant account balance Accountant does NOT assess internal control or perform substantive tests Provides limited assurance that accountant is not aware of any reporting problems Accountant must be independent 11 Compilation Presents management information in financial statement form without any form of assurance The accountant must have general knowledge of

client accounting records, accounting methods, and form and content of statements The accountant is not required to perform procedures to verify, corroborate, or review client information The accountant must read the statements to make sure they are free from obvious material misstatement 12 Compilation (continued) If the accountant believes the statements are incorrect, incomplete, or misleading, s/he must obtain any additional information necessary to

prepare accurate statements Compiled statements may omit disclosures if the accountant believes the omission is not done to mislead, and it is noted in the compilation report If the accountant is not independent of client, a separate paragraph is added to the compilation report stating lack of independence Compiled statements may only be prepared for nonpublic entities. 13 Reports on Other Financial Information: Special Reports Statements prepared on a comprehensive basis

other than GAAP (OCBOA) Reporting on specified elements, accounts, or items of financial statements Reporting on compliance with aspects of contractual agreements or regulatory requirements related to audited financial statements Reporting on special-purpose financial presentations to comply with contractual agreements or regulatory provisions Reporting on financial information presented in prescribed forms or schedules 14

Interim Financial Information The SEC requires publicly traded companies to have their quarterly financial information reviewed by their independent auditors Review procedures much the same as required by SSARS Reporting on interim statements presented separately Reporting on interim information accompanying audited annual financial statements 15

Reports on Other Financial and Non-Financial Information Prospective Financial Statements Forecasts and projections May compile (no assurance) or examine (positive assurance) Pro forma financial information Historical information adjusted for proposed or actual transactions Compliance with laws and regulations Compliance with requirements of specified laws, regulations, rules, contracts, or grants

Effectiveness of entity's internal control over compliance with specified requirements 16 Evolving Assurance Services In 1994, the AICPA established the Special Committee on Assurance Services to identify new assurance services. The SCAS identified six services: Electronic Commerce Business Performance Management Health Care Performance Management Risk Assessment

Information Systems Reliability Elder Care Assurance 17

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