Unit 2 Biodiversity Thinking Lab Examine the following

Unit 2 Biodiversity Thinking Lab  Examine the following

Unit 2 Biodiversity Thinking Lab Examine the following pictures and brainstorm a list of characteristics that enable you to separate living from non-living

2 3 1 4

5 Characteristics of living things 1. Made of one or more cells 2. The ability to metabolize matter (photosynthesis/respiration) 3. Interact with their environment and maintain homeostasis

4. Grow and Develop 5. Reproduce 6. Adapt to their surroundings 1. Cells Unicellular (one cell) or Multicellular (many cells) Leads to more complex structures/organisms:

Tissues (epithelial tissue, muscle tissue) Organs (heart, lungs, kidney) Organ Systems (circulatory, respiratory, excretory) http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_b ehaviour_health/cells_systems/activity/ 2. Metabolism Metabolism means cells are able to obtain

energy 3. Living Things are Homeostatic Homeostasis means staying the same. The inside of the cell must remain the same, despite changing external conditions 4. Living Things Undergo Biogenesis

All cells/organisms come from other living cells/organisms. Unicellular organisms (asexual reproduction) Multicellular organisms (sexual reproduction) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

5. Living Things Adapt All organisms must be able to adapt to their changing environment. This is none as Survival of the fittest. Organisms with the best adaptations survive to reproduce and pass on those genes to a new generation.

Classifying Living Things The branch of biology that deals with the classification and naming of living organisms is called taxonomy. Scientists have identified between 2 and 4.5 million different kinds of living organisms. Some estimate that there may be four times this number.

Scientists Aristotle - the first to classify organisms. He classified all organisms as either plants or animals. Linnaeus - considered to be the father of taxonomy. Used the physical and structural features of an organism for classification. The more features that organisms have in common, the closer the relationship.

Each type of organism belongs to one kingdom, one phylum, one class, one order, one family, one genus and one species. Explain how organisms can be classified using

various techniques. Taxonomists - use a wide variety of information to develop classification that reflects true evolutionary relationships. This information includes: anatomy (structural), biochemical, cytological, DNA, embryological, behavioral, and fossil information.

What is Nomenclature? A system for naming living things is called nomenclature. It consists of naming each species with two names. The first is the genus name; the second is the species name.

The genus name is always capitalized but the species is not. They both should be in italics when typed but may be underlined if handwritten Examples of scientific names include:

Canis familiaris (dog) Homo sapien (humans) Castor canadensis (beaver) Acer rubrum (red maple)

Why dont we just use common names? The use of common names can be confusing. Examples: The fruit Capsicum frutescens is called mango, bell pepper, sweet pepper or green pepper depending upon where you live. The woodland flower Cornus canadensis has common names bunchberry and crackerjack.

Taxonomic Keys A taxonomic key - a to identify organisms already classified by taxonomists. Such keys move from general to specific descriptions. These keys are dichotomous - paired statements that describe alternative possible characteristics of the organisms.

Example: What is the name of this organism? 1. A. Has six legs go to 2 B. Has eight legs .go to 4 2. A. Has two antenna go to 3

B. Has no antenna .Caddius 3. A. Has two hair-like tails .Stonefly B. Has three hair-like tailsMayfly 4. A. Has hook-like claws .Caddisfly B. Has no hook-like claws.Damselfly Six Kingdom System of Classification Most taxonomists use a six kingdom system of classification.

Recently, a five kingdom classification was used but a greater understanding of bacteria lead to dividing this kingdom. The kingdoms now include:

Bacteria (monera ,bacteria or prokaryotae) Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae

Animalia 1. Kingdom Bacteria 1. prokaryotic cell type 2. microscopic 3. unicellular body form; some colonial 4. cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan 5. nutrition is obtained through photosynthesis, chemosynthesis

and absorption autotrophs and heterotrophs. 6. nervous system is absent 7. Asexual reproduction 8. locomotion is present in some (flagellum) Live nearly anywhere Examples: E. Coli, Clostridium botulinum 2. Kingdom Archeabacteria

Possess unique structures and mechanisms that allow them to live in extreme environments like acidic springs Cell wall composed of lipids Examples: methanogens, halophiles, thermoacidophiles See 1-7 above, omit #4

3. Kingdom Protista eukaryotic cell type body form is mainly unicellular; some colonial, some simple multicellular organisms cell wall will exist in some protists; its composition will vary nutrition may be through photosynthesis, ingestion, or absorption. Can be parasitic

Nervous system is absent Sexual and asexual reproduction Locomotion is present in some protists Live in aquatic or moist habitats Examples: Ciliates, Flagellates, Slime Molds, Diatoms, Algae (autotophs), euglena 4. Kingdom Fungi

eukaryotic cell type body form is some unicellular; mainly multicellular cell wall is usually composed of chitin nutrition is through absorption; secrete enzymes that digests food material outside of itself.

nervous system is absent Sexual and asexual reproduction no form of locomotion Most are terrestrial Parasites or decomposers Examples: Molds, Lichens, Yeast, Mushrooms, Bread Molds 5. Kingdom Plantae

eukaryotic cell type multicellular organisms; specialized tissues and organs cell wall is composed of cellulose nutrition is through photosynthesis nervous system is absent Sexual and asexual reproduction

no form of locomotion Most are terrestrial Examples: Flowering Plants, Conifers, Ferns, Mosses, liverworts, Horsetails, Seaweeds 6. Kingdom Animalia eukaryotic cell type

multicellular organisms with tissues, organs and organ systems no cell wall nutrition is through ingestion nervous system is present Sexual reproduction locomotion distinct at some point in life cycle Live in terrestrial and aquatic habitats

Exhibit complex forms of behavior Examples: Sponges, Echinoderms, Jellyfish, Mollusks, Worms, Arthropods, Chordates, Birds, Mammals

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