A History of Fashion By: Chelene Jordan 1300-1500 Renaissance Fashion For Fashions Sake Renaissance Vocabulary
Farthingale: A thick hoop skirt made out of wood or whale bone. Under the skirt to give it its round shape. Chemise: A straight cloth gown of linen or silk worn under everything else. Drawers: Undergarment with legs. Covers the lower part of the body.
Pleat: A sewn fold in clothing. Petticoat: A skirt. Sometimes multiple were worn at once. Codpeice:a flap or cover for the crotch in men's hose or tight-fitting breeches, usually matching the costume and often decorated. Slashing: a decorative slit in a garment showing an underlying fabric. Ruff: A high standing collar made of linen or lace and pleated many times. Corset: Same as a bodice. Bodice: Worn over the Chemise. Usually sleevless. Made of whale bone or wood. Tightly pulled to make one appear thinner. Zimarra: A cassock with a small cape attached. Also called simar. Cassock: A long, close-fitting coat, usually worn by clergy or religious people.
Renaissance styles and Influences.
Italy is where the renaissance began, and also where major fashion trends in Europe started around 1300. Italy had a monopoly on the fabric and silk trade To be fashionable was very expensive since the clothing had many layers and was made of fine materials. The lower classes wore black and grays, though dark colors became popular to show off jewelry. Red and purple dye meant nobility.
Flamboyant and rounded shapes. Feathered hats. Big hats. Use of lace and frills near the later years. Highly decorated lacey wrist cuffs near the later years. Decorative/Fashionable Armor. Clothing was tight and hard to move around in, and sometimes even breathe in. Highly inconvenient. Richly adorned. Large elegant and extravagant ruffs appeared in the late 15th Century, later reappearing in the 17th century. Accentuated Physique Silver and gold embroidery or embossment. Wigs crafted from peasants hair Northern Europe crafted elaborately decorated armor and helmets. Fur cloaks to ward off fleas.
Some areas would not allow peasants to possess any silk or nice clothing. The Italian influence on fashion ended with the decline of Eastern trade in the course of the 16th century. Pointed toe shoes until about 1500 where shoes started to have heels and be flat at the toe. Highly decorated and usually uncomfortable. Womens Renaissance Fashion Fashionable women shaved their eyebrows and foreheads, making a high hairline. Veils and pulled back hairstyles. Horned Headresses. Long gowns with decorated sleeves. Low neckline. Makeup and bleached hair.
Hair decorated with flowers and ribbons. Jewelry like pearls and metal rings. Carrying accessories like fans Mens Renaissance Fashion
Fabric becomes richer and heavier. New patterns and ways of wearing clothes. The Burgundian fashion of wearing hose that developed into stocking trousers over time. Emphasized well toned legs. Laced doublet and a long extravagant cape, the zimarra. Hat fashion more important even for men. Feathers sewn into hats and jackets. Armor was worn as decoration. Codpieces emphasized ones manliness.
Elizabthan/Jacobean ~1558-1603 Elizabethan/Jacobean Vocabulary Venetian: A tape or braid for supporting the slats of a venetian blind. V-waist: Bodices came down lower, but made a V-shape
emphasizing hips. French breeches: Tight and ruffled puffs about the thighs. Garters: An article of clothing for holding up a stocking or sock, usually an elastic band around the leg or an elastic strap hanging fro m a girdle or other undergarment. Influences and Styles
During this time Spain was gaining a lot of ground in the new world, and was very rich with incoming gold and resources. France and Englands styles were often based off of Spanish ones, and Spanish ones were based off of old Italian ones. Queen Elizabeth was a big promoter of fashion, and was known as one of the most fashionable women in Europe. Stiff and rigid, tight. Ruffs are more common now than they were during the Renaissance. Heeled shoes and boots.
Heavier fabrics. As Spains short-lived empire died down nearing the 17th Century, France becomes the leader in fashion, with England always one step behind them. Nobles would need assistance in getting dressed. Womens Elizabethan Fashion Women wore large ruffs. Hair was styled by putting wires in it, giving it a wing shape often times. Flat-chested appearance
Mens Elizabethan Fashion Heeled knee-high boots. Blouses that exposed the chest Large, pleated, poofed out trunks and tight hose underneath, held up by garters. Doublets with attachable sleeves. Small cloaks and coats. 1620 - 1660
Cavalier (Early Baroque) Cavalier Vocabulary Frock: A simple gown or dress Muff: A tubular case for the hands stay warm in. Made of fur usually. Jabot: a standing collar with a pleated, ruffled, or lacetrimmed frill down the front. Van Dyke: What they called the falling collars.
to Influences and Styles
France is now the leader in the fashion world, Spain no longer dominating much of anything. Prim and posh with soft yet attractive colors. Boots with slouchy tops Long flowing hair High waistline Soft looking Less stiff Embroidery
Hats with plumes Falling lace collars Ribbons and bows Feminine This period ended with a move towards more colonial and rich fashions. King Louis XIV of France would be a strong promoter of fashion. France and Netherlands. Womens Cavalier Feathers decorating hair. Ruffles and looser clothing. Less stiffness and Sensual and soft.
more comfort. Mens Cavalier Wide-brimmed dark colored hats with large plume feathers. Looser sleeves and less constricting collars and trunks. Thigh-high leather boots that were
designed for comfort. Baroque/Restoration 1660 - 1715 Baroque Vocabulary Manteau: a cloak or mantle. Dcolletage: The neckline of a dress cut low in the front or back and often
across the shoulders. Britches: A variant of Breeches Periwig: Styles and Influences
Louis XIV of France Wealthy Following the end of the Thirty Years' War and the Restoration of England's Charles II, military influences in men's clothing were replaced by a brief period of decorative exuberance which then sobered into the coat, waistcoat and breeches costume that would reign for the next century and a half. Long, lean collar line with a low waist for
both men and women. Plunging neckline Periwig as an essential item of men's fashion. Elegance Poor hygiene Perfumes Womens Baroque Fashion A wide, high-waisted look of the previous period was gradually
extended by a long vertical line, with horizontal emphasis at the shoulder. Full, loose sleeves ended just below the elbow at mid century and became longer and tighter in keeping with the new trend. The body was tightly corseted, with a low, broad neckline and dropped shoulder. In later decades, the overskirt was drawn back and pinned up to display the petticoat, which was heavily decorated.
Mens Baroque Fashion Periwigs, really big. Imposing and vertical look. Canes and long white socks or stockings Shoes with buckles Wide coats and ruffled shirts Long, embroidered coats 1715-1775
Rococo Rococo Vocabulary Pannier: Overskirt Brocade: A fabric woven with an elaborate design, especially one having a raised overall pattern. Mob Cap: A round, bonnet-style women's hat, which was fitted to the head with a series of pleats or gathers. Tricorne: Having three horns or hornlike projections; three-cornered. Bombazine: A twill fabric constructed of a silk or rayon warp and worsted filling, often dyed black for mourning wear.
Influences and Styles The Enlightenment glorified women through art and philosophy. Powdered hair King Louis influenced the hourglass shape. Silk brocade shoes with heels Fullness in sides. Ribbons, lace, birds, flowers. Feminine and pretty. Vests, coats, and jabots. Colonial wig, bag wig. More free and revealing.
Poufy. Ended by the French Revolution. Womens Rococo Fashion Powdered faces and red rouge on cheeks. Corset with V-bodice Sweetheart necklines Ribbons and lace Sausage curls Lighter basket waist
undergarment. Mens Rococo Fashion Tight More fitting coat practical Lace and decorative buttons Flat shoes with metal buckles. Wigs
Neoclassical and Revolution 1790 - 1795 Neoclassical Vocabulary Jacquard: A fabric with an elaborately woven p attern produced on a Jacquard loom.
Seersucker: Striped linen with a pucker Redingote: A dress or lightweight coat, usually belted, open along the entire front to reveal a dress or petticoat worn underneath it. Influences and Styles The Industrial Revolution brought new looms and ways of making clothing. The French Revolution shuts down any advances in
fashion in France, the leader falls to England. Long robes or dresses. Simplistic. Children get play-clothes. White silk Phrygian Bonnets Hair gets bigger Waistcoats and trousers Ornate military costumes. Spencer Jackets Stripe patterns. Womens Neoclassical Fashion
Cosmetics used to hide bad skin Bonnets and pulled back hair Long gowns resembling robes. Robe a la Francias was a long dress with vibrant pretty colors and ribbons tied into bows down the front. Robe a la Englais was simply fitted all the way down.
Mens Neoclassical Fashion Long Long waistcoats. lacey jabots. Powdered wigs. Lacey sleeves make a comeback. Velvet, Satin, Silk
1795 - 1815 Directoire and Empire Directoire Vocabulary Incroyable: Name for the French fop or dandy of the period of the Directory. Carrick: a kind of knot, used for bending toge ther hawsers or other ropes.
Influences and Styles After the French Revolution when the Directory was instated, followed by Napoleon. Tophats Poufy Shawls First male fashion plates Moving towards Romanticism Led again by France Interest in the classical lines of Greece 1795 - 1815
Romantic Romantic Vocabulary Crinoline: A petticoat of haircloth or other stiff material, worn under a full skirt to keep it belled out. Zouave Jacket: A short open fronted jacket with long sleeves, similar to that historically worn by Zouaves.
Styles and Influences Emphasis on a small waist, rounded sloping shoulders, and small necks Hourglass shape for both genders. Civil War in USA brought about some of the new
Womens Romantic Fashion Fashionable women looked like porcelain dolls. Hair pulled up. Corsets make a come-back. Frock coats and Zouave Jackets. Hoop skirts
Mens Romantic Fashion Wasp waist. Clean shaven, sometimes with small mustaches. Modern evening attire. Top hats and canes. Tailcoats. Victorian 1870 - 1890
Victorian Vocabulary Basque: One of a people of unknown origin inhabiting the western Pyrenees regions in France and Spain. Bolero: A jacket ending above or at the waist line, with or without collar, lapel, and sleeves, worn open in front. Influences and Styles
Spains economy improves a bit, and they jump back into the fashion game. France and England still lead. Named after Englands Queen Victoria. Bowler hats, morning coats Charles Worth and Levi Strauss First department store Sewing machines invented Womens Victorian
Fashion Parosols Large poufy dresses with bright, happy colors. Fans as an accessory Hair decorations Mens Victorian Fashion Top hats, Canes bowler hats
Tailcoats Elaborate cloaks Cutaway jackets Fedora Swallowtail Jackets Modern Formalwear 1890 - 1911 Edwardian Influences and Styles Different sports attire.
Named after Englands More modern. Flattened form. Invention of film King Edward Womens Edwardian Fashion Swimsuits Idealized womanhood Soft and romantic Long tight skirts Cute button-up boots
Mens Edwardian Fashion Tuxedo Suits Heeled modern leather shoes Stovepipe trousers Bibliography
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