1 Systems Requirement Review Presentation Joe Appel Todd

1 Systems Requirement Review Presentation Joe Appel Todd

1 Systems Requirement Review Presentation Joe Appel Todd Beeby Julie Douglas Konrad Habina Katie Irgens Jon Linsenmann David Lynch Dustin Truesdell 2 Overview

Mission Statement Market, Customers, & Competitors Design Mission Design Requirements New Technologies Sizing Code Summary & Next Steps 3 Mission Statement Design an Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) that lowers noise, minimizes emissions, and reduces fuel burn Utilize new technology to develop a competitive medium-size aircraft that meets the demands of transportation for continental market Deliver a business plan focusing on capitalizing on growing

markets Submit final design to NASA ERA College Student Challenge 4 NASA ERA College Student Challenge Large twin aisle reference configuration = Boeing 777-200LR 1 NASA ERA Goals 5 Market Growth in twin aisle market Fastest growing market segment (4.4% annually) Airplane seat count upgauging 6 2

Boeing Market Outlook Market Geographic Regions: Asia Pacific US Domestic Europe 2 3 Boeing Market Outlook Airbus Market Forecast 7 Market Geographic Regions: Asia Pacific US Domestic

3 Airbus Market Forecast 8 Customers Low cost carriers Point to point model Shorter distance, larger passenger capacity Examples SpiceJet, Spring Airlines, JetBlue, EasyJet 9 4 Point to Point: Asia Pacific

Competitors Designing an airplane with similar capabilities as the Boeing 757-200 Competitors Other aircraft (A321-200, A320NEO, 757, 737) High speed rail for short distances 3 6 Airbus Market Forecast 757-200 5 High Speed Rail 10

City Pairs Tokyo to Mumbai is 3700 nmi 7 Geographical Map of Asia 11 Runway Lengths Airport Beijing Capital International Airport Haneda Hong Kong International Airport Suvarnabhumi Airport Singapore Changi Guangzhou Baiyun International Aiport Narita International Aiport Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Incheon International Airport Shanghai Pudong International Airport

Kuala Lumpur International Airport Mumbai International Airport Delhi International Airport Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport Ninoy Aquina International Airport Taipeo Taoyuan International Airport Shenzhen Baoan International Airport Chengdu Shuangliu Kunming Wujiaba Kansai International Gimpo International Hangzhou Xiaoshan Jeju International Ho Chi Minh International Runway Length (ft) 12,468 9,843 12,467 13,123 13,123

12,467 13,123 12,007 13,123 13,123 13,530 11,302 14,534 11,154 12,261 12,008 11,155 11,811 11,155 13,123 11,811 11,811 9843 12,468 Shortest Runway: 9843 feet

12 Design Mission Tokyo - Mumbai 3 No range descent b Clim e s i Cru Loiter (30 min) Loiter (30 min)

2 6 7 b Clim 32000 ft Clim b No range descent 4 5

Attempt to Land 0 Taxi & takeoff 1 6800 ft 4 Range: 3700 nmi W1/W0 W2/W1 W3/W2 W4/W3 W5/W4 0.970 0.979

0.773 0.995 0.995 W5/W4 W6/W5 W7/W6 W8/W7 W9/W8 Land 4950 ft 0.970 0.979 0.986 0.988 0.995 W9/W0 Wf/W0

5 8 Land 9 Fuel Reserves 0.673 0.330 13 Design Requirements Market Driven Requirements Similar two class configuration seating capacity to Boeing 757-200 [200 pax.] Boeing 737-900ER [177 pax.]

Airbus A321NEO [185 pax.] 3 8 Airbus Market Forecast Boeing 737-900ER 14 Design Requirements Improved Specifications (compared to Boeing 757-200) Extended Range to 4000 nmi Improved Cruise Efficiency Increased Payload, Takeoff Weight, and Landing Weight 15 6 Boeing 757-200

Design Requirements ERA driven requirements (compared to Boeing 777-200LR) 75 % cut in emissions 42 dB reduction in noise 50% reduction in fuel burn 50% reduction in field length Summarized in Compliance Matrix 16 Design Requirements Compliance Matrix 17 New Technologies Noise reduction: Chevron Nozzles, Variable Nozzles, Scarf Inlet Active Noise Control, Forward

Swept Fans, Swept/Leaned Stators, Soft Vanes, Over-the-Rotor Metal Foam Geared turbofan (GTF): Ultra high bypass ratio engines to reduce fuel consumption, reduce engine maintenance, and reduce noise by up to 10 dB 9 Chevron Nozzles 10 Scarf Inlet 11 Geared Turbofan 18 Example Fuel Savings

12 New Technology Fuel Savings 19 Sizing Code Chart Inputs: , , Geometry (eg S, b, etc.) Empty Weight Prediction (We) Fuel Weight Prediction (Wfuel) Calculated Gross Weight (W)calc Performance, Costs, Enviro Impacts

yes no W = (W)calc Set W = (W)calc Description of Aircraft 20 Sizing Code Approach: Empty Weight Fraction Raymer Table 6.1 ] Fuel Weight Fraction Cruise: Breguet Range Equation and Endurance Equation

= exp =exp 1 / 1 All others: Historical Fractions (Raymer Table 3.2) [ ] 21 Sizing Code Calibration: Boeing 757-200 Passengers: 200

Range: 2655 nmi Cruise Mach Number: 0.8 Max Take-off Weight (MTOW): 255000 lb Operating Weight Empty (OWE): 136940 lb Fuel Weight: 74510 lb 13 Boeing 757-200 22 Sizing Code Calibration: Original Drag Prediction Nicolai Fig 5.3 for Subsonic a/c:

Adjusted to make Results: Parameter Value Units Error W0 (MTOW) 256370.48 lb

0.54% We (MEW) 132324.24 lb -3.37% Wf 80046.24 lb 7.43% 23

Sizing Code Early Aircraft Predictions: Used 757-200 sizing code (similar aircraft) Adjusted range, MTOW, thrust, Mach #, passengers Based on threshold values from compliance matrix Parameter Value Units Change W0 (MTOW)

258692.93 lb +0.91% We (MEW) 132004.16 lb -0.24% Wf 81288.77 lb

+1.55% 24 Sizing Code Next: Convert entirely to MATLAB Same output as with Excel Implement the next level of complexity Component weights Aerodynamics (drag breakdown) Propulsion (thrust, fuel consumption) Future technology factors 25

Summary & Next Steps Summary Mission statement Market & Customers Design Mission Design Requirements New Technologies Sizing Code Next Steps In depth analysis of technologies (cost and benefits) Increase complexity and accuracy of sizing code Formulate customer, regulatory and design requirements and begin

preliminary aircraft performance analysis. 26 27 References 1. http://aero.larc.nasa.gov/era_univ/competitions_univ_era.htm 2. Current Market Outlook 2010-2029, Boeing Commercial Airplanes Market Analysis, Seattle, WA, Nov. 2010. 3. Leahy, John. Airbus Global Market Forecast 2010-2029, Airbus. Toulouse, Dec. 2010. 4. www.guidetothailand.com 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:China_high speed_rail_network.png 6. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/10/google-founders-pick-upanother-big-plane/ 7. Geographical Map of Asia, Sep. 2010. [http://www.voyagesphotosmanu.com/geographical_map_asia.html. Accessed 1/22/11.] 28 References

8. Tinseth, Randy, Sharks and Jets, Boeing Commercial Airlines, Seattle WA, August 2010. [http://boeingblogs.com/randy/archives/2010/08/ sharks_and_jets.html. Accessed 1/22/11.] 9.http://memagazine.asme.org/articles/2006/november/Put_Nozzle.cfm 10. http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT/2004/RT/RTL-abbott.html 11. http://www.airliners.net/aviation-forums/general_aviation/print.main ?id=4065235 12. Nickol, C. L. (2007). Hybrid Wing Body Configuration System Studies. 13. www.boeing.com/companyoffices/gallery 29

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