TCCC Critical Decision Case Studies August 2017 The

TCCC Critical Decision Case Studies August 2017 The

TCCC Critical Decision Case Studies August 2017 The Biggest Challenge in TCCC Knowing WHEN to use the interventions taught in TCCC Based on a suggestion by COL Bob Mabry TCCC Critical Decision Case Studies will help to illustrate which interventions to perform for casualties with life-threatening conditions.

TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 1 The Setting A unit is on a dismounted mission in Afghanistan. Dismounted IED attack. The unit has no junctional tourniquets.

There is no effective incoming fire at the moment. TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 1 The Casualty High amputation right leg Below the knee amputation left leg Ongoing massive hemorrhage from his right leg amputation site Too proximal to be controlled by a tourniquet TCCC Critical Decisions

Bleeding Case Study 1 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Combat Gauze applied with at least 3 minutes of direct pressure at the bleeding site 2. Start an IV 3. Construct a pressure dressing over the bleeding site 4. Apply direct pressure over the femoral artery at the level of the inguinal ligament TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 1 Correct Answer and Feedback

1. Combat Gauze applied with at least 3 minutes of direct pressure at the bleeding site In this casualty with uncontrolled junctional bleeding in the right upper thigh, since the unit has no junctional tourniquets and since the bleeding site is too proximal on the leg to be controlled with a limb tourniquet, the best option is direct pressure with Combat Gauze. Pressure dressings and pressure applied to so-called "pressure points" at vascular sites proximal to the bleeding have not been proven to be effective. TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 2

The Setting A squad of Marines is engaged in a small arms battle with hostile forces RPG blast near one of the unit members Casualty lying on his right side There is no effective incoming fire at the moment TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 2 The Casualty The casualty is moving around and awake, but his

movements are not purposeful and he is not responding to questions Face and neck wounds (not airway) are present Several teeth are missing, and there are lip and cheek lacerations There is ongoing severe bleeding from the neck wound No other major bleeding sites are immediately noted He is voicing significant pain

TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 2 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Perform a cricothyroidotomy 2. Start an IV 3. Apply Combat Gauze with sustained direct pressure at the bleeding site on the neck 4. Administer OTFC to treat the casualty's pain TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 2

Correct Answer and Feedback 3. Apply Combat Gauze with sustained direct pressure at the bleeding site on the neck This casualty has massive hemorrhage from a neck wound. Tourniquets are obviously not usable, so sustained direct pressure with Combat Gauze is the best hemostatic option available. Also - opioid medications such as OTFC should not be used in casualties in or at risk for shock, which this casualty definitely is. TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 3 The Setting

A small unit is moving across an open area It is night and there is zero visibility without night vision devices The casualty has a gunshot wound in his left leg just above the knee The unit is still taking effective incoming fire TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 3 The Casualty There is severe bleeding on the thigh on a blood sweep

Visualization of the bleeding site is poor He is in extreme pain TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 3 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Apply a limb tourniquet high and tight on the left leg 2. Try to guess where the bleeding site is and apply a limb tourniquet just proximal to that. 3. Administer OTFC to the casualty 4. Administer ketamine to the casualty

TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 3 Correct Answer and Feedback 1. Apply a tourniquet high and tight on the left leg For this casualty, with potentially life-threatening bleeding from the gunshot wound to his leg, the most important aspect of care is to control the extremity bleeding. Since the bleeding site cannot be definitively located at this point in his care, the hemorrhage must be controlled by immediately applying a limb tourniquet as proximally as possible on the extremity. Treating the casualty's pain is important, but should be done after bleeding is controlled, once the unit is in the Tactical Field Care phase of care.

TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 4 The Setting A US Military advisory team is assaulting a terrorist compound They take small arms fire from a roof One team member sustains a GSW just below the left clavicle The casualty is moved to cover for treatment There is no effective incoming fire at the covered location

TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 4 The Casualty There is very heavy bleeding from the wound just below the left clavicle. Breathing is not labored. The wound is noted to have a deep wound track Efforts to control the bleeding with Combat Gauze are unsuccessful TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 4 Question

What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Construct a pressure dressing over the wound using standard gauze 2. Start an IV 3. Use a hemostat to reach in the wound and clamp the bleeding vessel 4. Apply XStat into the wound tract TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 4 Correct Answer and Feedback 4. Apply XStat into the wound tract

For uncontrolled bleeding from a wound with a deep wound track such as in this casualty, XStat is clearly the best of the listed options. Neither a limb tourniquet nor a junctional tourniquet is usable and Combat Gauze has not been effective. TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 5 The Setting A helicopter is disabled by small arms fire and crashes 2 of the crew are dead 1 crew member has severe head trauma and is

unconscious she is being treated by another medic You are treating the 4th member of the flight crew - the pilot There is no effective incoming fire at the crash site TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 5 The Casualty The pilot is alert and complains of severe left hip pain Breathing is unlabored with an O2 sat of 96% Blood sweep shows no external hemorrhage

You examine his pelvic region and find a large area of bruising over his left hip There is marked tenderness to palpation in that area TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 5 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert Airway Patent patient is talking well Breathing

RR 19 and unlabored Radial Pulse Present but weak O2 Saturation 97% TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 5 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Administer OTFC 800 ug for pain 2. Apply a pelvic binder for suspected pelvic fracture 3. Start an IV and administer 500 mL of Hextend

4. Administer the Combat Wound Medication Pack TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 5 Correct Answer and Feedback 2. Apply a pelvic binder for suspected pelvic fracture The diagnosis of immediate concern here is a suspected pelvic fracture, so a pelvic binder should be applied immediately. Pelvic fractures may be associated with non-compressible bleeding. This casualty has a weak radial pulse and may be going into hemorrhagic shock. He may need fluid resuscitation shortly, but the pelvic binder should be applied first. OTFC should not be

used in this casualty. TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 6 The Setting An Army infantry squad is on foot patrol in Iraq A dismounted IED detonates, causing multiple casualties There is no effective incoming fire at the moment TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 6

The Casualty The casualty you are treating has bilateral lower extremity amputations Both are very high There is severe bleeding from both amputation sites Limb tourniquets are judged unlikely to be successful No other life-threatening injuries are noted TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 6 Question

What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Administer ketamine since this casualty is at risk of going into shock 2. Start an IV and administer TXA 3. Construct pressure dressing's using standard gauze for both amputation sites 4. Apply direct pressure with Combat Gauze until the units SAM Junctional Tourniquet is ready to apply TCCC Critical Decisions Bleeding Case Study 6 Correct Answer and Feedback 4. Apply direct pressure with Combat Gauze until the units SAM

junctional tourniquet is ready to apply The correct next action is to apply direct pressure with Combat Gauze until a junctional tourniquet is ready to apply. This action may prevent the casualty from going into shock. An IV, TXA, and ketamine are all good follow-on actions in this casualty, but the first priority is to control massive hemorrhage, which this casualty currently has. TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 1 The Setting A small unit is moving outside of a village

There is a single shot from somewhere in the village No other hostile fire TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 1 The Casualty

Single gunshot wound to abdomen The casualty is alert and in moderate pain There is no life-threatening external hemorrhage There is a normal radial pulse TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 1 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert Airway Patent Breathing

RR 18 and unlabored Radial Pulse Strong O2 Saturation 97% TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 1 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Start an IV and administer TXA immediately 2. Start an IV and administer a unit of freeze dried plasma 3. Administer 50 mg of ketamine IM

4. Administer an 800ug fentanyl lozenge TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 1 Correct Answer and Feedback 1. Start an IV and administer TXA immediately This casualty may have life-threatening intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The next action should be to immediately start an IV and infuse 1 gm of TXA over 10 minutes. TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 2

The Setting A small unit is patrolling outside of a village There is a single shot from somewhere in the village No other hostile fire TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 2 The Casualty Single gunshot wound to abdomen The casualty was alert initially but is now becoming confused

The radial pulse is weak You have already started an IV and administered a gram of TXA TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 2 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert but confused Airway Patent Breathing

RR 20 and unlabored Radial Pulse Present but rapid and weak O2 Saturation 96% TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 2 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Administer another gram of TXA 2. Infuse 500 mL of Hextend 3. Administer a unit of fresh whole blood as per unit protocol

4. Administer 1 gm of ertapenem to prevent infection TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 2 Correct Answer and Feedback 3. Administer a unit of fresh whole blood as per unit protocol The casualty has gone into shock from intraabdominal hemorrhage. The best resuscitation fluid for hemorrhagic shock is whole blood and giving a unit of that should be the next action taken.

TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 3 The Setting An Army infantry squad is on foot patrol in Iraq A dismounted IED detonates There are multiple casualties There is no effective incoming fire at the moment

TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 3 The Casualty Your casualty has bilateral lower extremity amputations There was previously severe bleeding from the amputation sites Limb tourniquets were quickly applied to both legs and are effective The casualty is alert and in significant pain His radial pulse is normal The casualty also has multiple penetrating

wounds of the abdomen and pelvis TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 3 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert Airway Patent with patient dazed but breathing well Breathing RR 16 and unlabored Radial Pulse

Strong O2 Saturation 95% TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 3 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Start an IV and administer 1 gm of TXA 2. Start an IV and administer 500 mL of Hextend, since there are no blood products available on this operation 3. Administer 50 mg of ketamine IM 4. Try to convert both tourniquets to other modes

of hemorrhage control TCCC Critical Decisions Circulation Case Study 3 Correct Answer and Feedback 1. Start an IV and administer TXA This casualty does need battlefield analgesia, but the most important aspect of care right now is to start an IV and administer 1 gm of TXA. He is at risk of noncompressible hemorrhage due to his penetrating abdominal and pelvic wounds. He does not require fluid resuscitation at the moment. TCCC Critical Decisions

Airway Case Study 1 The Setting An IED detonates underneath a vehicle in a mounted convoy The vehicle is turned over by the blast The casualty is unconscious She is not wearing seat belt Her helmet is dented There is no effective incoming fire at the moment TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 1

The Casualty Blood and bruising over the right parietal area No facial injuries noted No other injuries noted The unconscious casualty has been removed from the vehicle and is in the supine position Chin lift maneuver accomplished

TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 1 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Unconscious Airway No injuries noted Breathing RR 12 - shallow Radial Pulse Normal O2 Saturation 70%

TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 1 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Cricothyroidotomy 2. Place casualty in a sit-up and lean forward position 3. Start an IV 4. Insert a nasopharyngeal airway TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 1

Correct Answer and Feedback 4. Insert a nasopharyngeal airway This casualty may have an airway obstruction. The low pulse oximetry reading indicates a critical level of hypoxia. This casualty needs her airway opened immediately. There are no facial injuries noted, so a cricothyroidotomy should not be attempted until less invasive measures have failed. The casualty should not be placed supported in a sitting position because of the potential for spinal cord injury. Inserting a nasopharyngeal airway is the best option of the choices shown. TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 2

The Setting A small unit is on foot patrol There is incoming fire from two hostiles The hostile threat is quickly eliminated by the unit One of your unit members sustains a gunshot wound to the lower face There is no further effective incoming fire TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 2 The Casualty

The casualty is awake There are facial wounds to lower jaw and teeth There is blood in the mouth The casualty has noisy, rapid breathing while in the supine position He is struggling to breathe TCCC Critical Decisions

Airway Case Study 2 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert Airway Facial injuries Breathing RR 22 - Noisy Radial Pulse Strong O2 Saturation 75%

TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 2 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Cricothyroidotomy 2. Nasopharyngeal airway 3. Endotracheal intubation 4. Allow this conscious casualty to assume any position that best protects the airway, to include sitting up and leaning forward. TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 2

Correct Answer and Feedback 4. Allow this conscious casualty to assume any position that best protects the airway, to include sitting up and leaning forward. The diagnosis is airway obstruction due to his maxillofacial injuries. The principle is to open the airway. Since the casualty is conscious, allow him to assume any position that best protects his airway, to include sitting up and leaning forward. TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 3

The Setting A Marine platoon is moving across an open field on foot Dismounted IED detonation There is no effective incoming fire at the moment TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 3 The Casualty The face and neck are peppered with shrapnel wounds The casualty is alert but noted to have labored

respirations and moderate distress A small puncture wound is noted on the left side of neck with minimal bleeding But there is rapidly expanding swollen area under the skin of the neck immediately adjacent to the midline airway structures TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 3 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert and in distress Airway

No blood or obstruction noted Breathing RR 22 - labored Radial Pulse Strong O2 Saturation 65% TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 3 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Cricothyroidotomy using the CricKey device 2. Nasopharyngeal airway

3. Endotracheal intubation 4. Help the casualty into the sit-up and leanforward position TCCC Critical Decisions Airway Case Study 3 Correct Answer and Feedback 1. Cricothyroidotomy using the CricKey device The diagnosis is airway obstruction due to a rapidly expanding hematoma that has resulted from a shrapnel injury to a large blood vessel in the neck. A nasopharyngeal airway and the sit-up and lean-forward position will not help in this situation. The best next action is a cricothyroidotomy performed with local anesthesia.

TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 1 The Setting A small unit is on patrol in a mountainous area The unit is ambushed, but hostile fire is quickly suppressed There is no effective incoming fire at the moment TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 1

The Casualty Gunshot wound in right upper quadrant of the abdomen just below the plate No other wounds Casualty conscious Noted to have increasing difficulty breathing Breath sounds on the right are absent TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 1 Casualty Dashboard AVPU

Alert Airway Patent Breathing RR 24 - Noisy and labored Radial Pulse Strong O2 Saturation 80% TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 1 Question What is the NEXT action you should take?

1. Perform a cricothyroidotomy 2. Perform a needle decompression on the right side 2. Insert a chest tube 4. Start an IV TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 1 Correct Answer and Feedback 2. Perform a needle decompression on the right side The diagnosis is a suspected tension pneumothorax. Although the entry wound is in the abdomen, the bullet may have traveled into the chest and injured the right

lung. The correct next action is to perform a needle decompression on the right side of the casualty's chest. TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 2 The Setting A small unit is patrolling in a mountainous area

The unit is ambushed One unit member is hit Four hostiles are killed after an intense, 2minute firefight There is no effective incoming fire at the moment TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 2 The Casualty Gunshot wound in right upper quadrant of the

abdomen just below the plate No other wounds The casualty is conscious but in pain He is noted to have increasing difficulty breathing There are absent breath sounds on the right Breath sounds are present on the left side Needle decompression is performed on the right side at the right 4th ICS at the anterior axillary line

No improvement is noted TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 2 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert Airway Patent Breathing RR 22 and labored Radial Pulse

Rapid and thready O2 Saturation 80% TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 2 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Perform a cricothyroidotomy 2. Administer OTFC 800 ug 3. Start an IV 4. Repeat needle decompression at the 2 ICS in the right mid-clavicular line

TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 2 Correct Answer and Feedback 4. Repeat needle decompression at the 2 ICS in the right mid-clavicular line The diagnosis is a suspected tension pneumothorax. Since needle decompression at the lateral site on the right side did not improve the casualty's condition, the next step should be to move to an alternate decompression site. A cricothyroidotomy will not help a casualty with a tension pneumothorax. Anyone with respiratory distress and hypoxia should not be given opioids, since this will potentially depress respirations.

TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 3 The Setting A platoon of Marines is approaching a village to meet with village leaders One Marine steps on a pressure-plate IED and it explodes There is no effective incoming fire at the moment TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 3

The Casualty Facial peppering Below the knee amputation - left leg Above the knee amputation - right leg Multiple fragment wounds to pelvis and abdomen Leg bleeding is controlled with tourniquets 15 minutes later, while waiting for evacuation,

he is noted to have labored breathing He becomes confused, then loses consciousness Not breathing There is no radial or carotid pulse detectable TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 3 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Unconscious Airway Apparently patent

Breathing Not breathing Radial Pulse None O2 Saturation Not displaying on the pulse ox TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 3 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Perform CPR 2. Perform needle decompression on both sides of the chest

3. Declare the casualty deceased and discontinue care 4. Start an IV TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 3 Correct Answer and Feedback 2. Perform needle decompression on both sides of the chest This casualty has lost vital signs. This could be due to noncompressible hemorrhage, but it may also be due to bilateral tension pneumothoraces. Casualties with chest or abdominal trauma or polytrauma who suffer a traumatic cardiac arrest should have needle decompression performed on both sides of the

chest. If the arrest was caused by a tension pneumothorax, this maneuver may result in a return of vital signs. TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 4 The Setting A vehicle-borne IED explodes near US troops

Your casualty was near the explosion She was briefly unconscious. Her tympanic membranes are ruptured difficulty hearing You are now caring for her on a TACEVAC flight to the Role II hospital. TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 4 The Casualty Your casualty is alert There is no external hemorrhage There is no obvious trauma to the chest or

abdomen. Some shrapnel peppering on face and extremities But she is having labored respirations. You are unable to hear breath sounds because of helicopter noise TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 4 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert Airway

Patent Breathing RR 22 Mildly labored Blood pressure 140/85 O2 Saturation 70% TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 4 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Needle decompression of both sides of the chest

2. Start an IV and administer TXA 3. Insert a supragottic airway 4. Start supplemental oxygen TCCC Critical Decisions Breathing Case Study 4 Correct Answer and Feedback 4. Start supplemental oxygen This casualty is likely suffering from blast-induced pulmonary contusions. A tension pneumothorax is possible, but unlikely because there is no penetrating trauma and there was no evidence of blunt trauma on exam. Additionally, the casualty is NOT in shock - her blood pressure is 140/85. The blast wave from the

explosion can injure the lung and interfere with oxygenation. Providing supplemental oxygen will help reverse the hypoxia induced by the blast-induced pulmonary contusions. TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 1 The Setting A small unit is operating in a mountainous region The casualty was a passenger in a vehicle that was attacked with an IED The vehicle was turned over by the blast Casualty was unrestrained in his seat Unconscious after the IED detonation

Lying on roof of vehicle Helmet is dented Casualty was removed from the vehicle with attention to possible spinal injuries TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 1 The Casualty Casualty is now lying supine on a litter during helicopter TACEVAC C-Collar in place Still unconscious There is an open left-sided skull fracture

No other injuries are noted Breathing is not labored A supraglottic airway is in place TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 1 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Unconscious Airway Patent Breathing

RR 12 - unlabored Blood pressure 135/85 O2 Saturation 85% TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 1 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Start an IV and give a unit of red blood cells 2. Perform a bilateral needle decompression of the chest 3. Perform a surgical airway

4. Start high-flow supplemental oxygen via reservoir mask to get oxygen saturation to 90% or higher TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 1 Correct Answer and Feedback 4. Start high-flow supplemental oxygen via reservoir mask to get oxygen saturation to 90% or higher Hypoxia (oxygen saturations below 90%) in casualties with moderate/severe TBI is associated with worsening of outcomes. This casualty should receive supplemental oxygen to improve his oxygenation status and reduce the likelihood

of secondary brain injury. TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 2 The Setting The casualty was a passenger in a vehicle that was

attacked with an IED The vehicle was turned over in the explosion Casualty was unrestrained in his seat Unconscious for several minutes after the IED detonation Lying on roof of vehicle Helmet was dented She was removed from the vehicle with attention to possible spinal injuries Pupils were equal and reactive at the point of injury You are now caring for her on a TACEVAC flight to the Role II hospital.

TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 2 The Casualty Casualty is now lying supine on a litter during

helicopter TACEVAC She was initially alert and followed commands Pupils were equal and reactive at the start of the flight There is a left-sided scalp laceration No other injuries are noted Breathing is not labored The casualty suddenly becomes confused and then loses consciousness One pupil is dilated and unresponsive TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 2 Casualty Dashboard

AVPU Now unconscious Airway Apparently patent Breathing RR 18 Blood pressure 150/100 O2 Saturation 96% on supplemental oxygen TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 2 Question

What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Administer 250 mL of 3% hypertonic saline 2. Perform an emergency cricothyroidotomy 3. Elevate the foot of the casualty's litter 4. Immediately begin therapeutic hypothermia by removing the casualty's HPMK TCCC Critical Decisions TBI Case Study 2 Correct Answer and Feedback 1) Administer 250 mL of 3% hypertonic saline The decreasing state of consciousness and the dilated pupil are signs of an impending cerebral herniation. The casualty should

receive 250 mL of hypertonic saline and have the head of his litter elevated 30 degrees. His oxygen saturation is good, so there is no need to perform an emergency surgical airway. Therapeutic hypothermia should not be undertaken during TACEVAC. TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 1 The Setting You are on a hostage rescue mission An 8-man team is looking for 3 hostages in a building The team suddenly comes under heavy fire The assaulter next to you is shot in the head

The hostages have not yet been located The hostiles are moving and returning fire The tactical situation is dynamic TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 1 The Casualty The casualty is lying on the floor with a massive head wound. Shots are still being exchanged with the hostile forces.

TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 1 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Stop the assault and examine the casualty for other wounds 2. Stop the assault and start an IV 3. Stop the assault and begin CPR as needed 4. Continue the assault until the threat is eliminated and the hostages have been secured. TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 1

Correct Answer and Feedback 4. Continue the assault until the threat is eliminated and the hostages have been secured. In the context of a hostage rescue operation, the hostages are in grave danger until the threat has been eliminated. The correct action here is to continue the mission until the hostages have been located and their safety has been assured. TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 2 The Setting A small unit is approaching a compound to

search for weapons and drugs They suddenly come under fire Fire is suppressed but several unit members are injured There is no effective incoming fire at present TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 2 The Casualty Gunshot wound to the left chest just above his plate

The casualty is conscious and in severe pain His radial pulse is weak His breathing is deep and rapid Oxygen saturation was 85% prior to needle decompression After needle decompression, the casualty's breathing becomes slower and less labored His oxygen saturation improves to 92% An IV has been started, TXA has been given, and Hextend is running The severe pain persists and he repeatedly asks for pain

medicine TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 2 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert Airway Patent Breathing RR 20 Radial Pulse

Weak O2 Saturation 92% at present TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 2 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Administer OTFC 800 ug 2. Administer 5 mg of IV morphine 3. Administer 20 mg of IV ketamine 4. Administer 10 mg of IM morphine TCCC Critical Decisions

Additional Case Study 2 Correct Answer and Feedback 3. Administer 20 mg of ketamine IV The casualty has both pulmonary compromise and the potential for hemorrhagic shock. Opioids may worsen both conditions. The best choice for analgesia here is ketamine, which does not lower blood pressure or suppress respirations. TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 3 The Setting

An Army convoy has taken multiple casualties in an ambush There is no effective incoming fire at the moment One casualty has a gunshot wound to the knee TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 3 The Casualty Gunshot wound to the right knee There was moderate bleeding that was quickly controlled with a tourniquet No other wounds

Casualty in severe pain Asking loudly for pain medications There are multiple other casualties remaining to be treated TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 3 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert Airway Patent Breathing

RR 18 and unlabored Radial Pulse Strong O2 Saturation 98% TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 3 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Administer IM morphine 8 mg 2. Administer OTFC 800 ug 3. Give the casualty meloxicam and acetaminophen from the Combat Wound Medication Pack

4. Withhold pain meds because of the risk of shock TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 3 Correct Answer and Feedback 2. Administer OTFC 800 ug This casualty needs analgesia. OTFC is as effective as IV morphine and its onset of action is very rapid. IM morphine is slower acting and a less desirable choice. Meloxicam and acetaminophen are less potent than OTFC. There is no need to withhold opioid analgesia from this casualty since he is not in shock and his bleeding is controlled with a tourniquet he

should get an 800 ug OTFC lozenge. TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 4 The Setting A small unit sustains multiple casualties from an engagement with hostile forces There is no effective incoming fire at the moment TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 4

The Casualty Your casualty has a gunshot wound to the right knee Heavy bleeding from the wound was controlled quickly with a tourniquet There are no other injuries The casualty has a strong radial pulse Casualty given 800 ug of OTFC for pain and the antibiotic ertapenem 5 minutes later - the casualty suddenly has labored breathing and is confused Re-exam confirms no chest or abdominal wounds Breath sounds reveal bilateral wheezing

TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 4 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert but confused Airway Raspy breathing Breathing RR 26 - Noisy and rapid Radial Pulse Rapid and weak O2 Saturation 82%

TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 4 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Perform a bilateral needle chest decompression 2. Administer 0.5 mg epinephrine by autoinjector 3. Insert a supraglottic airway 4. Start an IV TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 4 Correct Answer and Feedback

2. Administer 0.5 mg epinephrine by autoinjector Anaphylactic reactions to ertapenem are rare but they do occur. The presence of labored breathing and a weak pulse shortly after administering this medication require that this diagnosis be considered and appropriate treatment rendered. There is no chest trauma and other obvious cause for these severe signs in this casualty. TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 5 The Setting A hand grenade detonates in a building One unit member has moderate pain and vision

loss in his right eye after the explosion He was not wearing eye protection There is no effective incoming fire at the moment TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 5 The Casualty The casualty is alert but in significant pain from his

eye injury There is mild pain from several scattered fragment injuries on his extremities and abdomen, but no significant external bleeding is identified His right eye is red and tearing The cornea appears to be injured His right upper eyelid is lacerated On vision testing, he is unable to count fingers with that eye but can see hand motion TCCC Critical Decisions

Additional Case Study 5 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Alert Airway Patent Breathing RR 18 and unlabored Radial Pulse Strong O2 Saturation 98% TCCC Critical Decisions

Additional Case Study 5 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Cover the eye with a rigid eye shield 2. Perform a detailed eye exam with the aid of a tactical flashlight 3. Apply a pressure patch to the injured eye 4. Apply pressure patches to both eyes to minimize eye movement TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 5 Correct Answer and Feedback

1. Cover the eye with a rigid eye shield The injured eye should be immediately covered with a rigid eye shield to protect it from further injury or from accidental pressure being applied that might cause the ocular contents to extrude from the corneal laceration. DO NOT attempt to manipulate the eye to perform a more thorough exam. DO NOT apply a pressure patch to the injured eye. TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 6 The Setting A small unit sustains multiple casualties from a small arms engagement

Your casualty has a gunshot wound to the right knee There are no other injuries TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 6 The Casualty You are now on board a helicopter in the TACEVAC phase of care Severe pain during Tactical Field Care was treated with IM morphine x 3 Bleeding from the wound was controlled quickly with a tourniquet

The casualty continues to complain of pain You give the casualty 5 more mg of IV morphine x 2 at 10 minute intervals in an attempt to relieve his pain The casualty experiences relief of his pain But soon appears sleepy and confused TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 6 Casualty Dashboard AVPU Awake but drowsy Airway

Patent Breathing RR 8 Blood Pressure 95/70 O2 Saturation 79% TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 6 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Administer a unit of packed red blood cells 2. Stop using IV morphine and switch to 50 mg of

ketamine as your next option 3. Administer 0.4 mg of naloxone IV 4. Administer 1 gm of TXA TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 6 Correct Answer and Feedback 3) Administer 0.4 mg of naloxone IV This scenario depicts a casualty suffering from an opioid overdose. IM morphine acts slowly, and the lack of pain relief may cause the combat medical provider to administer multiple doses of morphine, as in this scenario. When the morphine begins to take effect 30-45 minutes later, the

multiple doses may act on concert with the IV morphine to produce an overdose. The next action should be to administer IV naloxone. TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 7 The Setting A mission team is clearing a building One person is moving near the edge of the roof of a two-story building The person is hit by small arms fire in his body armor plates He stumbles backwards and falls from the roof

There is no effective incoming fire at present Hostile fire is intensifying from nearby buildings Rounds are landing near you and your casualty TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 7 The Casualty The casualty is unconscious when you get to him Hostile fire is intensifying from nearby buildings There are rounds landing near you and your casualty There is no obvious external bleeding

TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 7 Question What is the NEXT action you should take? 1. Intubate the casualty to secure his airway 2. Await the arrival of a commercial litter before attempting to move the casualty to cover 3. Start an IV 4. Immediately move the casualty to the nearest cover by supporting his head and dragging him along the long axis of his body.

TCCC Critical Decisions Additional Case Study 7 Correct Answer and Feedback 4. Immediately move the casualty to the nearest cover by supporting his head and dragging him along the long axis of his body. This casualty has a potential spinal cord injury that must be considered as well as likely TBI. He may also have noncompressible hemorrhage and multiple musculoskeletal injuries from his fall. But the first consideration at the moment is to move him to cover so that he (and you) will not be injured further by hostile fire.

Questions?

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