Global Impacts of American Colonization France in the
Global Impacts of American Colonization France in the Americas Settled Canada, built town of Quebec Claimed an area from Canada all the way to Louisiana Used Catholic Jesuit missionaries to try to convert natives to Christianity Had trouble attracting
European settlers Main exports back to Europe: furs and codfish England in the Americas Established colonies in the Caribbean at Jamaica, Barbados, and other islands First attempt at creating a permanent settlement in North America came at Roanoke Island, NC; that colony failed (The Lost Colony)
Claimed an area stretching from Massachusetts to Georgia Main exports back to Europe: sugar, tobacco Jamestowne Colony In 1607, English established a permanent colony at Jamestown, VA One of the founders was an English adventurer named John Smith, who documented the early
days of the colony in his book A True Relation of Virginia Pocahontas: Myth or Fact? Unfortunately, Smith probably exaggerated much of his account,
especially in relation to his capture by the Powhatan Indians where he claimed to have been saved by the Indian princess, Pocahontas Pocahontas would have only been about 11 years old at the time of the encounter (Smith was closer to 30) Pocahontas later married Englishman John Rolfe and died, probably of smallpox, at age 22
Freedom of Religion English were Protestants, not Catholics like their French and Spanish neighbors The appeal of religious freedom drew Puritans, Quakers, Catholics, & other religious minorities to leave England and colonize America The Slave Trade
Starting in the 1400s, Portuguese began building forts along the coast of Africa Used these outposts for trade and to replenish Portuguese ships on their way to India Portuguese even managed to push Muslim Arab traders out of East Africa Portuguese were copied by others and soon the coastline of Africa was dotted with European trading posts Europeans traded muskets, tools,
and cloth for gold, ivory, and, increasingly, slaves The Slave Trade Slaves quickly became the most desired commodity for Europeans looking for cheap labor Slave trade involved coastal Africans capturing and selling inland Africans; these slaves were then transported to sugar and
tobacco plantations in the Americas African Slaves 1530s first Africans imported by Spanish arrived in the Americas (Only 38 years after Columbus arrival) 1619 first Africans imported by English to Jamestown (only 12 years after the
settlement was founded) Where Did They Go? The Middle Passage The roughly six-week trip by slave ship across the Atlantic was known as the Middle Passage About 30% mortality rate for slaves on ships crossing Atlantic As many as 10 million Africans may have been cast into watery graves in the Atlantic
Hundreds packed in on each ship At least 15 million slaves had arrived in the Americas by 1850 A typical slave ship The Triangle Trade A three-legged trade network opened up between Europe, Africa, and the Americas Finished goods from Europe sent to Africa for slaves Slaves from Africa sent to
Americas for sugar, molasses, and other raw materials Raw materials from America to Europe to be made into finished goods How Americas Changed Europe New high-energy foods became available to Europeans
Corn Potatoes Peppers Sugar (sugar cane, imported from Africa, could be grown in the Americas much more successfully and cheaply) With starchier diets, European workers became more productive
The Columbian Exchange Population Changes More food = larger populations European colonists began to move to Africa, Asia, & Americas to manage European interests Africans forcibly moved to Americas as slaves Native American population
declined dramatically due to diseases such as smallpox Commercial Revolution Inflation (rise in prices) in Europe as too many new goods become available more people = more demand for goods more silver and gold in Europe (from the Americas) means that money is worth less, because there is more of it Growth in capitalism (private ownership of businesses operated entirely for profit) More investors willing to take risks
More banks opened as post-Reformation Christians no longer followed the ban on usury (lending money at interest) Guilds begin to collapse as individuals began to seek personal profits over cooperative goals Mercantilism
Mercantilism: economic policy based on accumulating bullion (gold or silver) by establishing colonies, exploiting natural resources, and developing industry to create a favorable balance of trade. Colonies provided Europe with both raw materials AND a market for finished goods, thereby doubly enriching their parent countries The result is a bleeding of wealth
away from the colonies and towards their European controllers
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