Introduction of milling machine Principle of milling machine Types of milling machine Milling machine operation Milling Milling machine Milling: is a metal cutting operation in which the excess material from the work piece is removed by
rotating multipoint cutting tool called milling cutter. A milling machine is a machine tool that removes metal as the work is fed against a rotating multipoint cutter. The milling cutter rotates at high speed and it removes metal at a very fast rate with the help of multiple cutting edges. One or more number of cutters can be mounted simultaneously on the milling machine. This is the reason that a milling machine finds wide application in production work. Used for machining flat surfaces, contoured surfaces,
external and internal threads. Milling machine As the workpiece moves against the cutting edges of milling cutter, metal is removed in form chips Machined surface is formed in one or more passes of the work. The work to be machined is held in a vice, a rotary table, a three jaw chuck, an index head, in a special
fixture or bolted to machine table. In many applications, due to its higher production rate and accuracy, milling machine has even replaced shapers and slotters. Milling machine applications MILLING METHODS Two basic methods of milling
1.Up-milling or conventional milling 2.Down-milling or climb milling 1.Up-milling or conventional milling Metal is removed by cutter rotating against the direction of travel of the workpiece. Needs stronger holding of the job. Chip thickness is minimum at the start of cut and maximum at the end of the cut. Disadvantage- tendency to lift work from the fixtures and poor surface finish.
1.CONVENTIONAL MILLING MILLING METHODS 2.down-milling or climb milling Metal is removed by cutter rotating in the same direction of travel of the workpiece. teeth cut downward instead of upwards. Chip thickness is maximum at the start of cut and minimum at the end of cut.
Less friction involved Better surface finish. Less power consumption. 2.CLIMB MILLING PRINCIPLE OF MILLING TYPES OF MILLING MACHINE The
milling machine may be classified in several forms, but the choice of any particular machine is determined primarily by the size of the workpiece. According to general design, the distinctive types of milling machines are: 1. Column and knee type milling machines 2. Planer milling machine 3. Fixed-bed type milling machine 4. Special types of milling machines PRINCIPLE PARTS
Base Column Knee Saddle Table Spindle COLUMN AND KNEE TYPE It
is the most commonly used milling machine used for general shop work. The table is mounted on the knee which in turn is mounted on the vertical slides of the main column. The knee is vertically
adjustable on the column so that the table can be moved up and down to accommodate work of various heights. CLASSIFIACTION OF COLUMN & KNEE TYPE MILLING MACHINE (a) Hand milling m/c. (b) Horizontal milling m/c. (c) Universal milling m/c. (d) Vertical milling m/c.
(a) Horizontal Milling machine The horizontal milling machine has a spindle that is parallel to the shop floor
and an overarm that extends over the workpiece. The overarm supports the arbor, which holds the milling cutter. On the horizontal mill, the arbor is the component that rotates the milling cutter. ACTUAL HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINE ARBORS
Fig : Mounting a milling cutter on an arbor for use on a horizontal milling machine. (B) VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE Spindle is vertical or perpendicular to the work table. It has all the movements of the table for proper setting and feeding the work. Spindle head may be swiveled at an angle, permitting the milling cutter mounted on the spindle to work on angular surfaces. In some machines, spindle can also be adjusted up or
down relative to the work. Adopted for machining grooves, slots and flat surfaces. VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE MAJOR PARTS : 1.BASE 2.COLUMN 3.SPINDLE 4.SPINDLE
HEAD 5.KNEE 6.SADDLE 7.WORKTABLE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL MILLING MACHINES SL. NO. HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINE
VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE 01 Spindle is horizontal & parallel to the worktable. Spindle is vertical & perpendicular to the worktable.
02 Cutter cannot be moved up & down. Cutter can be moved up & down. 03 Cutter is mounted on the arbor.
Cutter is directly mounted on the spindle. 04 Spindle cannot be tilted. Spindle can be tilted for angular cutting. 05
Operations such as slot milling, T-slot Operations such as plain milling, milling, angular milling, flat milling gear cutting, form milling, straddle etc., can be performed and also milling, gang milling etc., can be drilling, boring and reaming can be performed. carried out.
(C) UNIVERSAL MILLING MACHINE Difference from plain horizontal machine is addition of table swivel housing Permits table to be swiveled 45 in either direction in a horizontal plane Used for milling of helical grooves in twist drills,
milling cutters, and gears 2. Fixed-bed type milling machine Comparatively large, heavy and rigid and differ from column and knee type milling machines. Table is directly mounted on fixed bed. No provision is provided for cross or vertical adjustment of the table. The cutter mounted on the spindle head may be moved vertically on the column and the spindle may be adjusted horizontally to provide cross adjustment.
Three types 1. Simplex 2. duplex 3. triplex FIXED BED MILLING MACHINE 3. PLANER MILLING MACHINE Looks like double column planer machine. Milling heads mounted in various planes, vertical heads on the cross-rail and horizontal heads at the sides (on column) This arrangement enables it to machine a workpiece on
several sides simultaneously Used for producing long straight surfaces on large and heavy machine parts. 5. SPECIAL-TYPE MACHINES Designed Used for individual milling operations
for only one particular type of job Completely automatic Employed when hundreds or thousands of similar pieces are to be machined Tracer mills (Profiling milling machines): - Also called duplicators - Designed to reproduce an irregular part geometry that can be created on an template
- In two dimensions- tracer - In three dimensions- duplicator SPECIAL-TYPE MACHINES CNC milling machines: - Cutter path controlled by numerical data - Suited to profile, pocket, surface contouring. MILLING OPERATIONS Plain
or slab milling Face milling End milling Side milling Slot milling Angular milling Form milling Straddle milling MILLING OPERATIONS
Slitting or saw milling Gear cutting Key way milling String milling Profile milling Thread milling Helical milling Cam milling
PLAIN/SURFACE/ SLAB MILLING Plain Milling: Process to get the flat surface on the work piece in which the cutter axis and work piece axis are parallel. The primary motion is the rotation of the cutter. The feed is imparted to the work piece. Cutter: Plain milling cutter.
Machine:Horizontal Milling m/c. PLAIN/SURFACE/ SLAB MILLING Plain mill cutter Work piece FACE MILLING Face Milling:
Operation carried out for producing a flat surface, which is perpendicular to the axis of rotating cutter. Cutter: Face milling cutter. Machine: Vertical Milling Machine FACE MILLING
MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY END MILLING End Milling: Operation performed for producing flat surfaces, key slots, grooves or finishing the edges of the work piece. Cutter: End milling cutter. Machine: Vertical Milling Machine
FIG. END MILLING SIDE MILLING SIDE MILLING : Operation performed for producing flat surfaces, slots, grooves or finishing the edges of the work piece. Cutter: End milling cutter. Machine: Horizontal Milling Machine
SLOT MILLING Slot Milling: Operation of producing slots like T-slots, plain slots etc., Cutter: End milling cutter, T-slot cutter, side milling cutter FIG. T-SLOT MILLING
Machine: Vertical Milling Machine ANGULAR MILLING Angular Milling: Operation of producing all types of angular cuts like Vnotches and grooves, serrations
and angular surfaces. Cutter: Double angle cutter. FIG. ANGULAR MILLING Machine:Horizontal Milling Machine FORM MILLING
Form Milling: Operation of producing all types of angular cuts like V-notches and grooves, serrations and angular surfaces. Cutter: Double angle cutter.
FIG. FORM MILLING Machine: Horizontal Milling Machine FORM MILLING STRADDLE MILLING Straddle Milling: Operation of machining two
parallel surfaces simultaneously on a work piece. Cutter: 2 or more side & face milling cutters FIG. STRADDLE MILLING Machine: Horizontal Milling Machine
GANG MILLING Gang Milling: Process to get different profiles on the work piece simultaneously with two or more cutters at one stretch. FIG. GANG MILLING Cutter: Different cutters
as required. Machine: Horizontal Milling Machine Profile milling Outside periphery of flat part is cut. Conventional end mill is used to cut the
outside or inside periphery of a flat part. Pocket Milling Another form of end milling used to mill shallow pockets into flat parts
SURFACE CONTOURING Ball nose cutter is fed back and forth across the work along a curvilinear path at close intervals to create a three dimensional surface.
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