A guide to writing and formatting for different

A guide to writing and formatting for different

A guide to writing and formatting for different assignment types Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 ASSIGNMENT TYPES Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing

1. 1 What is an Academic Essay? It is a sustained piece of writing that answers a question or task. It introduces a thesis statement* (your answer to the assignment question) then expands it with reasoned argument. (*See Academic Writing 1 3.3.1. Introduction) Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing

1. 1 What is an Academic Essay? It supports the thesis, point-by-point with evidence. It puts forward relevant examples, supporting evidence and information from academic texts or credible sources. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 2 Essay Preparation (See Academic Writing 1

2. Getting Ready to Write) 1. 2. 1 Planning Start as early as possible. You need time to read, research, think and write. Define the question and identify the instruction words. (See Academic Writing 1 2.1.1 What is the assignment asking you to do?) Analyse the task, identify key words, and your approach. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 2 Essay Preparation (See Academic Writing 1 2. Getting Ready to Write) 1. 2. 1 Planning Write an essay plan. A plan is a good way to start to organise your ideas and structure your essay. (See Academic Writing 1 3. 2 Why plan?) Plans can take many forms. Try different techniques to find the one that works for you.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 2 Essay Preparation (See Academic Writing 1 2. Getting Ready to Write) 1.2.1 Planning After youve done more research and developed your ideas have another look at your plan. You may want to make changes.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 2. 2 Researching the topic (See Academic Writing 1 2. 2 Reading for research) Reading for research is vital to essay writing because your thesis and arguments rely on the academic work of other writers and researchers. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 2. 2 Researching the topic (See Academic Writing 1 2. 2 Reading for research) Start your research reading early. Use skimming and scanning techniques to pre-read texts and find out if they are useful. This allows you to get through a lot of material quickly. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 2. 2 Researching the topic (See Academic Writing 1 2. 2 Reading for research) When you need to find specific information such as a name or a date, you can scan the text. When you scan, you do not actually read the text; instead you search for a particular item. You can also scan a text to identify the sections that are important for you. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 2. 2 Researching the topic (See Academic Writing 1 2. 2 Reading for research) To gain an overall impression of a text, you can skim the text. The technique involves reading the title, the first paragraph, the first sentence of each of the body paragraphs and the last paragraph. Also look at any graphics in the text. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 2. 2 Researching the topic (See Academic Writing 1 2. 2 Reading for research) By skimming a text you can decide if it's relevant and you can prepare yourself for a more detailed reading of the text. Read with purpose. (See Reading for Research 2. 2. 2 A reading checklist, 2. 2. 3 Read actively) Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 2. 2 Researching the topic (See Academic Writing 1 2. 2 Reading for research) Start with the suggested reading list Use the library catalogue to find more material through topic and subject searches. Make notes from the readings (See Reading for research 2. 2. 4 Why take notes?) Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1.3 The Writing Process (See Academic Writing 3. Writing) 1.3. 1 Tips for effective writing Plan your assignment first. (See Academic Writing 1 3.2 Why plan?) Balance. Include a range of information and viewpoints not just evidence that agrees with what you are arguing. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1.3 The Writing Process (See Academic Writing 3. Writing) 1.3. 1 Tips for effective writing Examine different or opposing views, evaluate differing arguments, explain why one argument is more convincing than another and how they relate to the conclusion your essay arrives at. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1.3 The Writing Process (See Academic Writing 3. Writing) 1.3. 1 Tips for effective writing Write the body of the essay first. Once you know what your essay is about then write the introduction and conclusion. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1.3 The Writing Process (See Academic Writing 3. Writing) 1.3. 1 Tips for effective writing Keep referring back to the question or task as you draft your essay. Order the paragraphs logically so that the argument flows. Fresh eyes. Put the essay aside for a few days before editing it. Ask someone else to read it and give you feedback.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1.3 The Writing Process (See Academic Writing 3. Writing) 1.3. 1 Tips for effective writing Check that each paragraph contains one main point, followed by a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence. (See Academic Writing 1 - 4. Checklist for Writing & Editing Assignments

4.1 Academic writing: paragraph level) Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 2 Structure (See Academic Writing 1 3. 3 What is the structure of an essay?) Introduction The introduction is a broad statement of your topic and your argument and is about 10-20% the length of your essay.

Introduce the topic area(s) with a general, broad opening sentence (or two). Answer the question with a thesis statement. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 2 Structure (See Academic Writing 1 3. 3 What is the structure of an essay?) Introduction Provide a summary or road map of your essay (keep it brief, but mention all the main ideas).

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 2 Structure (See Academic Writing 1 3. 3 What is the structure of an essay?) Body The body of your essay is where the majority of the marks are given. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 2 Structure (See Academic Writing 1 3. 3 What is the structure of an essay?) Body It is a series of linked paragraphs that develop your argument. Here you show the results of your research, evidence, relevant examples and authoritative quotes. If your question has more than one part, deal with

each part of the question in separate sections. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 2 Structure (See Academic Writing 1 3. 3 What is the structure of an essay?) Conclusion Your conclusion restates your answer to the question, sums up your argument, includes a final, broad statement (about possible implications, future directions for research,

qualifications). Its a review of the essay so NEVER introduce new information or ideas in the conclusion. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 2 Structure (See Academic Writing 1 3. 3 What is the structure of an essay?) Reference List All academic essays MUST contain references. Referencing protects you from accusations of

plagiarism. SU will guide the referencing style. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 3 Editing the essay (See Academic Writing 1 3.4.2 Editing) Does the structure have a clear introduction, body and conclusion? Does each paragraph have a clear main point

that relates to your argument? Are the paragraphs arranged in a logical sequence? Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 3 Editing the essay (See Academic Writing 1 3.4.2 Editing) Revise sentences. (See Academic Writing 1 - 4. 8, Academic Writing: sentence level; Grammar: Sentence

Structure) Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 3 Editing the essay (See Academic Writing 3.4 ) Check punctuation and spelling. Use a good dictionary. Check transition signals. (See Academic Writing 1 3.5) Is the reference style consistent?

Are all quotes and paraphrases referenced? Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 3 Editing the essay Have you met the word limit? Proofread your final draft carefully. Read it aloud. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 4 Handing the essay in The assignment isnt finished until youve handed it in. READ the assignment guidelines in your course outlines, find out how your lecturer/tutor want assignments presented and follow their directions. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 4 Handing the essay in Due date. Submitting late will mean NON SUBMISSION A FAIL Upload to Moodle as instructed, together with the submission cover! Put the essay into turnitin. (Coming soon..) Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

1. Essay Writing 1. 3. 4 Handing the essay in Use the correct cover sheet. Make sure your essay is formatted correctly. (Font, spacing) Keep an extra copy for yourself. Adapted from the following source: The Learning Centre, University of New South Wales 2010, Essay Writing The Basics, viewed 12 July 2012, .

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing A report usually analyses or describes a problem or incident. Different types of reports have different purposes: research, scientific (including lab reports) and business reports. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing No matter the topic they usually focus on conveying information with a clear purpose, to a specific audience. The information in a report is often collected from research, or from the analysis of data and issues. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing Two questions before you start: 1. What is the purpose? Is it to collect data and present the findings? Is it to analyse a situation or activity? Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing Is it to review and evaluate the literature on a topic and identify issues?

How much detail needs to be included in the report? Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. Who is the audience? Your lecturer is the main audience for any assessment task but you need to write the assignment as a 'real' task.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing e.g. imagine you are actually writing a consultant's report for a company and that your lecturer is the key client. Who will read the report? What are their needs, e.g. information, ideas, motivation etc.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure Abstract a summary of the reports contents. (For more detail see 6.2 Abstracts) Introduction: o An overview of the report. o A clear description of your aims and objectives, and the context of the problem or situation.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure o The scope of your investigation as well as any limitations. o If needed, a brief historical background (with subheadings) of significant events leading up to the present investigation. o If the explanation of the context is too long, make it a separate section and call it Background/Context/

Definitions/Key Terms. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure o If you need to provide an analysis of existing research, make a separate section titled Literature Review. o Use the present tense to outline the problem and your aims. o Use past tense to describe events that have

occurred when giving background information or context. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure Methods o List the procedures and process undertaken in your investigation in clear order. If necessary, use subheadings like Sample, Instruments. o For a technical report, you may need to include

descriptions of materials, equipment and resources. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure o Use the past tense as the events of the research are over. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure o Unless you are told to write in first person, choose impersonal sentence structures such as passive constructions, e.g. 20 students were selected randomly to form the sample group instead of, I selected 20 students randomly to form the sample group. (Remember. Active and passive sentences, Tense, Voice)

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure Findings/Results/Data o Present your information in a clear and logical sequence. o Label and number charts, tables, graphs and pictures consecutively. Check with your lecturer the correct labels e.g; figures tables or charts.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure Findings/Results/Data o If you have a large amount of empirical results, include them in an appendix. o Use the past tense and passive construction to describe what was found. (AGAIN.. Remember. Active and passive sentences, Tense, Voice)

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure Discussion/Analysis o This section is like a short essay it is a connected series of sentences that explain and argue your interpretation of the evidence. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure o When you discuss the ongoing situation revealed by your investigation, use the present tense. Check with your lecturer what tone this section needs: personal or impersonal? Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure Conclusion o This section is like the conclusion of an essay it gives the overall purpose of the report, steps taken, overall findings and point of view. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure

Recommendations/Implications o If the purpose of the report is to recommend actions based on the findings, list them here in sequence. o Use the past tense to review the reports findings. Make comments using the present tense. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure

References o Prove you have researched the area. o Show your ideas are supported by other academic research. o Make clear what ideas and information are yours and what are from your research. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure o Observe copyright and avoid accusations of

plagiarism by acknowledging and crediting the work of others. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure o Make sure that you understand and use the referencing style prescribed by your faculty. o Only include references that you have used in your assignment (i.e. those that you have cited in

your assignment). Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure Appendices o An appendix is extra material included at the end of the report for the audience to consider. o Put material in an appendix if it is not essential in the body of the report, or is so lengthy that it

interrupts the flow. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 1 Report Structure o Appendices may include the evidence you base your findings on (e.g. statistical calculations or data from another source). o Title and number all appendices (e.g. Appendix A, Appendix B), and list them in the table of contents.

Adapted from the following source: Morley-Warner, T. 2000, A guide to writing in a university context, Centre for Research and Education in the Arts, Sydney. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 2 The difference between a Report and an Essay

Adapted from the following source: Academic Skills Centre, University of Canberra 2012, Report Writing, accessed 4 February 2013, . Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 3 Types of Reports Technical Report

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 Business Report Field Report Lab Report 2. Report Writing

2.3. Technical Reports Technical reports are used in industry to communicate technical information. These reports help businesses make decisions, for example, in selecting and purchasing equipment, or finding solutions to technical problems. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing

2.3. Technical Reports Engineering and applied sciences subjects often set assignment tasks that require technical report writing. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.3. Technical Reports Eg: solve a design problem;

investigate and evaluate the solutions to an environmental problem; develop a program or an information management plan for a specific issue or company. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.3 Technical Reports Two questions before you start:

Who is the audience and what is the purpose of the report? Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.3 Technical Reports Audience and purpose determine how technical your language and concepts will be. o Briefing managers they will have a good broad

understanding of the issues. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.3 Technical Reports o Providing technical background information for lay people associated with the project they may have little knowledge. o Making recommendations to technical supervisors

they will have detailed knowledge of their specialist area. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.3 Technical Reports The aim of a technical report is to: Draw theory and real world situations together. Present information in a structured and accessible format.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.3 Technical Reports Communicate information quickly and easily using figures and diagrams to present data Allow selective reading using numbered headings and subheadings

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.3 Technical Reports You should always check with your tutor for the structure they require. However a basic structure of a technical report includes the following: o Title page Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.3 Technical Reports o Summary (Check to see if you need an Abstract and Executive Summary) o Table of Contents o List of Figures and Tables Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.3 Technical Reports Introduction o Middle sections with numbered headings (i.e., the body of the report) Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing

2.3 Technical Reports o Conclusions o References o Appendices Source: Language and Learning Online, Monash University 2013, Writing technical reports, Accessed 4 February 2013, . Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Report Technical Report Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 Field Report Lab Report

2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports Physical settings, time and spatial relationships are usually important in field trips and reports. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports

2.4.1 Preparation before you go into the field What is the purpose of the field trip and the report? Ask your lecturer what they expect. Read preliminary texts and recommended readings. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 4 Field Reports 2.4.1 Preparation before you go into the field

Be familiar with major theoretical frameworks, important observations. Know what data you need to collect. Plan the aims, types of observations and possible implications. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2. 4 Field Reports 2.4.1 Preparation before you go into the field For group reports - organise how your group will

collect data. Eg; one person to take photographs, one to make sketch maps, two to take notes from talks, etc. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.2 Identify the main issue why are you going into the field?

What major theories, methodology, techniques, and or practical knowledge are being tested or illustrated? Relate your field observations to the main issue in the course. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.3 Taking notes in the field Make sure you have the right equipment:

pens/paper/graph paper/camera Include something in photos to indicate the scale, and keep notes on photos: where taken and why. Look. Listen. Collaborate with friends. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.4 Taking notes in the field Record place names, time and date, names and titles (job positions) of speakers (check spelling).

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.4 Taking notes in the field Label sketches and plans to record spatial and visual information, note proportions and approximate size of structures or map scales alongside. Label tables with column and row headings and

graphs with axe and titles, include the unit with all measurements Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.5 Report format Experimental fieldwork - introduction-methodsresults-discussion format. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.5 Report format Observational data - make a logical "story" leading to your conclusions. Introduction, setting out the purpose of the fieldwork, sub-sections with background information (location of area, geology, topography, vegetation, climate, geological history, recent history etc.). Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.5 Report format Review relevant literature on the topic. Describe methods to collect the data, then present, interpret and discuss it. For trips involving many locations, it may be easiest to organise the background information, data, and interpretation by site, but then draw all the sites together in a general discussion at the end.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.5 Report format Do whichever involves least repetition of information and makes the report easiest for the reader to understand and follow. Use descriptive subheadings to make the information easy to find.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Types of Reports 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.6 Data presentation Two types of data: o Experimental an effort has been made to control or eliminate variables/factors that are not the subject of study.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Types of Reports 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.6 Data presentation o Observational no attempt made to control or eliminate any influence, and some influences may not even be known. Any conclusions about causal relationships will be quite tentative. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.6 Data presentation Data can be presented as tables, graphs, photos, diagrams, sketches, maps, transects, quadrants, or interviews. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing

2.4 Field Reports 2.4.6 Data presentation Include all the relevant information titles, scales, units of measurement, keys to colours and shading, labels, acknowledgment if the figure is based on a published source. Make use of computer-based graphing or drawing applications. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing

2.4 Field Reports 2.4.7 Discussion In your discussion you argue the conclusions drawn from the data and/or possible explanations for observations made on the trip. This relates your observations to the theory covered in the unit. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing

2.4 Field Reports 2.4.7 Discussion o Eg: for a trip to look at regional geology, discuss how each observation either supports or is inconsistent with the published tectonic history. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.7 Discussion

Can you draw inferences from your observations? Refer to the literature on the subject. Critically evaluate data collection methods - what are the assumptions, limitations and usefulness of different methods? Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Types of Reports 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.7 Discussion Don't be over-critical.

Sometimes compromises may be necessary between a greater number of less accurate measurements made over a large area and fewer, more accurate measures. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Types of Reports 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.7 Discussion If you have serious reservations about the data, then explain what results you expected to see, and

why, so that the examiner has evidence of your clear understanding and thinking. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.8 Conclusions and recommendations Depending on the purpose and format of your report, you may have a separate conclusions section to summarise the major findings.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.8 Conclusions and recommendations If the study and report are intended to solve a problem, you will also have recommendations (as any professional report would). Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports 2.4.8 Conclusions and recommendations State the implications of your findings in practical terms. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.4 Field Reports

2.4.8 Conclusions and recommendations o Eg: "Soil erosion problems in the catchment are related to salinisation, loss of structure due to low organic matter and low vegetation cover. It is therefore recommended that tree cover be restored in the upper catchment, and that the lower catchment be managed with longer rotations including green manure crops such as lupins. Source: Academic Skills and Learning Centre, Australian National University 2009, Field trips and field reports, viewed 15 June 2012, .

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports Technical Report Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 Field Report

Lab Report 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports The format of the traditional scientific report is introduction, method, results, discussion. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports Show evidence of your ability to interpret evidence (in this case, data) and relate the interpretation to the theory of the academic discipline. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing

2.5 Lab Reports Your audience is the marker, they know more than you do about the subject, but you must still show your understanding of the content area, your skill in explaining observations and thinking about their implications. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports

2.5.1 Differences between aims and hypotheses Hypotheses are always testable aims are not. o An aim: "To show where transpiration occurs. o The hypothesis: "Transpiration occurs mainly through the leaves." Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.1 Differences between aims and hypotheses

Writing a statement of the hypothesis for an experiment is a good test of whether you understand what the experiment is about. The hypothesis is usually stated at the end of the introduction. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.1 Differences between aims and hypotheses Hypotheses can be rejected (disproved) but can

never be proved. No experiment can ever look at all possible occurrences of a phenomenon, you can never be sure that there are no exceptions. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.1 Differences between aims and hypotheses o Example of a disproven hypothesis: "Temperature has no effect on enzyme activity".

o A statistically significant result will allow you to make a definite statement in the discussion; "Increases in temperature above 37C result in lower enzyme activity". Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.2 The introduction The introduction argues why the hypothesis was

formulated and is plausible, and maybe also why the method was designed and should work. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.2 The introduction Purpose of Introduction is to: o Establish your knowledge of others work - rely on previous research in the published scientific

literature. Use SUs suggested system to cite these references. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.2 The introduction o Demonstrate understanding of this experiment. o Relate experiment to theory. State hypothesis of experiment (not the same as the aim).

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.2 The introduction Survey, synthesise and critique relevant literature. Formulate hypothesis in relation to literature, if it is not given. (See Academic Writing 1 2. 2 Reading for research)

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.2 The introduction Your writing will report, describe, define, explain, argue, predict, criticise, evaluate, justify, refer, hypothesis. (See Academic Writing 1 2. 1 for definitions of instruction words)

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.3 Materials and methods This section is probably the easiest to write, you may wish to do it first. This shows your knowledge and understanding of method. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.3 Materials and methods If the method is given in detail in the lab manual you may be allowed to simply refer to that. Check with your lecturer. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing

2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.3 Materials and methods If you do need to write it up, make it better than the manual. Eg; include information from pre-lab talks, reduce the amount of detail. Any changes to the method should be recorded. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports

2.5.4 Results The results section presents meaningful data in terms of the hypothesis. Raw data is usually confined to an appendix. E.g.; the enzyme activity levels calculated from colorimeter readings, not the actual colorimeter readings. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing

2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.4 Results Report findings - usual formats for results are means and standard deviations, and tables or graphs. Summarising masses of individual readings makes them easily understood. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports

2.5.4 Results Demonstrate appropriate data presentation converting data into forms that make it accessible shows your understanding of the experiment. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.4 Results Demonstrate use of analysis (statistical and by

format of tables) all tables and graphs have a legend explaining what is shown. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.4 Results Label all graph axes, table row and column headers. Refer to them in the text.

Eg; Table 1 summarises the effect of temperature on enzyme activity." Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.4 Results Distinguish observation from inference - your observations (which may be accurate) and your interpretation of them (which may be more

problematic) are in separate sections. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.5 Discussion This will probably be the longest section, most of the marks will be allocated for this section spend time on doing it well. Demonstrate interpretation skills explain what it

all means, what you infer from the results. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.5 Discussion Show the relationship of results to existing theory. Here you argue that the results do (or do not) support the hypotheses. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.5 Discussion You may also explain (through new hypotheses) any results or observations which were unexpected, or the fact that no results were obtained. You may refer to other literature to do this and suggest further hypotheses and experiments. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.5 Discussion You can get a good mark for an experiment that did not "work" as expected. Dont blame poor experimental technique for the scientific implications of your results. You will need convincing explanations that demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the theory. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

2. Report Writing 2.5 Lab Reports 2.5.5 Discussion Your writing will infer, explain, argue, predict, criticise (self and others), evaluate, justify, and refer. (See Academic Writing 1 2.1 for definitions of instruction words) Source: Academic Skills and Learning Centre, Australian National University 2009, Writing a Lab Report, viewed June 15 2012,

. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Has a tutor ever put a comment on one of your essays suggesting that your writing is too descriptive, or not critical enough? It is a very common experience, but the difference

between these two kinds of writing is not always clear. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing What is Critical Writing? critical writing is more complex, and involves more discussion, analysis and evaluation than does descriptive writing.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing What is Critical Writing? Critical Writing activities include: Engaging with evidence Open minded and objective enquiry Presenting reasons to dispute a particular finding Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

3. Critical Writing What is Critical Writing? Providing an alternative approach Recognising the limitations of evidence: either your evidence or the evidence provided by others Thinking around a specific problem Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing What is Critical Writing?

Applying caution and humility when challenging established positions. Critical writers might tentatively suggest an independent point of view, using such phrases as It could be argued that...; or An alternative viewpoint might suggest that.... Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing What is Critical Writing? Critical writing is an involvement in an academic

debate. It requires a refusal to accept the conclusions of other writers without evaluating the arguments and evidence they provide (University of Leicester. Learning Development Centre, 2013). Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing Use this checklist to vary the phrases you use in

your writing and to let the reader know your opinion of the work you are referring to. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing Stating your own position on a topic or subject o The aim of this paper/essay is to o The argument in this paper... o The perspective presented here is

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing Stating the view of another person o Smith claims that o Smiths argument is that o Smiths conclusion is that o According to Smith Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing o From Smiths point of view/perspective... o The point of Smiths article/paper/book is that o The substance of Smiths article/paper/book is that Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing

3.1 The language of critical writing o Smiths work/data leads him to conclude o Some theorists, such as Smith, argue that o It is argued by theorists, such as Jones (2009) and Smith (2010), that Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing Attributing a view to another person (when you

are not quite sure) o Smiths claim seems to be that Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing o Smith seems to be claiming o Smiths argument seems to be that o The point of Smiths argument appears to be that

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing Drawing a conclusion using the work of others o Using Smiths work it is possible to show that o From Smiths work it can be determined that o One possible consequence of Smiths work is that

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing o Developing Smiths work to its logical conclusion shows that... o When Smiths argument is analysed it can be seen that o Analysis of Smiths data demonstrates that Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing Disagreeing with the views of others o The argument advanced here is opposed to that of Smith o Problems arise in Smiths work [when it is noted that] o Smiths argument/data is flawed because Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing o Contrary to Smiths argument o In contrast to Smiths argument o Smiths data/argument/conclusion do/does not follow because o It does not seem to follow from Smiths argument that Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing

3.1 The language of critical writing Agreeing with the views of others o As Smith argues o This is also Smiths view o Following from Smiths argument Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing o Smiths view is persuasive because

o Smith is right in so far as... o Not unlike Smith, I am suggesting/arguing... o Along the lines of Smith, I argue Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing Pointing out assumptions o This assumes that o Smith assumes that

o Smiths assumption is that. o The point being assumed here is that o Smiths view depends on the assumption that Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing 3.1 The language of critical writing Pointing out assumptions o This assumes that o Smith assumes that

o Smiths assumption is that. o The point being assumed here is that o Smiths view depends on the assumption that Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing When do you use these different kinds of writing? Applying caution and humility when challenging established positions. Critical writers might tentatively suggest an independent point of view, using such

phrases as It could be argued that...; or An alternative viewpoint might suggest that.... Critical writing is an involvement in an academic debate. It requires a refusal to accept the conclusions of other writers without evaluating the arguments and evidence they provide (University of Leicester. Learning Development Centre, 2013). Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing

Types of Critical Writing Essay Discussion Paper Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Conference paper Journal Article Literature Review

Specific details of a critical discussion will vary depending on the particular academic discipline they are reflecting. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Essay The purpose of an essay is to present an argument, supported by evidence. It should include opposing points of view which are

analysed and critically assessed. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Essay Generally does not include an abstract. Does have an introduction, body and conclusion . Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Essay May be written in continuous prose without internal headings or sub-headings. In this case, the challenge is to make the discussion flow clearly and logically from one point to the next. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Essay Acknowledge all ideas from other authors or researchers. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Discussion Paper

A discussion paper presents and discusses issues around a particular topic. In doing so, it presents alternative points of view. The intention is not to make specific recommendations, but to provide a well-rounded analysis of the issues. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Discussion Paper

Generally does not include an abstract Does have an introduction, body and conclusion Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Discussion Paper Should be succinct Content must be supported with evidence Acknowledge all ideas from other authors or

researchers Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Conference paper The purpose of a conference paper is to present information about an area of expertise or interest to a targeted audience.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Conference paper A conference paper generally reports on research. Points to consider: Succinct, informative, interesting title Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Conference paper Include an abstract Use internal headings and sub-headings to structure the discussion Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing

Types of Critical Writing Conference paper Could Include o Introduction: introduce the problem or issue, with a brief literature review if appropriate Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing

Types of Critical Writing Conference paper o Research design o Results o Discussion o Conclusion Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Conference paper

Should be concise Use formal language Appropriately referenced Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Journal Article While there are different types of journals, including scholarly, trade and professional journals, this

discussion focusses on scholarly and academic journal articles. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Journal Article An academic journal article is usually longer and more formal than a conference paper. A primary purpose of journal articles is to publish

research. However, they may also include. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Journal Article Theoretical discussions: relate existing research to theories or models in order to expand or refine theoretical constructs. They do not normally contain original research

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Journal Article Reviews: synthesise current research, identify trends or advances and/or identify gaps in knowledge. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Journal Article Reviews do not report on original research. These types of articles are also referred to as literature reviews (see section below). The structure of a journal article reporting research is similar to that of a research conference paper. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Literature Review Literature reviews critically evaluate previously published material to provide an understanding of the progress of research in clarifying a problem. A literature review Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing

Types of Critical Writing Literature Review Organises and evaluates the literature pertaining to a particular issue Seeks to identify patterns and trends within the research Identifies research gaps and recommends new research areas Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing

Types of Critical Writing Literature Review A literature review could include: Title An abstract Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 3. Critical Writing Types of Critical Writing Literature Review

A literature review could include Introduction Body: materials, methods and findings Conclusion Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study A case study provides a description of a particular practice e.g. a business problem, scenario or situation, which is then critically

analysed/reviewed/evaluated using the relevant theory. Case studies are assignments that unite theory and practice. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study In a case study, you will Apply selected theories through simulated

problem solving and decision-making. Learn by doing instead of just listening to lecturers or reading. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study Follow the assessment criteria and assignment tasks. Confirm with your lecturer questions of structure

and format. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study 4. 1. 1 Writing a case study in report format If your case study is being structured as a formal case report it may follow this format: These headings/sections, may be numbered:

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study 4. 1. 1 Writing a case study in report format Letter of transmittal A business letter putting the report in context, containing information not included in the report (e.g. due dates) and contact information. Check with your tutor, as it is not always required.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study 4. 1. 1 Writing a case study in report format Title page Executive summary Table of contents Introduction or case background Body of the analysis Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study 4. 1. 1 Writing a case study in report format Alternative solutions Conclusion/Recommendation(s) etc. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study

4. 1. 1 Writing a case study in report format Implementation plan (if requested) References List Appendices Information that is necessary but too lengthy to fit in the report, e.g. maps, large graphics, computer print outs, etc. Source: Summers J & Smith B 2003, Communication skills handbook, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Milton, Qld. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study 4. 1. 2 Writing a case study in essay format Your case study may be prepared in essay format with an introduction, body and conclusion. It is important to present the analysis of the particular case in relation to the theory and the best practice that stems from that theory. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study 4. 1. 2 Writing a case study in essay format The following table contains a paragraph from a case study that demonstrates analysis of a case along with notes to highlight important points. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study

4. 1 Writing a case study Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 4. Case Study 4. 1 Writing a case study

Source: Southern Cross University Academic Skills Development Unit 2010, Writing a Case Study, viewed 3 January 2013, . Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 1 Reflective Journals A reflective journal is a personal record of your progress, your changes in thinking about a subject

or a topic. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 1 Reflective Journals Although its a more informal style of writing than other academic assignments, you might need to submit it for marking. Most journals require regular entries, over a period of time.

Your reflective journal can also be the basis of an essay or report. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 1 Reflective Journals Check the assessment criteria. If you need to submit the journal make sure you structure it and write clearly so it can be read easily. If it is for yourself, but you will need to use it for an essay or report, make sure that your writing

makes enough sense for you to refer to it. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 1 Reflective Journals Consider the following when writing a reflective journal: o Describe events and your experience What did I do/hear/see?

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 1 Reflective Journals o Interpret and evaluate the events from your perspective What do I think about it now? How does it relate to other things that I know? Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

5. Others 5. 1 Reflective Journals Explain your experience; reveal your new insights, connections with other learning, your hypotheses, and your conclusions. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 1 Reflective Journals o Reflect on how this information will be useful to

you What questions do I have? o Have I changed how I think about the situation? Where do I go from here? If you have been given specific questions or tasks to perform, use these as headings to help organise your writing. Adapted from the following sources: Morley-Warner, T. 2000, Academic writing is A guide to writing in a university context, Centre for Research and Education in the Arts, Sydney.Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Study & Learning Centre 2009, Reflective Journals,viewed 15 June 2009, Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

5. Others 5. 2 Abstracts Most research articles and reports have an abstract. An abstract is an overview of the entire text. It is sometimes called a synopsis. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others

5. 2 Abstracts An introduction leads the audience to the body of the text. An abstract is a text about a text it provides a commentary on the text that follows from beginning to end. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 2 Abstracts

It is a short, half- to one-page summary. Each new sentence introduces new information, providing a concise summary without paragraphing. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 2 Abstracts It is usually written impersonally. Write your abstract after the article/report is completed and you have an overview of the whole

text. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 3 Executive summary In the business world executives have a concise outline of the main points in a report, indicating where in the report to locate more detailed information. The summary may be several pages for a long

report, with headings and dot points or numbered points. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 3 Executive summary The summary should be concise and not involve too much fine detail. It should make commentary on the main points only and follow the sequence of the report.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5. 3 Executive summary Like the abstract, write it after the report is completed, once you have an overview of the whole text. It is the first page of the report and is not numbered.. Adapted from the following source:

Morley-Warner, T. 2009, Academic writing is A guide to writing in a university context, Association for Academic Language and Learning, Sydney. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5.4 Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation.

The annotation informs the reader of the relevance, accuracy and quality of the sources cited, and provides a foundation for further research. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5.4 Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography may be a separate task, or it may be part of a report. The references may be from your reading list or from your own research on a topic.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5.4 Annotated Bibliography Consider the relevance of each text to the context of your task. Write for an audience that has not read the text. Give a concise overview of it for the purpose of using it to investigate an issue.

Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5.4 Annotated Bibliography Tell your audience: o The strengths and weaknesses of the text. o Its place in, and its relationship to, the field of research in the topic. o How it contributes to the field of research. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

5. Others 5.4 Annotated Bibliography o Whether the information is sound, logical and well researched. o Whether it is broad and balanced. o The intended audience. o The aims and theoretical bases of the text. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

5. Others 5.4 Annotated Bibliography Structure of annotated bibliography: o Full bibliographical details of the text using the correct referencing system and organised in alphabetical order. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5.4 Annotated Bibliography

o Summary retell the main points, identifying the particular theoretical or political perspective on which it is based. Be concise. o Critique evaluate briefly. Who is the intended audience? Is it useful and relevant for this topic? On what assumptions is it based? Does it have a particular bias? Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5.4 Annotated Bibliography

Annotations vs. Abstracts: o Abstracts are purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 5. Others 5.4 Annotated Bibliography o Annotations are descriptive and critical; they expose the author's point of view, clarity and

appropriateness of expression, and authority. Adapted from the following sources: Morley-Warner, T. 2009, Academic writing is A guide to writing in a university context, Association for Academic Language and Learning, Sydney. Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Study & Learning Centre 2009, Annotated Bibliography, viewed 15 June 2009, . Eastwood Park Ltd 2017 ACADEMIC WRITING

THE END Eastwood Park Ltd 2017

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