Understanding Islam Why should we study the religion
Understanding Islam Why should we study the religion of Islam? There are over 1 billion Muslims in the world. Islam Identifications Muslim: person who follows Islam Kaaba: Islams holiest shrine located in Mecca Arabic for cube Quran: secret text, holy book of Islam Mecca: birth place of Islam, holiest city, Saudi Arabia Mosque: Muslim house of worship
Allah: Arabic for God same as J and C Medina: first Islamic community, 2nd Holy city, Muhammad gains political and religious power City of the Prophet Hejira: 622 Muhammads journey from Mecca to Medina; marks first expansion of Islam Jerusalem: 3rd Holiest city to Islam Dome of the Rock 2 Five Pillars of Islam Islam means: (#2) to submit/submission
Five Pillars of Islam: (#3) Declaration of Faith (Shahada) Prayers (Salah) Charity (Zakat) Fasting (Sawm) Pilgrimage (Hajj) 3 The Rise and Spread of Islam Arabia in the 7th Century 5 Mecca
6 Muhammad (#4) Born CE 570 Parents died Raised by Uncle Marries Khadija Merchant/trader Meditated in desert
Daughter Fatima married to cousin Ali Video 3:29 7 Muhammad: Founder of Islam Muhammad was born in Mecca about 570. His parents died when he was very young, but he was sent to live with his uncle, who was a Bedouin tribesman, even before they died. Muhammad became a merchant. When he was 25, he met a wealthy widow named Khadija, and married her. Muhammad (#5) Final Prophet/Founder of Islam
Means to surrender/submit (#2) Messages from God compiled in the Quran Spread the message of one God 9 The Hejira Muhammad began to speak about this new religion to the Arab tribes people around Mecca. Some began to follow him. Others did not like his message, and plotted to kill
both him and his followers. In 622, Muhammad and his followers fled from Mecca to Yathrib, a town to the north. This journey was known as the hejira. Yathrib was later renamed Medina, which means City of the Prophet. Medina and Hejira 622 Marks the beginning of expansion of Islam (#10) 11 Sacredness of Jerusalem
Night Journey from the nearest mosque to the farthest (al-Aqsa) mosque - 619 AD in Jerusalem Is believed to be when Muhammad flew to Jerusalem and met with the old Prophets: Abraham and Moses The Night Journey 1 Umayyad Culture Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
Video Al-Aqsa (furthest) mosque, built CE 715 13 People of the Book (# 6) Muhammads Term for Jews and Christians Cause followed Gods teachings Old and New Testament were Gods words but had been corrupted over time Christianity and Judaism influenced Islam 14 Return to Mecca 628AD
Mecca 15 Kaaba Housed 360 idols Muhammad Smashed idols and dedicated to God (360) (#5) Pilgrimages during holy month Dhul-Hijjah Kiswah: the cloth that covers the Kaaba Embroidered in gold the Muslim Declaration of Faith At the end of the ajj, the new kiswah is put in place, and the old one is cut into small relics that are sold to pilgrims. Kabah 16
Spread of Muslim Rule 17 Two Main Branches of Islam Battle of Karbala: 661 A.D. 11 Schism Disagreement over style and qualifications leader Bloody massacre (#11) Split into Sunni and Shia during Umayyad Dynasty Mid 600s over the choosing of caliph successor to Muhammad as leader of Islamic community
(#11) (#12) Sunni 80% caliph based on merit anyone Shi'ite/Shia caliph descendent of Muhammad 19 Shrine at Karbala 7. Quran, Sunnah, Hadith make up the Sharia Sharia sacred law of Islam Sunnah: Islamic Faith in practice Hadith: accounts and sayings of Muhammad 8. oneness of God and Muhammad Final Prophet 9. Birth, Marriage, Death Aqiqah Link 10. Hejira (622), Muslim Army united by Jihad (to struggle to be the best Muslim/Holy War)
and promise of riches, resentment of foreign rule, Conversion (equality of believers), tolerance 20 11. Umayyad, choosing a caliph 12. Shia (Shiite) and Sunni 13. Halal In Arabic, the word halal means permitted or lawful. Halal foods are foods that are allowed under Islamic dietary guidelines No pork or alcohol 21 Five Pillars of Islam
Declaration of Faith (Shahada) Prayers (Salah) Charity (Sawm) Fasting (Zakat) Pilgrimage (Hajj) Video 2:00 Another Hajj Video And one more 22 Ramadan (#14)
9th month of the Islamic/lunar calendar Month that Qur'an to Muhammad Fasting from sunup to sundown Focus on relationship with God/spiritually Night of Power: last days of the month it is believed that Muhammad first received the Qur'an. Eid ul-Fitr (The Festival of Fast-Breaking): holiday that marks the end of Ramadan and fasting Show Wolper Video 23 Islam, Christianity, and Judaism Similarities
Monotheism Prophethood Golden Rule Jerusalem Holy Judgment Day Heaven Prayer
Charity Coming of Age Pilgrimage Dietary Laws Ethical world view 24 Early Islamic Empires The Spread of Islam Within 120 years of the Prophet Muhammads death, the religion of Islam had spread from the Arabian Peninsula to include the following areas: http://www.explorethemed.com/RiseIslam.asp
Early Caliphates Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 A.D.) Capital: Damascus, Syria Emphasis on Arab Culture & Language Sunni Muslim Umayyads (661750)
28 Umayyad Culture Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Video Al-Aqsa (furthest) mosque, built CE 715 29 Shiism Today 30 Umayyad Decline Fragmentation
split Non-Arabs Leadership problems 31 Early Caliphates Abbassid Dynasty (750-1250 AD) Capital: Baghdad Golden Age of Muslim Civilization Included People from other cultures
Persians Advances in architecture Control of trade routes Advances in science, medicine, mathematics Poetry and philosophy Indians Turks
Abbasids (7501258) First 100 years 1st Golden Age (#15) Because of economic power, medicine, science, math, and architecture 33 Islams First Golden Age The Abbassid Caliphate was established in 750 A.D. The capital of this new Islamic Empire was established in Baghdad, not Damascus. Founded by al-Mansur, the second caliph of the Abbassid Dynasty. This new caliphate was more inclusive of different people, including Persians, Turks, and Indians, which gave it more appeal. Islams First Golden Age
Commerce and Economics This new empire controlled the trade routes between the East (India and China) and the Mediterranean, Africa, and Europe. This led to thriving, wealthy cities, such as Baghdad. To help trade prosper, the Abbasids developed many useful business practices. Abbasid Culture Trade revival Arabic numerals Algebra 36
Science and Medicine Astrolabe Medicine Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Muhammad Al-Razi Muslims used the magnetic needle to produce the mariners compass, as well as the astrolabe. These inventions would become VERY important during the Age of Discovery hundreds of years later. Astrolabe
37 Medieval Renaissance Man Ibn Sina known also as Avicenna Wrote more than 100 books on astronomy, music, philosophy, medicine, and poetry Islams First Golden Age Advances in Learning: Muslim scholars translated ancient Greek works on philosophy, science, and mathematics. Muslims also made advances in the fields of
medicine, mathematics, and architecture They gave us beautiful poetry, such as The Rubaiyat, and A Thousand and One Nights 18 Islams First Golden Age Muhammad al Razi Muslim doctor who stressed eating a balanced diet. Encouraged high professional standards for doctors, including education and qualifying exams. Wrote 50 books on medicine 15 Abbasid Decline Mosque of Abbasid Caliph AlMutawakkil
41 Home Stretch 16. Life long learners/education important - translated Greek and Sanskrit works on philosophy and science House of Wisdom Baghdad Al Mamun preserved ancient learning diffused to Europe 17. Medicine: Diagnosis/treatment/qualifying examinations Muhammad al-Razi and Ibn Sina all influenced the West Math algebra Science Architecture - minarets 18. Letters of credit receipts bills of lading 42 omparison of Statistics and Basics Islam
Judaism Christianity adherents called Muslims Jews Christians current adherents 1.3 billion 14 million
2 billion current size rank 2nd largest 12th largest largest major concentration Middle East, Southeast Asia Israel, Europe,
USA Europe, North and South America, rapid growth in Africa sacred text Qur'an (Koran) Bible Bible (Jewish Bible + New Testament) other written authority
Hadith Talmud, Midrash, Responsa church fathers, church councils, papal decrees (Catholic only) religious law Sharia Halakhah Canon Law clergy
imams rabbis priests, ministers, pastors, bishops house of worship mosque synagogue church, chapel, cathedral Friday
Saturday Sunday main day of worship 43 Comparison of Origins and History Islam Judaism Christianity date founded
622 CE unknown c. 33 CE place founded Saudi Arabia Palestine (def) Palestine Muhammad Moses or
Abraham Jesus Arabic Hebrew Aramaic, Greek little expansion; mostly confined to Palestine within 60 years, churches in major cities in Palestine, Turkey, Greece and Rome
(map); entire Roman Empire by end of 4th cent. founder original language(s) early expansion major splits within 12 years, entire Arabian peninsula; within 100 years, Muslim world stretched from the Atlantic to China
Shia/Sunni, c. 650 CE Catholic/Orthodox, 1054 Reform/Orthodox, CE; Catholic/Protestant, 1800s CE 1500s CE 44 Comparison of Religious Beliefs Islam Judaism Christianity type of theism
strict monotheism strict monotheism Trinitarian monotheism ultimate reality one God one God one God names of God Allah (Arabic for God)
Yahweh, Elohim Yahweh, the Holy Trinity other spiritual beings angels, demons, jinn angels and demons angels and demons revered humans prophets, imams (especially in Shia)
prophets saints, church fathers identity of Jesus true prophet of God, whose message has been corrupted not prophet Son of God, God incarnate, savior of the world Not part of beliefs Not part of beliefs
affirmed through Muhammad, recorded in Qur'an through Prophets, recorded in Bible through Prophets and Jesus (as God Himself), recorded in Bible correct belief, good deeds, Five Pillars belief in God, good deeds
correct belief, faith, good deeds, sacraments (some Protestants emphasize faith alone) eternal paradise: heaven views vary: heaven eternal heaven Jews and Christians are respected as "People of the Book," but they have wrong beliefs and only partial revelation.
Islam and Christianity are false interpretations and extensions of Judaism. Judaism is a true religion, but 45 with incomplete revelation. resurrection of Jesus divine revelation means of salvation good afterlife view of fellow Abrahamic religions
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