8.5 End of the Cold War Reagan &

8.5 End of the Cold War Reagan &

8.5 End of the Cold War Reagan & Foreign Policy Reagan wanted to restore U.S. foreign policy Blamed Carter for allowing Americas international prestige & influence to fall Increased military spending Confronted challenges in the Middle East &

in Latin America And win the Cold War with the Soviet Union Reagan intervened in Lebanon when violence broke out between Israelis & Arabs in 1982 But, anti-American

hostility led a terrorist group to seize 6 U.S hostages in Iran in 1983 Reagans response was to not negotiate with terrorists Meanwhile In 1979, a communist

group called the Sandinistas came to power in Nicaragua Congress denied Reagans plea to help Nicaraguan counter-revolutionaries (Contras) take back power Reagan committed to fighting communism &

maintaining order in Latin America The Reagan administration developed a plan to solve both the problem in Iran & in Nicaragua The govt illegally sold Iran weapons in exchange for the release of the 6 hostages (arms for hostages deal)

The govt then gave money from the profits of the arms sales to Iran to anti-communist Contras in Nicaragua The Iran-Contra Affair In 1987, these illegal activities were discovered & the Iran-Contra Affair

rocked the Reagan administration Reagan said he had no knowledge of the scandal & Oliver North admitted to running the operation behind the presidents back Reagan escaped from the scandal (Teflon president)

Reagan took a strong stand against communism and the Soviet Union Reagan viewed the USSR as the "focus of evil in the modern world and as a threat to U.S. security He used zero option and sent 572 nuclear missiles within range of Moscow to match USSR ICBMs aimed

at NATO nations His most ambitious plan was a massive defensive system of satellites called the Strategic Defense Initiative (star wars program) SDI would have cost the U.S. govt trillions of dollars at a time when Reaganomics involved slashing budgets for social programs

As Reagan he was coming to power, communist nations (including the USSR) were beginning to face economic failure In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev took charge of the USSR and began creating moderate reforms to save Russia Perestroika: Introducing moderate capitalism &

allowing some business & property ownership Glasnost: Freedom of speech & competitive elections Reagan was able to work with Gorbachev to reduce Cold War tensions In 1987, Reagan & Gorbachev signed the INF Treaty eliminating ICBMs in Europe

By the late 1980s, communism was failing across Eastern Europe By the late 1980s, communism was failing across Eastern Europe In 1989, East Germans denounced communism and the Berlin Wall came down

In 1989 & 1990, Eastern European nations embraced democracy In 1990, states within the Soviet Union broke off and formed new democratic nations; In 1991, the USSR dissolved and the Cold War ended

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