Chapter 26: Tradition and Change in East Asia Pulp Fiction Foreign Trade and the Tokugawa Shogunate Gentry, Commoners, Soldiers and Mean People Emperor Hongwu Foreign Trade and the Qing Neo-Confucianism Christianity in Japan Deshima Matteo Ricci Native Learning/ Floating Worlds Emperor Yongle Dutch Learning Filial Piety Emperor Wanli Jesuits, Dominicans and Franciscans Relationship between Chinese government and technology Emperor Kangxi Shoguns, daimyo, bakufu
Emperor Qianlong The Son of Heaven Scholar Bureaucrats Civil Service Examinations Gender Relations/ Foot binding IMPACT of Slave Trade: involuntary migration of 12 million/ 4 million died en route Pre 17th Century = 2000 slaves left Africa annually 17th Century = 20,000 annually 18th Century = 55,000 annually 1780s = 88,000 annually, sometimes 100,000 The African Effects of Slave Trade in Africa? Diaspora? Economic (cash crops/plantations) Political
African slave trade mostly supplied Social (Syncretic Religion?) tropical Caribbean 5% went to North America Slave Resistance? Spread of African culture/language/music Passive Resistance Revolts/Maroons End of the Slave Trade Role of Enlightenment/ Abolition of Slave Trade= American Revolution/ ABOLITION 1803 Denmark Abolitionists? th by early 17 c 1807 Great Britain (Saint Dominique 1793) Great Britain
1808 United States (Gabriel Prosser 1800) 1845 France 1814 France 1865 United States (Denmark Vesey 1822) 1817 Netherlands 1960 Angola 1835 Spain (Nat Turner 1831) Olaudah Equiano Last documented Atlantic Slave ship = 1867 to Cuba WHY ABOLITION? ABOLITION by early 17th c Great Britain
1845 France 1865 United States 1960 Angola End of the Slave Trade Abolition of Slave Trade= 1803 Denmark 1807 Great Britain 1808 United States 1814 France 1817 Netherlands 1835 Spain Last documented Atlantic Slave ship = 1867 to Cuba The slave trade ended because: 1.American and French Revolutions/ Enlightenment Ideals = suggestion of universal human right to freedom and equality 2.Frequent slave revolts = not profitable/ dangerous
3.Olaudah Equiano 4.Supply and demand = supply of sugar prices price of slaves 5.Europeans shifted focus from cash crops to manufacturing industries 6.Made more sense to leave Africans in Africa to harvest raw materials Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797) Choose one: social, political, or economic. Status at beginning of period: Changes: Continuities:
Reason: During the period 1450-1750, (the topic) changed from ______________ to ____________ in sub-Saharan Africa, however _______________ stayed the same concerning (the topic). In terms of world historic context________________ The reason for this change_____________________ The reason for this continuity___________________ From the notes that you took: Find a friend (or work alone: the choice is yours) and craft a thesis statement, WHC statement and ANALYSIS statement as outlined above. WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Part B (Suggested planning and writing time40 minutes) Percent of Section II score33 1/3
Directions: You are asked to answer the following question. You should spend 5 minutes organizing and outlining your essay. Write an essay that: Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with appropriate historical evidence Addresses all parts of the question Uses historical context to show continuities and changes over time Analyzes the process of continuity and change over time. 1. Analyze the social and economic transformations that occurred in the Atlantic world as a result of new contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas from 1492 to 1750. C 26: Transition and Change in East Asia What do you remember about China? Mongol arrows and bombs ; circa 1293 Chapter 26:
Tradition and Change in East Asia What is the response in East Asia to increasing global contact? The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 CE The Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 CE Yuan Dynasty Collapsed Ming Dynasty founded by Emperor Hongwu r. 1368-1398) Mandarins= imperial officials who traveled country overseeing govt policies
Role of Mandarins and Eunuchs? Eunuchs = Emperor Yongle advisors at court, r. 1403-1424) presumed to be Moves capital to Beijing no threat o deter Mongols Zheng He? Great Wall (re)built Civil Service Exams: The Bureaucracy of Merit dentification of the educated with national rather than regional goals 1540 Establishment of the scholar-gentry Actually ran the empire
1873 (Qing): Why was Europe especially impressed with this system? Maintained cultural unity and consensus on basic Confucian values- provincial quotasOpen to all males (but mostly the wealthy) Encouraged upward mobility Cheating/ corruption/ Death not uncommon Week long exams Only 5% passed and received titles No loss of status for failure instead Served as patrons of the state Poetry- Calligraphy- Confucian values- filial piety Ming Dynasty
official with 2 cranes Rank Badge = Civil authority of the First rank Jesuit Missionary: Matteo Ricci in the Ming Court 1582 Goal of Ricci and Chinese Response? Chinese lacquer ware NeoConfucianism is appropriated by the state WHY? Why do the Ming (and Qing) embrace Neo-Confucianism?
Why does Chinese response to Christian Died in China: 1610 missionaries change with introduction of First to translate Confucius to Latin Dominicans and Franciscans? Unintended effect: Europe now knows ChinaDescribed Christianity in Confucian term The Jesuits, such as Johann Schreck, translated European technical books into Chinese. Below image: a description of a windless well, by a European, 1588. Left image: Description of a windless well, in Diagrams and explanations of the wonderful machines of the Far West, 1627 [The Jesuits] made efforts to translate western mathematical and
astronomical works into Chinese and aroused the interest of Chinese scholars in these sciences. They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture. The Forbidden City: Ming Palace How does the Forbidden City reflect the goals of Ming political authority? Tang/Song= Innovation/Technology as source of economic and military strength Ming/Qing =
Political/Social stability as Source of strength Technology too disruptive Qing dynasty copy by Chen Zhang of a Ming dynasty silk scroll (Tribute giraffe from Bengal) Ming Tribute System What factors led to the collapse of The Ming Dynasty With help of
generals and scholarbureaucrats who desert the corrupt hedonist emperors lead secluded lives in Forbidden City eunuchs usurp imperial control/ power of army/navy famine = peasant rebellion 1644 (TREE BARK) pirates interrupt trade and tax collection internal chaos allows northern Manchus to enter Beijing gain control by allying with who?? (Confucian scholars/generals) Manchus establish Qing Dynasty The Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 CELiberators? The 268-year duration of the Qing dynasty was dominated by the rule of wo monarchs: the Kangxi Emperor, who reigned from 1662 to 1722, and his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, who reigned from 1736 to 1796.
These two emperors, each of whom reigned for about 60 years, would set the course of Qing history and in large part create the political, economic, and cultural legacy inherited by modern China. Kangxi Emperor as a MANCHUS: Son of Heaven Young Man Scholar/ Poet Semi-Divine Voracious reader Inauguration Portrait Of the Qianlong Emperor Engineer Enlightened Ruler Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor As the Bodhisattva Manjusri Qianlong Emperor:
Height of Qing Dynasty Kangxi: The Sacred Edicts 1670 What is Confucian about the following? Highly esteem filial piety and the proper relations among brothers in order o give due importance to social relations Give due weight to kinship in order to promote harmony and peace. Give due importance to farming and the cultivation of mulberry trees in order o ensure sufficient clothing and food. Explain laws and regulations in order to warn the ignorant and obstinate. Show propriety and courtesy to improve customs and manners.
Work hard in your professions in order to quiet your ambitions Promptly and fully pay your taxes in order to avoid forced requisition. Get together in groups of ten or a hundred in order to put an end to theft and obbery Free yourself from resentment and anger in order to show respect for your bo nd life. Great military expansion: Korea, Manchuria, Mongolia, China Find allies in frustrated Chinese (sound familiar?) Establish strict rules of behavior: no intermarriage, queue, no Manchu language for Chinese, kowtow, Chinese could not travel to Manchuria he Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 CE kowtow
Ming and Qing DO NOT embrace Technology: WHY NOT? Ming Pottery Qing Porcelain VS. Economics of the Qing Dynasty? Qianlong Reading Principal concern of Late Ming/ Qing political leaders was to preserve the integrity of the agrarian economy QING Laissez-faire economy: exception salt monopoly
ng Ming Festival or Remembrance Day (April 4th or 5th): Chinese show their pect for their elders by visiting and cleaning their deceased ancestors tombs a meteries. They also traditionally offer food and prayer for their ancestors. MING Dynasty: 1368-1644 CE Socia QING Dynasty: 1644-1911 CE l Patriarchal, filial piety (family values and obligations extended to society), women lose power,widows encouraged to commit suicide, no remarriage (arches), footbinding increases, social order: scholar bureaucrats, gentry, artisans, merchants, peasants, mean people (MING) triarchal, filial piety, social order: scholar bureaucrats, gentry, artisans, merchants, easants, mean people, QUEUES, Manchus were the ethnic elite, more multiethnic tolera der Qianlong, population soared (trade in food crops) 00s Ming = 100 million, 1900s Qing = 400 million (QING)
ara Period: 710-794 CE Height of Chinese influence in Japan/ equal field system. Permanent establishment of Buddhism Chinese influence faded with fall of Tang dynasty eian Period: 794-1185 CE Fujiwara and Minamoto families Fujiwara become defacto rulers end of period saw rise of military clans/ civil wars amkura Period: 1185-1333 CE (Medieval Period) post-Chinese Minamoto family victorious pre-Modern did not abolish imperial rule but claimed to rule in the name of the emper emperor as figurehead installed clan leader as SHOGUN established tradition of SAMURAI (Bushido) First Minamoto shogun
Tokugawa Shogunate: 1600-1868 CE Shogun? Ultimate source of political authority? Bakufu? Daimyo? Role of daimyo? Control the daimyo? Role of the samurai? How does this role change? Foreign trade? Edo = 1 million by 1700 Kabuki Social:
S Development and Transformati on of social structures P Political: I Statebuilding, expansion and conflict
C Interactio n E Between humans and the environment Social: S P Development and Transformati on of social structures
Political: Statebuilding, expansion and conflict I C E all marriage controlled by bakufu, peace did not support the daimyo and shogun (warrior class)had to reconfigure their social role, slow population growth due to infanticide, contraception, late marriage, abortion, merchant class grows, Dutch learning influences (European art, medicine, science)4 distinct classes (castes) = warrior, farmer, artisan, merchant Interactio n
Between humans and the environment feudal political order under Tokugawa (shogunate) with economic and social change occurring in a gradual manner; bakufu = military government, prohibits trade with Western nations, prohibits Japanese from traveling abroad to trade 1635 (except with China) (pain of death), daimyo required to live alternate years at Edo (capital) Island nation, few natural resources, geographically protected shima, known as Dejima in Japanese, was a small artificial island in Nagasaki Bay proximately 150 feet by 500 feet) on the southwestern Japanese island of Kyushu. om 1641 to 1845, Deshima served as the sole conduit of trade between Europe and Japan, d during the period of self-imposed Japanese seclusion (approximately 1639-1854) was an's only major link to the European world.
Closed Country Edicts 1635 and 1639 POV? Culture: S Development and interaction of cultures P I C E
Economic: Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems Culture: S P I C E Development and
interaction of cultures Aware of the political and religious domination of the Philippines since the Spanish colonized the country in 1565, the Japanese political leaders are suspicious of the Dominican and Franciscan missionaries that arrive in Japan from the Philippines and work among the non-samurai classes. The Japanese daimyo move to curtail missionary activity beginning in the 1590s with goal to end Christianity in Japan, Christianity banned after 1621 (1000s killed). Native religion = shintoism Neo-Confucianism became official ideology : the spread of popular education , growing urbanization and the rise of the merchant class, Period of peace (250 years) : haiku poetry, teahouses, brothels, kabuki theater, floating worlds, books of love, native learning= support of Japanese identity
Economic: Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems no trade with the West (Portuguese crew beheaded), expelled foreign merchants and books, exception is the Dutch who are allowed to trade at Nagasaki, isolated from outside world by 1630s MING Dynasty: 1368-1644 CE QING Dynasty: 1644-1911 CE Geography of China promoted interregional trade. Yangtze River, Huang He, coastlines (MING)
Geography Taklamaken Desert facilitated this Southern Manchuria, pastoral nomads of the steppe tradition, under Manchus the Chinese empire grows to greatest extent in its history (Tibet, Central Asia, Russia, SE Asia, Korea) (QING) Religion Restored Confucian foundation, Neo-Confucian values, some interaction with Jesuits although Chinese are suspicious (why?) (MING) Maintained balance, tolerant of Jesuits, less tolerant of Dominicans and (QING) Franciscans WHY? (Chinese were called heretics= Christians expelled under Kangxi), Neo-Confucianism OK, possible to have Confucian govt, Daoist and Buddhist in private life Achievements
(Yongle) encyclopedias 3 copies, libraries, restored civil service exams, supported education on many levels, popular culture celebrated (teahouses, wine shops, popular novels, romances, horr Fortified the Great Wall, repaired the Grand Canal, Forbidden City (MING) encyclopedias/books printed and distributed to all, 7 libraries, Qianlong great supporter of the arts, great collections of paintings and artifacts, impressed w/Enlightenment thinkers (QING) (Voltaire, Ralph Waldo Emerson), Monumental sets of scrolls of Inspection Tours (60-80 ft lo BOTH ensured continued Confucian tradition by support of education and civil service exams MING Dynasty: 1368-1644 CE QING Dynasty: 1644-1911 CE son of heaven (human designated to maintain order on earth) return to centralized rul Politicalscholar bureaucrats = eunuchs and mandarins advised emperor and ran government day-2-day, scholar gentry support the work of the district magistrate, powerful army and navy (Zheng He) early on but then faded by
mid 16th century, became corrupt, lost the mandate of heaven (peasant revolts: eating tree bark, pirates, etc.) (MING) son of heaven, centralized rule, Kangxi most successful in enlisting help of nobility, brought nobility to court to create stable govt on Ming model, Qianlong as universal ruler, efficient project manager, wary of European contact (see Spain take over the Philippines) (QING Successful conquest of Korea, Tibet, Mongolia, Taiwan Economic TRADE TIGHTLY CONTROLED After Zheng He, agrarian society, believed that technology was disruptive, (favored stability) no motivation to industrialize (plenty of labor), did not form political-economic alliance like the West (Taxed salt and land NOT finished goods) Land is the source of everything, taxes supported central state (MING) Restrict trade with the West: limit European countries to specific port cities
taxes provided reliable revenue for national AND state, great prosperity, early efficiency = canceling taxes 4X, agrarian with limited (successful) trade = export: cotton, silk, lacquer ware, porcelain, tea -----import: silver bullion, still suspicious of technology (QING) Tokugawa Shogunate: 1600-1868 CE Geography Island nation, few natural resources, geographically protected Aware of the political and religious domination of the Philippines since the Spanish colonized the country in 1565, the Japanese political leaders are suspicious of the Dominican and Franc missionaries that arrive in Japan from the Philippines and work among the non-samurai clas The Japanese daimyo move to curtail missionary activity beginning in the 1590s with goal to Religion Christianity in Japan, Christianity banned after 1621 (1000s killed). Native religion = shintoi Neo-Confucianism became official ideology : the spread of popular education , growing urbanization and the rise of the merchant
class, Period of peace (250 years) : haiku poetry, teahouses, brothels, kabuki theater, floating worlds, books of love, native learning= Achievements support of Japanese identity feudal political order under Tokugawa (shogunate) with economic and social change occurring gradual manner; bakufu = military government, prohibits trade with Western nations, prohibit Japanese from traveling abroad to trade 1635 (except with China) (pain of death), Political daimyo required to live alternate years at Edo (capital) Economic no trade with the West (Portuguese crew beheaded), expelled foreign merchants and books, exception is the Dutch who are allowed to trade at Nagasaki, isolated from outside world by all marriage controlled by bakufu, peace did not support the daimyo and shogun (warrior clas had to reconfigure their social role, slow population growth due to infanticide, contraception,
Socialate marriage, abortion, merchant class grows, Dutch learning influences (European art, med l science)4 distinct classes (castes) = warrior, farmer, artisan, merchant
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