Слайд 1 - niiar.ru

Слайд 1 - niiar.ru

XI Reactor Material Science Conference, Dimitrovgrad, Russia, 27-31 May 2019 Effect of neutron irradiation in the VVER-1000 reactor on the characteristics of secondary phases in zirconium alloys E110 and E635 A.V.Obukhov, G.P.Kobylyansky, S.S.Sagalov, and A.R.Belozerova, 2019 (JSC SSC RIAR, Dimitrovgrad) Introduction Secondary phase precipitates in zirconium-based alloys which have been used as materials for the VVER-1000 core components, are structural constituents and they go through different changes under irradiation. Changes in the characteristics of secondary phases can lead to changes in the operational performance of the nuclear reactor core components, for instance, fuel claddings and guide tubes, with a potential impact on their operational integrity. Therefore, it is considered of great importance to study changes in phase composition of zirconium alloys E110 and E635 to verify operational integrity of components made of the aforesaid alloys during the entire operational lifetime. This paper is focused on investigation of the E110 (Zr-1%Nb) phase composition as it is a fuel cladding materials and E635 (Zr-1%Nb-0.4%Fe-1.2%Sn) phase composition as it is a guide tube materials after their operation in the VVER-1000 reactor. In particular, described here are changes in the elemental composition of -Nb and Laves phases. 2 Equipment used Transmission electron microscope enabling operation at an accelerating voltage of 200 kV Electron probe X-ray microanalysis instrument which employs the INCA X-MAX TEM 80 system Electrolytic equipment TENUPOL-5 designed for electrolytic thinning Semiconductor detector ORTEC GEM10P4-70PL made of high purity germanium and multichannel analyzer ORTEC DSPEC jr 2.0 for gammaspectrometry Equipment for sample preparation in the hot cell 3 Objects under investigation The specimens were cut out from several irradiated fuel claddings and guide tubes at different elevation levels. Their operating time was different too. Thus, it was possible to obtain irradiation-induced damage data as to different extent of

damage and irradiation temperatures. Operating time, yr. 3 5 Object under investigation Alloy Damage dose, dpa Irradiation temperature, Fuel cladding E110 2 - 11 300-340 Guide tube E635 2.5 - 10 290-320 Fuel cladding E110 2 - 17 300-340 Guide tube E635

2.5 - 16 290-320 4 Irradiation temperature The irradiation temperature of the test specimens was obtained based on the calculated temperature data profile on the surface of fuel cladding (black points) and guide tube (red points) throughout the height [1]. [1] - V. V. Svetukhin. Modeling of corrosion kinetics for Zr claddings of the VVER-1000 fuel rods/ V.V. Svetukhin, A. E. Novoselov, G. P. Kobylyansky[etc]// Collected papers. Modeling of reactor materials performance under irradiation. under the editorship of V. V. Svetukhin, Ph.D, V. N. Golovanov, Ph.D and V. D. Risovany Ulyanovsk: Ulyanovsk state University. 2007. - Pp.91-98 5 Damage dose (Kt) was estimated to compare microstructure parameters of the test specimens cut out from the fuel claddings and guide tubes. The following work was done for this purpose: Gamma emission spectrum recording that was followed by the analysis of 94Nb lines. Calculation of specific activity (). Neutronic calculations of damage dose with the use of code UPM_PREPRO2017_FENDL-2.0_ENDF/B-VII.0_Spectr based on a priori neutron spectrum for the VVER-1000 core. Specific activity, Bq/mg Damage dose estimation 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 2

f(x) = 86.48 x R = 1 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Damage dose, dpa t = A/86.485t = A/86.485 There were only the 94Nb line in the built-up gamma spectrum that is why reconstruction of neutron spectrum did not allow for affecting its shape so the reference spectrum was taken (the neutron spectrum was normalized as to the reactor power level). 6 -Nb phase in alloy E110 before irradiation It is a basic phase in the binary alloys Zr-Nb (E110, E125), it has BCC-crystalline lattice with a Dav, m ~ 45 , 1019 m-3 ~ 20 V fraction, % 1.7 Composition, at.% parameter =0.331 nm. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40

30 20 10 0 Zr 0 Nb 85 90 at.% (extraction replica) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Diameter, nm 7 Changes in the elemental composition of the -Nb phase under irradiation 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 00 20 40 60 80 00 1 1nm1 1 1 2 Diameter, 11 dpa 100 60 40 20 0 50 100 Diameter, nm

80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Diameter, nm 17 dpa 100 80 0 7 dpa 100 Composition, at.% Zr N b 2 dpa 100 150 200 Composition, at.% Composition, at.% Composition, at.% The composition of the -Nb phase particles depends on their size and damage dose: the smaller diameter the less is the percentage composition of Nb; The higher the damage dose the less is Nb content.

80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 Diameter, nm 150 200 8 Changes in the elemental composition of the -Nb phase under irradiation N b c o n t e n t , a t. % Nb content in the particles of the -Nb phase with a diameter of 50 nm and 150 nm in relation to the attained damage dose at an irradiation temperature of 330 Nb content in the irradiated particles of the Nb phase in relation to the irradiation temperature 13 dpa 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0

Content of Nb, at.% 70 50 2 4 150 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 65 60 55 50 360 320 45 40 0 50 100 150

Diameter, nm Damage dose, dpa Ingress of Zr from the matrix to the -Nb phase leads to changes in size, concentration, and volume concentration of phase particles. BCC-lattice is preserved. Damage dose Dav, nm , 1019 m-3 V fraction, % 0 dpa ~ 45 ~ 20 1.7 15 dpa ~ 52 ~ 12 1.2 9 Laves phase Zr(Nb,Fe)2 in alloy E635 before irradiation HCP =5.3 , =8.7 60 Composition, at.% 50 40 30

Zr Nb Fe 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Equivalent diameter, nm 10 Changes in the elemental composition of the Laves phase Zr(Nb,Fe)2 under irradiation 11 dpa Composition, at.% 60 50 50 40 2.5 dpa

60 40 30 50 30 20 40 30 20 10 20 10 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 C o n te n t o f F e , .% 0 Equivalent diameter, nm Specimens were

cut out from the guide tube (irr=310 ) 10 0 400 16 dpa 60 Composition, at.% C o m p o s itio n , a t.% Under neutron irradiation Fe atoms leaves the Laves phase particles Zr(Nb,Fe) 2 and enters the matrix and thus the elemental composition of particles and matrix changes. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Equivalent diameter, nm 400 0 0

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Equivalent diameter, nm 35 250 nm 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Damage dose, dpa 11 Changes in the elemental composition

of the Laves phase Zr(Nb,Fe)2 under irradiation Fe leaves the particles of the Laves phase Zr(Nb,Fe)2 and enters the matrix beginning with the periphery Damage dose 2.5 dpa irr=310 Damage dose 13 dpa irr=310 12 Transformation of Laves phase Zr(Nb,Fe)2 under irradiation Single-crystal Laves phase transforms into polycrystalline phase -Nb in stages Unirradiated Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV -Nb HCP BCC 13 Transformation of Laves phase Zr(Nb,Fe)2 under irradiation Schematic representation of the stage-by-stage transformation HCP BCC 14

Radiation-induced finely dispersed phase Finely dispersed laminary phase forms under irradiation in E110 and E635 alloys. a c b Particles of radiation-induced finely dispersed phase in alloy E110 after neutron irradiation up to a damage dose of 12 dpa (a, b) and 9 dpa (c). 15 Radiation-induced finely dispersed phase A v e r a g e le n g t h , n m Alloy E110 10 ~ 6 nm 8 6 Alloy E635 ~ 3 nm 10 4 8 2 6 4 0 0 2 4

6 8 2 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 4 Damage dose, dpa 25 20 171021 m-3 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 Damage dose, dpa 6 8 10 12 14 16

18 20 Damage dose, dpa 20 25 Concentration, 1021 m-3 length, nm C o n c e n t r a ti o n , 1 0 2 1 Average m -3 Finely dispersed phase is larger in alloy E110 and its concentration is 7 times higher compared to alloy 635. 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 2,51021 m-3 2 4 6 8 10

12 Damage dose, dpa 16 Conclusions Neutron irradiation in a temperature range of 290C to 340 results in significant changes in parameters of the secondary phases. -Nb 1. Nb content in the particles depends on their size and irradiation temperature: the smaller the particle and lower the irradiation temperature, the lower is percentage composition of Nb. The higher is the damage dose, the percentage composition of Nb becomes lower in the particles, their size increases, concentration decreases but the BCC-structure is preserved. Laves phase Zr(Nb,Fe)2 2. If damage dose is lower than 15 dpa, Fe content in the particles depends on their size (the smaller the particle, less Fe it contains). Further irradiation leads to Fe escapes from the phase and enters the matrix , and thus the crystalline lattice transforms from HCP into BCC in stages. Transformation begins with the periphery and propagates towards the center of particles. As a result, initial single-crystal Laves phase becomes polycrystalline composed of the -Nb grains. Further irradiation does not change the composition of new polycrystalline phase and its size. Radiation-induced phase 3. Neutron irradiation in a temperature range of 290C to 340 leads to formation of radiation-induced finely dispersed laminary phase -Nb of size no more than 10 nm in alloys E110 and E635. Its concentration attains the saturation (171021m-3 for E110 ) once the damage dose higher than 10 dpa has been attained. Concentration of phase particles is 7 times higher in alloy E110 compared to alloy 635. 17 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! A.V. Obukhov, Senior Researcher Tel: 8(84235)94947 E-mail: [email protected]

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