Skeletal System

Skeletal System

Skeletal System Skeletal System Bone Classification a. b. c. d. e. Long bones Short bones

Flat bones Irregular bones Sesamoid bone Parts of a Long Bone Epiphysis Distal Proximal

Diaphysis Compact bone Spongy bone Articular cartilage Periosteum

Endosteum Medullary cavity Trabeculae Marrow Red Yellow Compact and Spongy Bone figures: Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone

Osteon Central canal Perforating canal Osteocyte

Lacuna Bone matrix canaliculus Bone Development Intramembranous Ossification Bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues Broad, flat bones Skull bones (except mandible) Intramembranous bones

Endochondral Ossification Bones begin as hyaline cartilage Most bones of the skeleton Endochondral bones Endochondral Ossification Hyaline cartilage model Epiphyseal plate Primary ossification Osteoblasts center vs.

Secondary ossification Osteoclasts centers Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate 1st layer of cells Closest to the end of epiphysis Resting cells Anchors epiphyseal plate to epiphysis

2nd layer of cells Many rows of young cells Undergoing mitosis Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate 3rd layer of cells Older cells Left behind when new cells appear

Cells enlarging and becoming calcified 4th layer of cells Thin Dead cells Calcified intercellular substance Homeostasis of Bone Tissue

Bone Resorption action of osteoclasts and parathyroid hormone Bone Deposition action of osteoblasts and calcitonin Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair Deficiency of Vitamin A retards bone development Deficiency of Vitamin C results in fragile bones Deficiency of Vitamin D rickets, osteomalacia Insufficient Growth Hormone dwarfism

Excessive Growth Hormone gigantism, acromegaly Insufficient Thyroid Hormone delays bone growth Sex Hormones promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates Physical Stress stimulates bone growth Bone Function Support and Protection Gives shape to

head, etc. Supports bodys weight Protects lungs, etc. Body Movement Interacts with muscles Blood Cell Formation Hematopoiesis

Red marrow Inorganic Salt Storage Calcium Phosphate Magnesium Sodium Levers

Four basic components 1. 2. 3. 4. Rigid bar- bones Fulcrum- point on which bar moves; joint Object moved against resistance Force supplies energy for movement; muscles

Levers and Movement Skeletal Organization Axial Skeleton Head Neck Trunk Appendicular Skeleton Upper limbs Lower limbs

Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle Skeletal Organization Skull Frontal (1) Forehead Roof of nasal cavity Roofs of orbits

Frontal sinuses Supraorbital foramen Coronal suture Skull Parietal (2) Side walls of cranium Roof of

cranium Sagittal suture Skull Temporal (2) Wall of cranium Floor of cranium Floors and sides of orbits Squamosal suture External acoustic

meatus Mandibular fossa Mastoid process Styloid process Zygomatic process Skull Occipital (1) Back of skull Base of cranium Foramen

magnum Occipital condyles Lambdoidal suture Skull Sphenoid (1) Base of cranium Sides of skull Floors and sides of orbits

Sella turcica Sphenoidal sinuses Skull Ethmoid (1) Roof and walls of nasal cavity Floor of cranium Wall of orbits Cribiform plates Perpendicular plate

Superior and middle nasal conchae Ethmoidal sinuses Crista gallis Facial Skeleton Maxillary (2) Upper jaw Anterior roof of mouth Floors of orbits Sides of nasal

cavity Floors of nasal cavity Alveolar processes Maxillary sinuses Palatine process Facial Skeleton Palatine (2)

Posterior roof of mouth Floor of nasal cavity Lateral walls of nasal cavity Facial Skeletion Zygomatic (2) Prominences of cheeks Lateral walls of orbits Floors of orbits

Temporal process Facial Skeleton Lacrimal (2) Medial walls of orbits Groove from orbit to nasal cavity Nasal (2)

Bridge of nose Facial Skeleton Vomer (1) Inferior portion of nasal septum Facial Skeleton Inferior Nasal

Conchae (2) Extend from lateral walls of nasal cavity Facial Skeleton Mandible (1)

Lower jaw Body Ramus Mandibular condyle Coronoid process Alveolar process Mandibular

foramen Mental foramen Infantile Skull Fontanels fibrous membranes Vertebral Column Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar

vertebrae (5) Sacrum coccyx Vertebral Column Cervical curvature Thoracic curvature Lumbar curvature Pelvic curvature Rib facets Vertebra

prominens Intervertebral discs Intervertebral foramina Cervical Vertebrae

Atlas 1st; supports head Axis 2nd; dens pivots to turn head Transverse foramina Bifid spinous processes Vertebral prominens useful landmark Thoracic Vertebrae Long spinous processes Rib facets Lumbar Vertebrae

Large bodies Thick, short spinous processes Sacrum Five fused bertebrae Median sacral crest Dorsal sacral foramina Posterior wall of pelvic cavity

Sacral promontory Coccyx Tailbone Four fused vertebrae Thoracic Cage Ribs Sternum Thoracic vertebrae

Costal cartilages Supports shoulder girdle Protects viscera Role in breathing Ribs True Ribs (7) False ribs (5) Floating (2)

Rib Structure Shaft Head posterior end; articulates with vertebrae Tubercle articulates with vertebrae Costal cartilage hyaline cartilage

Sternum Manubrium Body Xiphoid Process Pectoral Girdle

Shoulder girdle Clavicles Scapulae Supports upper limbs Clavicles Articulate with manubrium Articulate with scapulae (acromion process) Scapulae Spine

Supraspinous fossa Infraspinous fossa Acromion process Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Upper Limb Humerus Radius Ulna

Carpals Metacarpal s Phalanges Humerus

Head Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Anatomical neck Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity

Capitulum Trochlea Coronoid fossa Pelcranon fossa Radius Lateral forearm bone Head Radial tuberosity Styloid process

Ulna Medial forearm bone Trochlear notch Olecranon process Coronoid process Styloid

process Wrist and Hand Carpals (16)

Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Scaphoid Pisiform Triquetrum Bamate Lunate Metacarpals (10)

Phalanges (28) Proximal phalanx Middle phalanx Distal phalanx

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