Semantics - University of Waterloo

Semantics - University of Waterloo

Semantics Ambiguity The proposition and truth conditions Entailment Denotation Intension Extension Linguistic relativity Semantic primes English 306A; Harris 1 English 306ACrier Farmer Bill Dies in House! Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimble in the gra be. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy toves on brillig day. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimble in the grabe. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy toves on brillig day. Iraqi Head Seeks Arms!

wimbled in by the slith y toves o n wimbled in by the slith y toves o n brillig day. brillig day. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimbl e in th e grabe. BritishLeft Waffles on Falkland Islands!Kids MakeNutritious Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimble in the gra be. The Snacks! grabe was wimbled in by the slithy toves on brillig day. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimble in the grabe. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy toves on brillig day. T was brillig and the slithey toves did w imble in the grabe. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimble in the gra be. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy toves on brillig day. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did Twas brillig and the slithey toves wimble in the grabe. did wimble in the gra be. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy toves on brillig day. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did

Twas brillig and the slithey toves wimble in the grabe. The grabe did wimble in the gra be. The was wimbled in by the slithy grabe was wimbled in by the toves on brillig day. slithy toves on brillig day. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimble in the grabe. The grabe Twas brillig and the slithey toves was wimbled in by the slithy did wimble in the gra be. The toves on brillig day Twas brillig grabe was wimbled in by the and the slithey toves did w imble slithy toves on brillig day. Twas in the grabe. The grabe was wimble in the grabe. The grabe wimbled in by the slith y toves o n was wimbled in by the slithy brillig day. The grabe was toves on brillig day. Twas brillig wimbled in by th e slithy toves and the slithey toves did w imble in the grabe. The grabe was Drunken Drivers Paid $1000! ProstitutesAppeal to Pope! Deer Kil ls 17,000! Twas brillig and t he slithey toves did wimble in the gra be. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy toves on brillig day.

Hospital Sued by Seven Foot Doctors! Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimble in the gra be. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy toves on brillig day. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimble in the g rabe. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did w imble in the grabe The grabe was wimbled in by the slith y toves o n day. Twas brillig and the slithey toves did wimble in the grabe. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy toves on brillig day. Twas wimble in brillig and the sl ithey toves did wimble in the grabe. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy the grabe. The grabe was wimbled in by th e brillig and th e slithey toves did wimbl e in th e grabe. The grabe was wimbled in by the slithy s lithy toves on brillig day. Twas brillig and the slithey English 306A; Harris 2

Prostitutes Appeal to Pope VCOM P S DOING N P VCOM P V P N V P N Prostitutes Appeal to Pope Agent Patient

S EXPERIENCING N P N V P V P N Prostitutes Appeal to Pope Patient Experiencer Polysemy: appeal 1. be attractive to 2. make (attractive) argument to English 306A; Harris 3 Farmer Bill Dies in House V1

S HAPPENING NP N P HAPPENING NP N Farmer Bill Dies in House Patient V1 V P V S Location

N V P N V P N Farmer Bill Dies in House Patient Location Homonymy: Bill, bill Polysemy: die; house (House) English 306A; Harris 4 Iraqui Head Sells Arms S V2 DOING

N P A V DOING N P N Iraqui Head Sells Arms Agent V2 V P N S Patient Polysemy: head A V

P N V N Iraqui Head Sells Arms Agent Patient Polysemy: arms 1. Top of body appendage 2. Top of state person English 306A; Harris 1. Lateral appendages 2. Weapons 5 British Left Waffles on Fauklands S VCOMP DOING

NP A NP V P N V British Left Waffles Agent VT-COMP S P N N DOING V P V N

P N British Left Waffles Agent Polysemy: waffles 1. Food stuff with lots of declivities 2. To changes position multiple times English 306A; Harris Patient Homonymy: left 6 Drunken Drivers Paid $1000! V2 TRANSFERRIN G S HAVING NP A V2

MOVING MOVINGDOING V P N V MOVING HAPPENING NP N Drunken Drivers Paid $1000 Possesso r Source Agent TRANSFERRIN G S HAVING Patient Patient Patient A V P

N V N Drunken Drivers Paid $1000 Possesso r Goal Patient Patient Patient Patient Semantic roles: drivers, Agents vs. Patients, Sources vs. Goals English 306A; Harris 7 Deer Kills 17,000! VCOP S V2 BEING

NP V P (V) NP N N Deer Kills (equal) 17,000 Patient S cause to be not alive cause to be not viable V P V N Deer Kills 17,000 Essive

Polysemy: kill DOING Agent Patient NOTE: This one is a bit tricky because of the implicit verb (headline-ese) and the non-be copula; exam questions will not involve structures this complex. English 306A; Harris 8 Kids Make Nutritious Snacks V S DOING VCOP 2 NP

NP V P N V A N Kids Make Nutritious Snacks Agent Polysemy: make 1. Construct 2. Can become S Patient N BEING V P

V A N Kids Make Nutritious Snacks Patie Essive nt NOTE: This one is a bit tricky because of the non-be copula; for exams, assume be is the only copula, and that the BEING Schema always involves main-verb be. English 306A; Harris 9 Hospital Sued by Seven Foot Doctors S NP S HAPPENING VP VCOMP

NP HAPPENING VP PP N V VCOMP PP P NP N V AP A NP AP N

Sued by Seven Foot Doctors A N Sued by Seven Foot Doctors Agent (Patient = hospital) polysemy: foot P English 306A; Harris Agent (Patient = hospital) 10 Propositions/Sentences The cat is on the mat. Homer eats crap. Marge really makes the best gelatine towers. Patty and Selma have a secret undergarment. English 306A; Harris

11 The cat is on the mat x(Cx) & y(My) & xyO On the mat, is the cat. On the mat is where the cat is. It is the case that the cat is on the mat. Circumstances are thus: the cat is on the mat. The aforesaid cat yada, yada, yada English 306A; Harris 12 Truth conditions The cat is on the mat. There exists a cat. There exists a mat. The cat is located on the mat. English 306A; Harris 13 Truth conditions The cat is on the mat. There exists a cat.

There exists a mat. The cat is located on the mat. English 306A; Harris 14 Truth conditions The cat is on the mat. There exists a cat. There exists a mat. The cat is located on the mat. English 306A; Harris 15 Truth conditions The cat is on the mat. There exists a cat. There exists a mat. The cat is located on the mat. English 306A; Harris 16

Truth conditions Proposition World The cat is on the mat. x(Cx) & y(My) & xyO On the mat, is the cat. On the mat is where the cat is. It is the case that the cat is on the mat. Circumstances are thus: the cat is on the mat. The aforesaid cat yada, yada, yada English 306A; Harris 17 Truth conditions Proposition Patty and Selma have a secret undergarment. English 306A; Harris World 18

Truth conditions Proposition Patty and Selma have a secret undergarment. English 306A; Harris World 19 Truth conditions Proposition Patty and Selma have a secret undergarment. English 306A; Harris World 20 Entailment A relation between the propo-sitions underlying sentences (X, Y), such that if the proposition underlying sentence X is true, the proposition underlying sentence Y must be true. (Conversely, it is impossible for the

proposition underlying sentence Y to be false and the proposition underlying sentence X be true ) English 306A; Harris 21 Entailment A relation between the propo-sitions underlying sentences (X, Y), such that if the proposition underlying sentence X is true, the proposition underlying sentence Y must be true. (Conversely, it is impossible for the proposition underlying sentence Y to be false and the proposition underlying sentence X be true ) English 306A; Harris 22 Entailment A relation between sentences (X, Y), such that if sentence X is true, sentence Y must be true. (Conversely, it is impossible

for Y to be false and X be true.) English 306A; Harris 23 Entailment X= I saw Maggie at the rave. Ys = There was a rave. Maggie was there. I saw Maggie. I have eyes. There was light at the rave. English 306A; Harris 24 Entailment X= I saw Maggie at the rave. Ys = The rave was on Tuesday. The rave was in Mr. Burnss rec

room. Maggie is Homers daughter. Raves are so cool. Raves are so nineties. English 306A; Harris 25 Mutual entailment X entails Y, Y entails X. Xs and Ys = I saw Maggie at the rave. Maggie, I saw at the rave. It was Maggie I saw at the rave. Maggie was seen by me at the rave. English 306A; Harris 26 Lexical meaning Denotation Set membership. The entities, actions, or qualities in the world

picked out by words or phrases. English 306A; Harris 27 Lexical meaning Connotation Experiential implications The feelings, attitudes, moods, implied by a term or phrase English 306A; Harris 28 Lexical meaning Connotation Gay Queer Homo Homosexual Omi-polone Batting for the other team

English 306A; Harris 29 Lexical meaning Connotation Registers, jargons, slangs, argots, capitalize heavily on connotation--on the speaker and/or hearers stance toward a meaning, and toward each other, how they feel about the meaning and each other. English 306A; Harris 30 Lexical meaning Denotation Phrase Extension Intension

Homers daughter Lisa Simpson Maggie Simpson Female progeny of Homer Simpson The assistant to Monty Burns Smithers The individual paid to assist Montgomery Burns Rocket bra An article of Selmas clothing that is intimate and known only to a few. Selmas secret undergarment English 306A; Harris 31

Lexical meaning Denotation Phrase Extension Brian Mulroney Jean Chretien PM of Canada Paul Martin Stephen Harper Intension Leader of Canadas governing party Stanley Cup Champions Hurricanes Red Wings Penguins Winners of Canadas annual summer NHL tournament* Capital of

Manitoba Winnipeg City containing provincial legislature of Manitoba *Except for the summer of 05 when the fatcats were fighting off-ice. English 306A; Harris 32

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