Seamless MPLS Vinit Jain Cisco Systems Inc. Twitter - @vinugenie Agenda Mobile Transport Market Conditions Seamless MPLS Overview Seamless MPLS Components Seamless MPLS Architecture Models Summary Mobile Transport Market Conditions High Capacity requirements from Edge to Core 100Mbps eNB, 1Gbps Access, 10Gbps Aggregation, 100Gbps Core Higher scale as LTE drives ubiquitous mobile broadband Tens- to hundred-of-thousands of LTE eNBs and associated CSGs Support for multiple and mixed topologies Fiber and microwave rings in access, fiber rings, hub and spoke in aggregation and core networks Need for graceful service integration and integration into existing infrastructure Need to support transport for all services from all locations Optimized operations with consistent packet transport MPLS as Network Convergence Technology Optimizing Service Delivery Access Aggregation Edge Cross-Domain Convergence Core IP/MPLS LS Challenges with differing Access technologies
Complexity of achieving 50 millisecond convergence with TE-FRR Splitting large networks into domains while delivering services end-to-end Common end-to-end convergence and resiliency mechanisms End-to-end provisioning and troubleshooting across multiple domain Unified MPLS addresses these challenges with elegant simplicity and scale Seamless MPLS Overview An efficient MPLS transport architecture Virtualized to support many services on one infrastructure Relying on an intelligent hierarchy to scale to new challenges Enabling seamless operation for network and service resilience Separating transport from service operations with single touch point service enablement and contiguous OAM Integrating alternate access technologies on same infrastructure while still enabling Fixed and Mobile Services Seamless MPLS Operation Transport & Service Decoupling Operational Points LER Access AGG MPLS AGG LSR LER MPLS Unified MPLS AGG MPLS
AGG Access Typically, a service has to be configured on every network element via operational points. The management system has to know the topology. Goal is to minimize the number of operational points Only with the integration of all MPLS islands, the minimum number of operational points is possible Service provisioning only at the Edge 6 Unified MPLS = Classical MPLS with a few additions Classical MPLS IGP/LDP IGP/LDP Domain Domain isolation isolation RFC RFC 3107 3107 BGP BGP filtering filtering Flex Flex Access Access L2/IGP/BGP/MPLS- LFA LFA R-LFA R-LFA
BGP BGP PIC PIC E2E E2E OAM OAM L2/IGP/BGP/MPLSTP/LDP TP/LDPDoD DoD Unified MPLS Architecture Scalability Security Simplification Multi-Service RFC-3107 RFC 3107 was approved May 2001, main purpose being scaling of MPLS RFC 3107 is BGP IPv4 with the ability to distribute labels BGP Filtering supported via BGP Communities in a secure manner RFC 3107 basis: BGP can be used to distribute MPLS labels in the same way it can distribute a route The label mapping information for a particular route is piggybacked in the same BGP Update message that is used to distribute the route itself. If two immediately adjacent Label Switched Routers (LSRs) are also BGP peers, then label distribution can be done without the need for any other label distribution protocol. LFA & R-LFA What is LFA FRR? RFC 5286 basic fast re-route mechanism with local protection in pure IP and MPLS/LDP networks Pre-computing available paths at source node that do not create loops
Gives benefits of TE-FRR, but no configuration or design required What is Remote LFA? Defined in draft http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-shand-remote-lfa Remote LFA uses automated IGP/LDP behavior to extend basic LFA FRR to arbitrary topologies A node dynamically computes its remote loop free alternate node(s) Done during SFP calculations using PQ algorithm (see draft) Automatically establishes a directed LDP session to it The directed LDP session is used to exchange labels for the FEC in question On failure, the node uses label stacking to tunnel traffic to the Remote LFA node, which in turn forwards it to the destination Remote LFA FRR - Protection C2s LIB C1s label for FEC A1 = 20 Backbone C3s label for FEC C5 = 99 C5s label for FEC A1 = 21 On failure, C2 sends A1-destined traffic onto an LSP destined to C5 Swap per-prefix label 20 with 21 that is expected by C5 for that prefix, and push label 99 When C5 receives the traffic, the top label 21 is the one that it expects for that prefix and hence it forwards it onto the destination using the shortest-path avoiding the link C1-C2. A1 A2 20 Directed LDP session C1 C2 21 21
C4 21 99 21 21 C5 E1 99 99 C3 Access Region 21 21 X X BGP Prefix-Independent Protection (PIC)/BGP FRR BGP Fast Reroute (BGP FRR) enables BGP to use alternate paths Algorithm uses a pointer to move all prefixes to new next hop, not a hop by hop rewrite ~ 100 msec protection Prefix-Independent Default behavior, entirely automated computation Enables 3107 BGP+labels operation to scale via hierarchy while maintaining fast convergence characteristics For Transport and Service convergence Unified MPLS Architecture Models Architecture Models based on: Access Type: Ethernet TDM or MPLS access Network Size: Small/Medium (1000 nodes or less) or Large End to Labeled Switch Path Deployment Model
Network Size Access Type Core/Aggregation LSP 1 Small/Medium Ethernet/TDM Flat LDP 2 Small/Medium MPLS Hierarchical Labeled BGP 3 Large Ethernet Hierarchical Labeled BGP 4 Large MPLS Hierarchical Labeled BGP for Core, Aggregation and Access 5 Large MPLS
Hierarchical Labeled BGP for Core, Aggregation with redistribution in Access 1 Small Network: Ethernet/TDM Access Flat LDP LSP across Core and Aggregation Networks Core Node Mobile Transport GW Core Node Aggregation Node Aggregation Node CSG IP/Ethernet Aggregation Node Core and Aggregation IP/MPLS Domain Distribution Node Aggregation Node Core Node Mobile Transport GW TDM and Packet Microwave, 2G/3G/LTE Pre-Aggregation Node Business
Aggregation Node Core Node Fiber and Microwave 3G/LTE IGP/LDP domain Core and Aggregation Networks form one IGP and LDP domain. Scale recommendation is less than 1000 IGP/LDP nodes Packet Microwave links aggregated in Aggregation Nodes Mobile Access is based on TDM All services Mobile and Wireline enabled by Aggregation Nodes 2 Small Network: MPLS Access Hierarchical BGP LSP Across Core + Aggregation and Access Networks Aggregation Node Core Node Mobile Transport GW Aggregation Node Core Node CSG CSG RAN IP/MPLS Domain CSG CSG Core and Aggregation IP/MPLS domain IGP Area Pre-Aggregation Node Aggregation Node Core Node
Mobile Transport GW Pre-Aggregation Node Core Node RAN IP/MPLS Domain CSG CSG Aggregation Node iBGP Hierarchical LSP LDP LSP LDP LSP The Core and Aggregation form a relatively small IGP/LDP domain (1000 nodes) MPLS enabled RAN, each RAN forms a different IGP/LDP domain The Core/Aggregation and RAN Access Networks are integrated with labelled BGP LSP The Access Network Nodes learn only the MPC labelled BGP prefixes and selectively and optionally the neighbouring RAN networks labelled BGP prefixes. LDP LSP 3 Large Network: Ethernet/TDM access Hierarchical BGP LSP Across Core Network and Aggregation Networks Aggregation Node Aggregation Node Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain Core Node Aggregation Node
TDM and Packet Microwave, 2G/3G/LTE Core Network IP/MPLS Domain Mobile Transport GW CSG Core Node Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain Core Node IP/Ethernet Pre-Aggregation Node Aggregation Node Aggregation Node iBGP (eBGP across ASes) Hierarchical LSP LDP LSP Core Node Mobile Transport GW LDP LSP LDP LSP
Core and Aggregation Networks enable Unified MPLS Transport Core and Aggregation Networks are organized as independent IGP/LDP domains Core and Aggregation Networks may be in same or different Autonomous Systems The network domains are interconnected with hierarchical LSPs based on RFC 3107, BGP IPv4+labels No MPLS in Access Domain Aggregation Node enable Mobile and Wireline Services over Unified MPLS transport. CSG Fiber and Microwave 3G/LTE 4 Large Network: MPLS Access Hierarchical BGP LSP Across Core, Aggregation and Access Networks Aggregation Node Aggregation Node CSG RAN IP/MPLS domain Pre-Aggregation Node CSG Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain Core Node Core Node Core Node Core Node CSG Mobile
Transport GW Core Network IP/MPLS Domain Mobile Transport GW Core Node Core Node CSG Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain Core Node CSG Pre-Aggregation Node Core Node Aggregation Node Aggregation Node RAN IP/MPLS domain CSG iBGP (eBGP across ASes) Hierarchical LSP LDP LSP LDP LSP
LDP LSP Core, Aggregation, Access Network enable Unified MPLS Transport Core, Aggregation, Access are organized as independent IGP/LDP domains Core and Aggregation Networks may be in same or different Autonomous Systems Network domains are interconnected with hierarchical LSPs based on RFC 3107, BGP IPv4+labels. Intra domain connectivity is based on LDP LSPs The Access Network Nodes learn only the required labelled BGP FECs LDP LSP LDP LSP 5 - Large Network, MPLS Access Hierarchical BGP LSP with IGP/LDP Redistribution in Access Network Aggregation Node Aggregation Node CSG MPC iBGP community into RAN IGP Aggregation Network RAN MPLS/IP CSG IGP Area/Process IP/MPLS Domain Pre-Aggregation Node RAN IGP CSN Loopbacks into iBGP CSG Core Core Node
Core Node Core Node Core Core Node Mobile Transport GW Core Network IP/MPLS Domain Mobile Transport GW Core Core Node Core Node Core Node Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain Pre-Aggregation Node RAN MPLS/IP IGP Area/Process RAN IGP CSN Loopbacks into iBGP Core Core Node Aggregation Node Aggregation Node CSG
MPC iBGP community into RAN IGP CSG i/eBGP Hierarchical LSP LDP LSP LDP LSP LDP LSP LDP LSP Core and Aggregation are distinct IGP/LDP domains that enable inter domain hierarchical LSPs Core and Aggregation Networks may be in same of different Autonomous Systems Redistribution of Core/Aggregation LSPs into Access Networks IGP CSG LDP LSP Sample End-to-End Unified MPLS Architecture Routing Isolation and Label Stack for LSP between Pre-Agg. Node Loopbacks Aggregation Network Access Network Core Network Core ABR (Inline RR) Agg. Node Pre-Agg. Node Access Node Agg. Node IGP/LDP Label
Push BGP3107 Label Push Swap Core ABR (Inline RR) Push Pop Core ABR (Inline RR) Centralised RR Swap Swap Access Network Pre-Agg. Node Agg. Node L2 ISIS Level 1/OSPF x ISIS Level 2/OSPF 0 ISIS Level 1/OSPF x L2 Core ABR (Inline RR) MPC Gateway
Aggregation Network Access Node Agg. Node Pop Swap Swap Pop Service Label LDP LSP LDP LSP LDP LSP BGP LSP No IGP route is propagated from Aggregation to the Core. IGP area has routes for that area only plus routes to core ABRs. Only the core ABRs are propagated from L2 to L1 LDP labels are used to traverse each domain and reach core ABRs BGP labels are used by Labeled BGP PEs & ABRs to reach Labeled BGP PEs in remote areas Service (e.g. PW) labels are used by Label BGP PEs Unified MPLS Architecture Summary Access Layer Cell Site Etherne t uW Cell site Router
Aggregation Layer Pre-Aggregation Layer PGW SGW Core Layer Distribution node Aggregation node Simplified MPLS Transport with E2E OAM, performance Ring Fibre management, provisioning with seamless resiliency Sample Routing Architecture Flexible L2 & L3 transport virtualisation to support GSM, 3G & LTE, iBGP/eBGP Pre-Aggregation Node Access Node Access Network Access Node IGP/LDP New levels of L2 Aggregation Node
wholesale & retail options Core ABR Aggregation Network EPC Gateway Core Network Core ABR Scale for MPLS transport and optimal routing through Aggregation Node IGP/LDP RFC 3107 with BGP hierarchical LSPs Centralised RR IGP/LDP Core node Thank You
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