Science, Religion and Philosophy

Science, Religion and Philosophy

Science, Religion and Philosophy Mans search for the Truth September 2018 Gokulmuthu Narayanaswamy Introduction Name Education Profession (if not student) Belief Passion or Purpose

www.practicalphilosophy.in 2 Search of Truth If you expect any benefits from your search, material, mental or spiritual, you have missed the point. Truth gives no advantage. It gives you no higher status, no power over others; all you get is truth and the freedom from the false. www.practicalphilosophy.in 3

Search of Truth Follow truth wherever it may lead you; carry ideas to their utmost logical conclusions. Do not be cowardly and hypocritical. "Comfort" is no test of truth; on the contrary, truth is often far from being "comfortable." Everything can be sacrificed for truth, but truth cannot be sacrificed for www.practicalphilosophy.in 4 Six Questions - Exercise 1. What is the nature of the individual

(me)? 2. What is the nature of God? 3. What is the nature of the world? 4. Why is there human suffering? 5. What is the state beyond suffering? 6. What is the means to 5that state? www.practicalphilosophy.in Domain of Science Sankara (788-820) indriya vishaya Accessible to senses and extensions ati indriya vishaya Not accessible to senses

Karl Popper (1902-94) Verifiable (Falsifiable) www.practicalphilosophy.inNon-verifiable (Non-falsifiable) 6 Beyond Science Non-verifiable Is there free-will? If you do good, you will get good. Is there anything other than matter? Unexplainable How did Srinivasa Ramanujam get his

formulae? Why is the universe not homogeneous and isotropic? www.practicalphilosophy.in Why should a person not 7commit suicide? Why Study Philosophy? Philosophy is to be studied, not for the sake of any definite answers to its questions since no definite answers can, as a rule, be known to be true, but rather for the sake of the questions themselves; because these questions enlarge our conception of what is possible, enrich our intellectual imagination and diminish the dogmatic assurance which closes the mind against speculation; but above all because, through the greatness of the universe which

philosophy contemplates, the mind also is rendered great, and becomes capable of that www.practicalphilosophy.in 8 Domain of Philosophy Epistemolog y Metaphysics Satyam Philosophy Axiology Ethics Shivam

Aesthetics Sundaram www.practicalphilosophy.in 9 Epistemology 5 indriya Laukika (avaadi) Pratyaksha [manasa] (manapraagya) Immediate

(kevala jnana) [yogaja] Alaukika [saamaanya lakshana] Knowledge [jnaana lakshana] Anumaana, Upamaana, Arthaapatti, Anupalabdhi (mati) Anumaana Mediate Laukika

(sutra) Sabda Drsya Alaukika Drk www.practicalphilosophy.in 10 Ontology / Metaphysics Matter, Mind Sautraantika Buddhism Matter, Mind, God

Dvaita Matter Science, Vaibhaasika Buddhism Mind Yogaacaara Buddhism God Visista advaita

Nirguna Brahman Advaita Dualism Fundamental Entity Monism www.practicalphilosophy.in Sunya Maadhyamika 11 Buddhism

Some Creation Theories asat kaarya vaada Caaruvaaka, Vaibhaasika, Sautraantika, Nyaaya, Vaiseshika Prakriti Sankhya, Yoga Saguna Brahma Visista advaita Sunyata

Maadhyamika (Sunya vaada) Vijnaana Yogaachara (Vijnaana vaada) Nirguna Brahma Advaita parinaama vaada sat kaarya

vaada vivarta vaada sat asat kaaraya vaada Jainism, Purva mimaamsa www.practicalphilosophy.in 12 Philosophy vs Religion Philosophy

No assumption or conclusion Work on all the possibilities Intellectual exercise Religion Make an assumption to believe Build a self-consistent logical system Head Build a culture and stories illustratingHeart it Build rituals and practices to work with it Hand

www.practicalphilosophy.in 13 Materialism (Science) All that exists is material only. All thoughts are the effect of chemical and electrical activity in the brain. Self is an illusion. Free-will is an illusion. There is no real right or wrong, because there is no real agent making the decision. Individual accountability14is without any

www.practicalphilosophy.in Six Questions Materialism 1. What is the nature of the individual (me)? 2. What is the nature of God? 3. What is the nature of the world? 4. Why is there human suffering? 5. What is the state beyond suffering? 6. What is the means to 15that state? www.practicalphilosophy.in Exercise If you are given Rs.1,00,000 to spend on anything, what will you spend on? www.practicalphilosophy.in

16 What does man want? Four pursuits of man (purushaartha) Artha Security, wealth Kaama Comfort, entertainment Dharma Morality, philanthopy Moksha Resilience, detachment Popular prayer

saha nau avatu, saha nau bhunaktu saha viryam karavaavahai, tejasvinah avaditamastu www.practicalphilosophy.in 17 Purpose of Religion Dharma Morality Inspired by what, will a person be truthful, non-violent and self-controlled, even to death?

Moksha Resilience Inspired by what, will a person be cheerful and active inspite of the ups and downs in life? www.practicalphilosophy.in 18 Expectation from Religion Two types of people: Immature Selfish What is in it for me?

Mature Altruistic Sees himself in others place. Religion should inspire both these types of people to be moral and resilient. www.practicalphilosophy.in 19 Principles of Vedaanta Assumption 1: Freewill and Moral causality

Individual (Jiva) is the holder of freewill. Strict moral causality (Law of Karma). Fairness and justice in the whole system. Nothing is lost, even by death. Assumption 2: Conscious Totality (Isvara) abhinna upaadaana nimitta prayojana 20 www.practicalphilosophy.in The Individual (Jiva) Subtle body

Gross body 4 3 2 www.practicalphilosophy.in { Causal Freewill, body Tendencies, Karma 21 Jiva and Isvara

www.practicalphilosophy.in 22 Principles of Vedaanta Jiva uses body, mind and intellect to make decisions and do action. Is responsible for action. Isvara is omniscient, omnipotent and compassionate. Prayer and austerities are also actions. Karma is reflective. Wishing harm will bring harm. Worldly desires keep the23 cycle going. www.practicalphilosophy.in Evolution

Matter vs Life Biological evolution Eat, sleep, self-protection, procreation Technological, Cultural, Moral evolution Multiply consumption: tools, medicine, agriculture, gadgets Refine consumption: art, family, society, education Resist biological instincts: collaboration, affirmative action, fasting, continence, compassion, equanimity Spiritual evolution

Pinnacle of evolution and freedom www.practicalphilosophy.in 24 Morality Is there a universal standard for morality? Whatever you do, will come back to you. Whatever you do, you actually are doing to your own higher self. Golden Rule (Gita 6.32) Do unto others what you would like others to do to you.

Farsight Rule (Gita 18.36-39) Seek greater gain in the long term at the cost of some loss in the short term. Selfish vs Selfless (Gita 18.23-25) To be selfish is immoral; to be unselfish is moral. Swami Vivekananda www.practicalphilosophy.in 25 Morality Identity Rule (Gita 18.20-22)

Whatever is done by identifying yourself and others as mind, and not body is good. Ideal Person Rule (Gita 3.21,25,26) What would Rama/Buddha/Vivekananda/ do? Self Declaration Rule (Gita 11.36) Can you proudly tell what you did to your mother? Buddhas Rule bahu jana sukhaaya bahu jana hitaaya

Greatest good for the greatest number of people for greatest length of time. www.practicalphilosophy.in 26 Six Questions - Vedaanta 1. What is the nature of the individual (me)? 2. What is the nature of God? 3. What is the nature of the world? 4. Why is there human suffering? 5. What is the state beyond suffering? 6. What is the means to 27that state? www.practicalphilosophy.in Einstein talks Vedaanta!

A human being is part of the whole called by us universe, a part limited in time and space. We experience ourselves, our thoughts and feelings as something separate from the rest. A kind of optical delusion of consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from the prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. The true value of a human being is determined primarily by the measure and the sense in which they have obtained liberation from the self. - www.practicalphilosophy.in Albert Einstein 28 Time for a break !!! http://www.practicalphilosophy.in

Six Questions - Exercise 1. What is the nature of the individual (me)? 2. What is the nature of God? 3. What is the nature of the world? 4. Why is there human suffering? 5. What is the state beyond suffering? 6. What is the means to 30that state? www.practicalphilosophy.in Principles of Vedaanta Assumption 1: Freewill and Moral causality

Individual (Jiva) is the holder of freewill. Strict moral causality (Law of Karma). Fairness and justice in the whole system. Nothing is lost, even by death. Assumption 2: Conscious Totality (Isvara) Transcendent and immanent 31 www.practicalphilosophy.in Problems (Sample) Where did the cause and effect cycle (karma and janma cycle) start?

None of them can be the beginning. If it is without beginning, how can it end? If end of the cycle is freedom, freedom will be limited. Can Isvara be the cause of the world? Being cause => subject to change. Change => intention. Intention => desire. Desire => www.practicalphilosophy.in 32

Advaita Vedaanta Brahmavid aapnoti param Satyam Jnaanam Anantam Brahma Yo veda nihitam guhaayaam parame vyoman So ashnute sarvaan kaamaan saha Brahmanaa vipascita www.practicalphilosophy.in 33 Satyam Satyam - Existence Limitations of perception All properties are emergent What is the nature of the fundamental substance?

Nirguna free from properties Nirvikaara free from change Nitya and sarvagata eternal and omnipresent Ekam - single www.practicalphilosophy.in 34 Jnaanam Jnaanam - Conciousness Subject object relationship I am the Ultimate Subject, which can never be an object Properties belong to objects only What is the nature of I, the Ultimate Subject?

Nirguna free from properties Nirvikaara free from change Nitya and sarvagata eternal and omnipresent www.practicalphilosophy.in 35 Advaitam Jnaanam = Satyam I, the Consciousness am the fundamental substance of the entire Universe. Space in the hall Vs. Space outside the hall Space is not in the hall. Hall is in

www.practicalphilosophy.in 36 Maaya What is the nature of the Universe? Analysis of Finite Vs. Infinite Number line as example Inference: Infinite exists from the point of view of finite

Finite does not exist from point of view of Infinite This is called Maaya Universe exists only from point of view 37 www.practicalphilosophy.in Advaita Summary Summary: Brahma satyam Jagat mityaa

Jivah Brahma eva na aparah Jiva-jagat-isvara model is not negated. It is valid in the relative realm. Individuality is an illusion. Giving up the reality attributed to the www.practicalphilosophy.in concept of individuality38 is Moksha. Advaita Vedaanta Brahmavid aapnoti param Satyam Jnaanam Anantam Brahma Yo veda nihitam guhaayaam parame vyoman So ashnute sarvaan kaamaan saha Brahmanaa vipascita www.practicalphilosophy.in

39 Six Questions - Advaita 1. What is the nature of the individual (me)? 2. What is the nature of God? 3. What is the nature of the world? 4. Why is there human suffering? 5. What is the state beyond suffering? 6. What is the means to 40that state? www.practicalphilosophy.in Bhagavad Gita The goal of the Bhagavad Gita is to enable a person to live as a good human being and to face all situations in life with poise outside and peace inside. This is done by a unique method of combining

self-control, forbearance, kindness and knowledge, with a good dose of devotion to God www.practicalphilosophy.in 41 Four Core Teachings (12.3-4) Keep the senses and mind under control Maintain equanimity in all situations Engage in the welfare of all living beings www.practicalphilosophy.in

42 Keep the senses and mind under control The quality of your life depends on the quality of your mind. A mind under your control is like a friend. A mind not under your control is like an enemy. (6.5-6) You cannot directly control the random thoughts in the mind. But you can decide whether to pursue the thoughts or not. (2.62) Practice moderation in food, rest, work, etc. (6.16) Psychological dependency on people, objects and situations comes by repeatedly thinking about them. Such attachment will lead to psychological problems like lust, greed, anger, arrogance, jealousy and delusion. Avoid these binding

www.practicalphilosophy.in 43 thoughts. (2.62-63) Maintain equanimity in all situations Life will have ups and downs. There will be pleasure, pain, gain, loss, success, failure, fame, infamy, etc. (2.14, 2.38) What you face now is the result of some of your current effort and some of your past actions. What you will face in future will be influenced by your current actions. You are the maker of your destiny. You get exactly what you deserve. Accept adverse life situations without complaining and do things differently next time. (2.47-48) Do your duty and be ready for any situation. (6.1) Accept success with humility and failure with dignity. How? Do all actions as offerings to God and accept all results www.practicalphilosophy.in

44 as gifts from God. Engage in the welfare of all living beings Do not intend harm to any living being. Avoid harm as much as possible. (17.14) Help other human and living beings as much as possible. Serve the underprivileged people, without expecting anything in return, to get basic necessities like food, shelter, clothes, education, health care, emotional support and dignified livelihood. (17.20) Treat people and animals with kindness. Take special care of children, aged and disabled people. How? See God as the ultimate inner recipient of the service done to every living being. (5.29) www.practicalphilosophy.in

45 Understand God to be the Pure Consciousness behind the Universe and the living beings It is God alone who appears as this Universe and all the living beings. (13.13-15) God is the material out of which the whole Universe is made of. (7.4) Everything has come from God, exists in God and will merge back into God. (10.20) God is the Pure Consciousness behind the Universe and the living beings. (13.3) There is no real individuality. (18.20-21) How? God can be seen as the whole Universe outside www.practicalphilosophy.in 46 (including the body and mind) and as the Pure Consciousness

Thank you !!! http://www.practicalphilosophy.in

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