Science and Technology in The Republic of Macedonia - Recent ...

Science and Technology in The Republic of Macedonia - Recent ...

EU - MACEDONIA R & TD cooperation Zoran T. Popovski Ph.D State Secretary of the Ministry for Education and Science STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION Mirror of Macedonian science European Research Area - ERA Framework programs Western Balkan countries in ERA Macedonian expectations by international RTD cooperation SHORT REVIEW OF THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE REPUBLIC OF

MACEDONIA GOVERNEMENTAL BODIES Ministry of Education and Science Department of Science and Technology Unit for planning of science Unit for projects Unit for legal aspects of science and technology Unit for technological development and technical culture Unit for International Scientific Cooperation Other Ministries SEI SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts Universities Research units Independent research groups

SCIENTIFIC HUMAN RESOURCES IN MACEDONIA Full-time Equivalence YEAR 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Total 3275 3168 3094

2909 2854 FTE 1892 1838 1786 1630 1523 FTE per 1000 LF 2.4 2.3 2.2

1.9 1.7 Full-time Equivalence by sectors of performance 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Total 1892 1838 1786 1630

1523 Business enterprise 344 290 234 205 185 Government sector 800 828 862 734

671 Higher education 748 720 690 691 667 LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Law on the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Law on the Scientific and Research Activities, Law on Higher Education, Law on Encouraging and Supporting the Technology Development, Law for Technical Culture Law on Industrial and Intelectual Property Protection, several regulations and instructions FINANCIAL ASPECT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN MACEDONIA (1) Budget contribution in R&D YEAR BUDGET PART FOR SCIENCE %

1998 830 million EUR 5 million EUR 0.62 1999 690 million EUR 6.1 million EUR 0.94 2000 1.05 billion EUR 4.3 million EUR 0.39

2001 910 billion EUR 5.2 million EUR 0.58 2002 1.18 billion 5.2 million EUR 0.44 FINANCIAL ASPECT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN MACEDONIA (2) R&D intensity (%) of GDP by sector of performance TYPE OF EXPENDITURE 1998 1999

2000 2001 GERD (Gross domestic expenditure on R&D / GDP 0.43 0.35 0.44 0.32 BERD (Expenditure on R&D in the Business sector / GDP 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02

GOVERD (Government intramural expenditure on R&D /GDP 0.15 0.16 0.15 0.16 HERD (Expenditure on R&D in the Higher Education / GDP 0.23 0.14 0.27 0.13 FINANCIAL ASPECT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN MACEDONIA (3)

Structure of GERD (Gross Domestic Expenditure on RTD) by sectors of performance 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Business enterprise 11.6 12.5 5.7 6.2 4.5

Government sector 35.7 45.7 34.1 51.5 50.8 Higher education 52.7 41.8 60.2 42.4 44.7

FINANCIAL ASPECT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN MACEDONIA (4) Salary for PSI and HEI Fellowship for postgraduate and doctoral students Programs for PSI Research project Technological projects Participation in scientific meetings Bilateral projects Equipment Investments in an infrastructure DIFFICULTIES

unsatisfactory level of budgetary, public funds for financing these activities, insufficient S&R infrastructure facilities, equipment and materials, inefficient institutional infrastructure unsatisfactory developed mechanisms of transfer of knowledge and research results the business sector, inconvenient distribution of researchers by sectors (the number of researchers in the business sector is very poor), small investments in applied research and innovation, low level of private investments in R&D sector, unsatisfactory level of young researchers ratio in the total number of researchers, facing serious brain-drain problems.

MEASURES New position (ToR) of MoES Efficient Technology Transfer Priorities Competition Benchmarking Investments in RTD Integrated approach Information system International cooperation Industrial development, specially SME

CARDS, WB, donors NATIONAL RTD PRIORITIES Biotechnology, High-quality food production, New materials, Water resources and management, Sustainable development, Environment, Energy, Information and communication technologies, Health, Earth sciences and engineering

EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA ERA General aspects Background why a European RTD policy ? dynamics of the sector political will Communications from the Commission 6/2001 Mobility strategy for ERA International dimension of ERA General aspects Towards a European Research Area Heads of State and Government Lisbon /

Barcelona More private and public investment in RTD (Objective: 3% of GDP in 2010) Improving general framework conditions for research in Europe The European Research Area A coherent vision for research in Europe Unconditionally supported by policy makers, scientists and industry Implementation has started National programmes Frameworkprogramme Open European research coordination policy Europ. Organisations The European Research Area

Objective: a European Research Area From supporting programmes and projects towards a genuine European research policy More coherence and complementarity of research activities through improved linkages between policies and programmes promotion of co-operation Hierarchy and logic of terms At political level The European Research Area (ERA) Framework Programme for Research

Specific programmes Rules for participation At operational level Work programme Calls for proposals Evaluation manuals etc. Framework Programmes Framework Programme = financial instrument for reaching the ERA objectives

Consolidation of experiences drawn from earlier Framework programmes Increased efforts to produce lasting impact Budgets of successive Framework Programmes 20 Billion 17.5 18 14.96 16

13.12 14 12 10 8 6 4 5.36 6.6 3.27 2 0 1984-1987 1987-1991 1990-1994 1994-1998

1998-2002 2002-2006 General principles public calls for proposals no subsidies or subventions no national quotas trans-national partnerships external evaluation transparent criteria no substitute for national schemes and programmes Why participate ?

scientific / technological perspectives international contacts productive partnerships increased mobility international benchmarking financial support Objective: structuring impact concentration of activities new instruments improved management methods and procedures promotion of mobility and staff exchange joint use of infrastructures full integration of candidate countries Participation: where and how ?

Three blocks: Focusing and Integrating (thematic) Structuring (horizontal) Strengthening the foundations EURATOM Mio 13 345 2 605 320 1 230 Criteria / Principles deliberately limited in number broad consensus about choices themes of European interest: competitiveness and societal benefit building up of critical mass with regard to resources and competences European added value and bigger impact Block 1: 7 thematic priorities

Life sciences, genomics Information society ... Nanotechnologies Aeronautics and space Food quality and safety Sustainable development, global change and ecosystems Citizens and governance ... Mio 2 255 3 625 1 300 1 075 685 2 120 225

Specific activities covering a wider field of research (8. priority) Mio supporting policies and anticipating scientific and technological needs (activities in support of Community policies & research responding to new and emerging S&T needs) 555 Involving SMEs 430 International co-operation 315 Joint Research Centre 760 Block 2: Horizontal activities Research and innovation Human resources and mobility (Marie Curie actions) Research infrastructures Science and society Mio

290 1 580 655 80 Block 3: Strengthening the foundations Mio Support for the co-ordination of activities Support for the coherent development of policies 270 50 ERA & WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES Events - Vienna, December 2000

Brussels, October 2001 Sofia, September 2002 Thessaloniki, June 2003 Brussels, February 2005 Vienna, December 2000 The Vienna Workshop succeeded to convene for the first time research and technology policy makers from responsible ministries and other organisations in the Western Balkan states Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, including an observer from Yugoslavia - and from the neighbouring countries Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Romania and Slovenia. The Workshop participants agreed that in FP6 a specific EU RTD measure should be carried out for the Western Balkan states following the example of INCO COPERNICUS or an approach building on the experience made in such targeted initiatives. During the discussions, major general problems have been identified in the area of R&D infrastructures Specific problems, where European research co-operation will be most important have been specified information society technologies, environment, energy and socio-economic research. and equipment. in the areas of health, agriculture,

There was an overall agreement that a broad spectrum of different modalities for participation should be offered in order to provide the right instruments for addressing different problem areas: Shared cost actions, thematic networks and concerted actions, Centres of Excellence, fellowship or bursary schemes, measures to support innovative start ups, access to research infrastructures. Funds should be available for the support of visits to Conferences in EU member states as well as for organising Conferences in the target countries. There was unanimous agreement, that regional collaboration will be most important as a special eligibility requirement for specific measures addressing the Western Balkan countries in FP6. Thus, once again, science and research will be the first the avant-garde in times of transition. Policy makers from the Western Balkan countries have to get acquainted with the EU RTD system and should be introduced in philosophy of the Framework Programme. National EU RTD Contact Points have to be identified and trained and placed in universities, research organisations and other appropriate organisations, in order to form a network for information and assistance on EU RTD activities. Twinning arrangements with experienced organisations from neighbouring countries would be promising. Special efforts will be necessary for the renewal, reconstruction and improvement of research infrastructures. There will be a need to mobilise and utilise also other sources of funding outside the Framework Programme in a well co-coordinated way like infrastructural programmes, the instruments provided by CARDS, the Stability Pact, SECI and others. Necessarily, they have to be utilised to contribute to solving the problems of the research and development system in the region, as well as to solve specific problems of the region in the areas of health, environment, information technologies and others through European collaborative research and development. Brussels, October 2001 Macedonian statement The need for urgent economic recovery and development with participation of research community in order to lead the country towards

safer and more prosperous days. The need for the Government to create and implement a policy which meets the needs of the country in S&T. A significant role of the research community in the process of healing and improving the domestic industry and companies, and future economic life of the country. Macedonia has a potential however it lacks facilities (laboratories, equipment, materials, etc). Governments principles: Providing freedom and autonomy of scientific creativity; Encouraging and rewarding personal endeavours of researchers; Stimulating technological innovation and technology transfer; Defining and directing research efforts towards countrys needs; Promoting industrial development in those branches offering competitive products. Steps undertaken by the Ministry of Education and Science to achieve the above objectives: Introducing the engagement of academic research groups in specifically oriented basic research, applied research and development (R&D) services; promoting the participation of users (companies, enterprises) in financing research; introducing national programmes coordinated with other ministries (environment, culture, etc).

Introducing monitoring an evaluation of the scientific quality and output of research groups using internationally accepted standards and criteria;Supporting and providing high level training of young researchers and promoting schemes on the mobility of the researchers; Encouraging and promoting international cooperation and transfer of knowledge from abroad; Increasing the investment in the R&D infrastructure.S&T priorities in Macedonia (in order of importance): High Technology Materials, Energy and Environment, Genetic Engineering, Agriculture, Biotechnology and Food Processing, Veterinary Sciences, Earth Science and Earthquake Engineering, Computing and Communications. Efforts of the Republic of Macedonia to broaden links with the existing partner countries and to create new ones, based on similar needs and interests. Sofia, 1. September 2002 A Regional Research Coordination Committee (RRCC) for SEE should be created as a permanent body. The ministers responsible for science and research of the SEE countries should appoint high level representatives to this Committee within one month (not later than 30th October 2002). The host country of the RRCC will be nominated on the rotational principle with one year mandate and will chair the Committee meetings. For the first year, the host

organization will be the Ministry of Science, Technology and Development of the Republic of Serbia, FR Yugoslavia (MSTD in short). MSTD should collect the proposals of their colleagues and take the responsibility for the organization of the first Committee meeting. Participants from other countries might also be invited. - Portal - Consultation bureau - Identification of field of interest - Regional infrastructure program - Information network - Network of NCP - Monitoring committee - Donor conference THESSALONIKI, June 2003 SHARED VISION Europe is a continent that historically suffered from intense conflicts among Empires and national states during the 19th and 20th Centuries. Nowadays, Europe is integrating at an accelerated pace. The Council decision for the accession of 10 additional countries, mainly on the eastern border of the Member States of the Union came only one year after the adoption of the unique currency in 12 of the Member States (MS).

The traditionally very diversified Balkan region was until recently divided into areas of strong competing external political influence. The integration of the more prosperous countries of Europe has generated for the people of the Balkan region the hope for a shared future in peace and sustainable growth. leave this region isolated The European Union should not in a struggle to overcome internal contradictions and to survive in the increasingly competitive international context. In Europe, the transition from the industrial era to the knowledge economy coincided with the transition of the planned economies of Eastern Europe to market economies. This conjecture finds the countries of the Balkan region in very dissimilar situations. For example, Greece has been a full member of the Union for more than 20 years, with increasing rates of growth. Bulgaria and Romania are working to achieve the accession requirements and Turkey the pre-conditions requirements. The five States of Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro and Macedonia are in the process of coming out of the political and ecomomic instability experienced because of previous crisis situations. Europe has a strong interest in contributing to the welfare of the people and the economies of the region to overcome these difficulties. This is in order to increase the living standards, to extend the capabilities of the internal market and to enhance the competetiveness of Europe in the international scene, compared to its main competitors. Such interest needs to be transformed into actions and measures approved by all involved parties. The resulting cooperation should be based on mutual understanding and in the perspective

the European Research Area (ERA) of full participation of the Balkan region in and therefore the European RTD activities and networks, as soon as possible. In their effort to adapt to the pervasive knowledge economy and to global competition, the citizens of the Balkan countries have to exploit their high level of motivation for social mobility and their relatively good educational background, but also to combine scientific and technological

knowledge with entrepreneurship. This is in order to create higher added value and competitive advantages for the region. In this respect, science, research and technological development are seen to be an essential tool for future economic stabilisation and growth in the region. The European Commission is promoting EU S&T co-operation with the five countries of the western Balkans as well as with the candidate countries, SHARED VISION (2) research infrastructure; the improvement of the Human Potential; institution building; the promotion of joint RTD activities of mutual benefit and region impact; in a coherent and balanced way to maximise the expected goals. In terms of Infrastructure, the need for renewal and improvement is a major issue for all the counties of the region

failure to address this issue could destabilise efforts in other domains. The improvement of the Human Potential in RTD should include distinct actions for policy makers and for t research personnel. The aim of the Institution building activities should be the enhancement of the research potential of each coun and, at the same time, the establishment of structures compatible with the existing structures in the EU countries. T is in order to facilitate the integration of the countries of the region into ERA. The promotion of joint RTD activities should concentrate on topics of mutual benefit and regional added value. Som MS and candidate countries could play a catalytic role in setting up RTD projects with the Western Balkan countries, share their experience and, at the same time, to address common scientific problems. Since the RTD effort should be seen as a tool to solve problems and to promote the economic growth of the countrie it is necessary to foresee specific actions to improve Innovation. Adequate structures need to be established provide assistance for the exploitation of RTD results. Brussels, February 2005 The adoption of the EU-Western Balkan Action Plan in science and technology in 2003 was partly a reflection of the priority given to initiatives in the region by the incumbent Greek Presidency - at that time the Western Balkan's sole EU

representative. Other Member States- notably Austria and Slovenia - have also played a leading role in promoting scientific cooperation with the Western Balkans, and it was these three countries that helped to organise a conference at the European Parliament on 3 February to examine Western Balkan participation in the EU research framework programmes. Addressing the assembled policy makers, the EU's Science and Research Commissioner, Janez Potocnik, emphasised the wider political context of scientific collaboration with the region. 'Enlargement of the EU shouldn't end with Romania and Bulgaria - other countries should be brought in too. [...] Scientific cooperation within the framework programmes and elsewhere is a means of consolidating lasting peace and prosperity in the Western Balkan countries,' he said. Mr Potocnik pointed out that specific calls for proposals under the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) have already been launched to address challenges in the region, and that such activities could receive more financing in the future. 'There is a need for strong research institutions and trained researchers in the Western Balkans. Therefore, the Commission has decided to support the most promising scientific institutes in the area, with the aim of assisting in the establishment of regional networks,' he added. On the key question of these countries' participation in the next framework programme, the Commissioner offered this message: 'FP7 is about to be discussed, so now is the perfect time to define a more targeted approach to future

cooperation. [...] In my opinion, the political will and commitment exist, and I give my personal commitment that the Commission will explore all necessary means to meet our common goals. I am eager to see your concrete proposals for further integrating the Western Balkans into the European Research Area [ERA]' MACEDONIAN EXPECTATIONS FROM RTD COOPERATION Assistance in the renewing of equipment bottom up initiation and ala carte involvement in international projects Networking of National Contact Points for benchmarking Capacity building for policy makers Access to scientific databases for Macedonian researchers (GRID) Research visas Outcome MOST IMPORTANT INPUT IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT See you in EU

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