Rootstocks - Aggie Horticulture

Rootstocks - Aggie Horticulture

Citrus Phytochemicals Designer Foods Functional Foods Hypernutritious Foods Nutraceuticals Phytochemicals Naturally occurring biologically active components Found in plant Phytonutrient

Plant chemical with known nutrien properties Consumed as part of a usual diet Biologically active or Protect against Disease Health Canada, 1998 Bioactive Compounds Extranutritional constituents that typically are naturally occurring in small quantities in plant products and lipid rich foods. Kitts, 1994 Can J. Physiol Pharmacology 1994 Nutraceutical Product

isolated or purified from foods Sold in medicinal forms - pill, powder, capsule Functional Food A conventional food Consumed as part of a usual diet Provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition Biologically active or Protect against Disease Health Canada, 1998 Chemopreventive agents Micronutrients vitamins, beta carotene, molybdenum, calcium

Phytochemicals Synthetics vitamin derivatives piroxicam tamoxifen Phytochemicals Carotenoids Indole Saponins Coumarins Dietary Fiber

Isoflavones Protease inhibitors Phytochemicals Organosulfides Isothiocynates Indoles Dithiolthiones

Polyphenols Flavonoids Tannins Folic acid Contd. Chemopreventive agents (Based on their mechanisms of action) Blocking agents Suppressing agents CANCER CHEMOPREVENTIVE AGENTS 1. BLOCKING AGENTS -- prevent carcinogens

from reaching or reacting with the DNA, the genetic information. 2. SUPPRESSIVE AGENTS -- inhibit the expression of cancer in cells that have already been exposed to a carcinogen. Cancer Producing Compounds Blocking Agents Cells Attacked By Cancer Producing Compounds Suppressing Agents Cancer Wattenburg, 1993 Chemopreventive agents

Blocking agents Flavonoids Indoles Isothiocynates Diallyl sulfides D-limonene MECHANISM OF ACTION (BLOCKING AGENTS) 1. Inhibit the formation of the active carcinogen. 2. Increase the rate at which the active carcinogen is inactivated. 3. Act as scavengers for the active forms of carcinogens. Chemopreventive agents Suppressing agents

D-limonene Diallyl sulfides vitamin D vitamin A and retinoids monoterpenes carotenoids polyphenols protease inhibitors selenium calcium Anticarcingenic mechanisms Antioxidant effects Increased activity of enzymes that detoxify carcinogens Effect on cell differentiation Blocked formation of nitrosamines Altered estrogen metabolism

Decreased cell proliferation Maintenance of normal DNA repair THREE-PHASE MECHANISM FOR CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS 1. INITIATION - normal cells to latent tumor cells. 2. PROMOTION - latent tumor cells to carcinoma in situ. 3. PROGRESSION - carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma. Procarcinogens Phase I enzymes Phase II enzymes Glutathione S-transferase

Limonoids Carcinogens Electrophiles Flavonoids Promotion DNA Damage Lycopene, Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Beta carotene Initiation Oxidative damage Free radicals

Tumor Health Promoting Compounds Carotenoids Lycopene -Prostate Cancer Beta carotene Lutein and zeaxanthin-Blindness Beta cryptoxanthin Carotenoid Concentrations Lycopene- Grapefruit 3362 ug/100 g wet wt (Mangels et al.,1993) 350 ug/100 g wet wt (Gross et al., 1987) Carotenoid Concentrations (ug/100g) Carotenoids

Oranges Pink Grf Beta Carotene 39 1310 White Grf 14 Mandarins Lemons 38 3

Alpha Carotene Lutein + Zeaxanthin Lycopene 20 0 1 20 0 14

0 10 20 12 0 3362 0 0 0

0 0 106 0 Beta 149 Cryptoxanthin Food Tomato (fresh) Lycopene content mg/100g 0.88-4.20

Grapefruit (raw pink) Tomato (cooked) Tomato (sauce) 3.36 3.7 6.2 Tomato Paste Tomato soup, condensed Tomato Powder, drum or spray dried 5.40-150.00 7.99 112.63-126.49 Tomato Juice

5.00-11.60 Guava (fresh) Watermelon Papaya (fresh) Ketchup 5.4 2.3 2.00-5.30 9.90-13.44 Clinton, 1998. Nutrition Reviews 56(2):35-51. Lycopene Variation Among Texas Grapefruits 14

ppm 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 y b u R ar t S 8

-I 4 R io R ed ay R R y b u H

en n o rs e d R y b u R ed

n o s m o h T nk i P M sh r a W

te i h D n a c n u W te i h

Beta carotene 10 ug/g fresh wt 8 6 4 2 0 Star Ruby a I-48 b Henderson Rio Red

bc cd Ray Ruby Ruby Red Thomson d e f Marsh g Duncan g 16 14 12 10

8 6 4 2 0 Texas a Florida b Lycopene Beta carotene Texas Florida

LIMONOIDS WITH ANTICANCER ACTIVITY Limonin Limonin 17--D-glucopyranoside Limonin carboxymethoxime Deoxylimonin INACTIVE LIMONOIDS Limonol Deoxylimonic acid Ichangensin 17,19-didehydrolimonoic acid Nomilinic acid 17--D-glucopyranoside LIMONOIDS WITH PARTIAL ACTIVITY

Nomilin Nomilin 17--D-glucopyranoside Obacunone EPIDEMILOGICAL EVIDENCE 1. 2. 3. 4. oral cavity. larynx. esophagus. stomach. 5. 6. 7.

8. pancreas. lung. colon. rectum. LIMONOID GLUCOSIDES 1. Tasteless. 2. Soluble in water. 3. Human consumption (already present in citrus and citrus products in relatively high concentrations). 4. Can be prepared from by-products of juice processing plants (seeds and citrus molasses). Limonoid Concentrations Limonoid glucosides

Limonin 17-beta D-glucopyranoside (54-180 ppm) Oranges-320 ppm Grapefruit -195 ppm Lemon-90 ppm LG 1000 ROLE OF METABOLISM IN CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS P-450 PHASE I PRO CARCINOGENS OXIDATIO


GSH-CONJUGATION PRODUCT EXCRETION TUMOR GST-catalyzed Conjugation of CDNB to GSH GST GSH Cl NO2 NO2 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene GS

NO2 HCl NO2 Dinitrophenyl glutathione INSOLUBLE SOLUBLE Toxic Less toxic GST in Liver for Aglycone Groups Sp Act (mol/min/mg protein) 0.8

0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 oil AglMix Nomilin Limonin Treatment GST in Intestine for Aglycone Groups

Sp Act (mol/min/mg protein) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 oil

AglMix Nomilin Treatment Limonin GST in Intestine for Glucoside Groups Sp Act (mol/min/mg protein) 0.5 0.4 0.3

0.2 0.1 0.0 Water GluMixA GluMixB Treatment Naringin Isolation, Purification and Characterization of

Putative Bioactive Compounds Isolated Citrus Bioactive Compounds Limonoids and Flavonoids Limonoid Aglycone Limonoid Glucosides Phase II Enzymes GST and QR Isolation and

Characterization Bioactive Compounds Animal Studies Cell Culture Phase I Enzymes CYP450s Flavonoids Limonoids Colon Cancer Colon Cancer

Experimental Diets Significantly Reduced Total ACF Number 200 a p<0.05 b TOTAL ACF 150 100 50

0 Basal Diet GFPP IGFPP Naringin Limonin Experimental Diets Significantly Reduced High Multiplicity ACF a 14

p<0.05 12 HMACF 10 b 8 6 4 2 0 Basal Diet

GFPP IGFPP Naringin Limonin Objective To investigate the possibilities of various citrus limonoids and flavonoids to reduce plasma cholesterol Percentage of Hamster Plasma LDL/HDL LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio Comparison

d 90% 80% d 70% d d c b 60%

Jun Yu a 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% C1 Lim LG Ng

Ngn Pulp C2 Total Antioxidant capacity ORAC- Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity can be measured by COBAS FARA II analyzer ORAC of commercial orange juice and vitamin C from juice 20 ORAC (micromoles Trolox eq./ml) Grape

Grapefruit Tomato Orange Apple 15 10 5 0 Juice

Vit. C Juice Vit. C Juice Vit. C Wang et al., 1996. J. Agric. Food Chem. 14(3):701-705. Juice Vit. C Juice

Vit. C Antioxidant Activity of Fruits 160 ORAC (micromoles of Trolox equvivalents/g of dry matter) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Strawberry Plum Orange Grapefruit Grapefruit Wang et al., 1996. J. Agric. Food Chem. 14(3):701-705. Tomato Grape Grape Pectin Used traditionally for jelly

preparation Modified pectin can prevent prostate cancer Pectin can reduce levels of serum cholesterol How much we need? To consume about 6g of pectin only about 170 g of grapefruit pulp is sufficient (Baker, 1994) Pectin Content in Different Fruits (% fresh wt) Apples Apricots Bananas Beans Blackberries Carrots

Cherries Dewberries Grapes Grapefruit Lemons Loganberries Oranges Raspberries Squash Baker, 1997 0.71-0.84 0.71-1.32 0.59-1.28 0.27-1.11 0.68-1.19 1.17-2.92 0.24-0.54

0.51-1.00 0.09-0.28 3.30-4.50 2.8-2.99 0.59 2.34-2.38 0.97 1.00-2.00 Dietary Fiber Dietary fiber denotes all plant cell wall components that cannot be digested by an animals own enzymes.

Pectin gums lignin Cellulose Hemicellulose pentosans Citrus Pectin Health Benefits Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) prevent cancer metastasis, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation

Hypoglycemic Effect Hypocholesterolemic Effect Hemostasis Modulate human immune function Detoxification Steps in the process of tumor dissemination Schematic representation of aggregation of tumor cell to normal cell and pectin function Raz and LOtan, 1987 Probable mechanism of pectin hypocholesterol effect Farnandez, et al., 1990

Pectin Hypocholesterolemic Action Pectin Hemostasis Function Pectin can shorten the coagulation time of blood and act as an antagonist of heparin when injected intravenously. Pectin sulfate can behave as strong anticoagulant. Parts of the citrus fruit which contain pectin Components of Pectin

Molecular Weight Polygalacturonic Acid Galacturonic Acid Content Methoxyl Esters Neutral Sugar Content Ions Proteins Structure of Pectin Side Chain

Rhamnogalacturonan Linear galacturonan Structure of Pectin Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling System Factor-Receptor Cell needs to communicate to each other.


No Stimulation No Inhibition Inhibitors (Heparin Mimics) Suramin Suramin analogs pentosan polysulfate Carrageenans Dextran Dextran derivatives

FPLC Elution Profile Variation of Pectin Content and Composition in Different Citrus Species Extraction Rate (% of fresh weight) Pectin Extraction Rate in Different Citrus Species 6.00 F/A L 5.00 4.00 3.00

2.00 1.00 0.00 d lem b a tan a b

org b c gra b Changes of Pectin Content and Composition Due to Harvest Season Extraction Rate (% of fresh weight) Pectin Extraction Rate 6

F A 5 4 3 2 1 0 Aug Sep Nov Jan

Mar May L Variation of Pectin Sugar Content mg/g of Pectin Weight 200 F 180 A L

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Aug Sep Nov Jan

Mar May Variation of pectin sugar composition Percentage (% of total sugar wt.) 70 rhamnose mannose arabinose galactose xylose glucose

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Aug Sep Nov Jan Harvest Month Mar

May In Vitro Effects of Citrus Pectin on the FGF Signaling System Specific bound (% of control) Pectin Inhibit FGF-1 Binding to FGFR1 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20

0 3 30 Pectin Concentration (g/ml) 300 Pectin Inhibit FGF-1 Binding to FGFR1 % of Maximum Binding 120 Pectin Added Heparin Only

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 Heparin Concentration (g/ml)

10 Inhibition activities of pectin Flavedo/Albedo Lamella Inhibition Activity 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 a

c Lemon a a Grapefruit a b Tangerine Citrus Species a b Orange Inhibition activities of pectin F

A L Inhibition Activity 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 a a ab AUG a a ab SEP

a a a a a NOV a b ab JAN a a b MAR a a bc MAY Increasing importance Garlic Cabbage

Licorice Soybeans Ginger Umbelliferae (carrots, celery, parsnips) Onions Tea Turmeric Citrus (orange, lemon, grapefruit) Whole Wheat Flax Brown Rice Solanacae (tomato, eggplant, peppers) Cruciferous (broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts) Oats Rosemary Cantaloupe Mints Oregano Sage Potato Basil

Tarragon Cucumber Thyme Chives Barley Berries Foods with cancer preventative properties Case Control and Cohort Studies of All Types of Cancer Fruit Vegetables No. of studies Inverse Positive 55

9 Fruits 29 5 Tomatoes 35 10 Carrots 50

7 Citrus Fruit 26 6 Exploring Potential Drug Interaction with Texas Rio Red Grapefruit Variation of Furocoumarins in Different Varieties 9 different varieties are analyzed for the quantitative and qualitative differences in Furocoumarins. Bottom line: Optimization of

furocoumarin levels. Analytical HPLC Profile of Grapefruit Juice UV6000-240nm 3000 3000 Retention Time DHB mAU WHITE GFJ 2000

mAU 2000 1000 1000 Bergamottin Paradisin A 0 0 10

20 30 0 40 50 60 Minutes UV6000-240nm Retention Time

3000 3000 mAU RED GFJ 2000 m AU 2000 1000 1000

Bergamottin DHB Paradisin A 0 0 10 20 30 0 40

Minutes 50 60 Varieties Used for this Study Rio Red Star Ruby Ray Red Henderson Ruby Red Thompson Pink Duncan Marsh White Pumello

Variation of DHB in different Varieties 9 8 7 6 5 g/ml 4 3 2 1 0 Variation of Bergamottin in different Varieties 4 3.5

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 g/ml 0 Variation of GF-I-1 in different Varieties. 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 g/ml0.4

0.3 0.2 0.1 0

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