River-groundwater impact on bank stability

River-groundwater impact on bank stability CIVE 717 Presentation April 7, 2015 David Criswell Rod Lammers 1 Objectives Explore the following components associated with river-groundwater impact on bank stability 1. Physical Processes 2. Governing Equations 3. Field and Laboratory Observations 4. Design Methods

2 Physical Processes: Stage-Groundwater Dynamics Water in stream can apply a confining force on the streambank, increasing stability Saturated soils are less stable than unsaturated soils Rising limb: More stable Falling limb: Less stable A

B Rising (A) and falling (B) limb of a hydrograph and its impacts on bank stability (adapted from Julien, 2002). 3 Physical Processes: Seepage Erosion Groundwater outflow from bank face directly removes bank soil Overlying layers are destabilized and fail Process accelerated if permeable layer present Langendoen and Simon, 2008 4

Physical Processes: Vegetation Vegetation changes pore-water pressure in banks due to transpiration Drying the soil, in addition to mechanical root reinforcement, strengthens banks Banks with trees dry out faster (and to a greater extent) following rainfall than banks with grass or no plants (higher matric suction corresponds to dryer banks) (Simon and Collison, 2002) 5

Governing Equations: Bank Strength Saturated bank strength (Mohr-Coulomb) = + ( ) tan Unsaturated bank strength (Fredlund et al. 1978) = + ( ) tan + ( ) tan Sr = shear strength of soil [kPa] c = effective cohesion of soil [kPa] = normal stress [kPa] = normal stress [kPa] = pore-water pressure [kPa] = pore-water pressure [kPa] = effective friction angle [] = effective friction angle [] = pore-water pressure [kPa]a = pore-air pressure [kPa] = pore-water pressure [kPa]w = pore-water pressure [kPa] = effective friction angle []b = angle describing rate of increase of shear strength from matric suction 6 Governing Equations: Bank Stability Stability with hydrostatic processes (Simon et al. 2000)

= + ( ) tan + [ cos + cos( ) ] tan sin sin( ) Stability with seepage processes (Chu-Agor et al. 2008) = + ( +1

) sin tan sin cot cos c = apparent cohesion [kPa] L = length of the failure plane [m] W = saturated soil weight [kN] P = hydrostatic confining force of stream water [kN/m]

= effective friction angle [] = effective friction angle [] = pore-water pressure [kPa]a = pore-air pressure [kPa] = pore-water pressure [kPa]w = pore-water pressure [kPa] = effective friction angle []b = angle describing rate of increase of shear strength from matric suction [] = bank angle from horizontal [] = bank angle from horizontal [] = failure plane angle from horizontal [] = failure plane angle from horizontal [] = submerged unit weight of the soil [kN/m3] w = unit weight of water [kN/m3] = direction of the seepage vector measured clockwise from the inward normal to the bank slope 7 Laboratory Analysis Progression of seepage failure in sand soils with vegetation. Undercutting leads to slumping

failure. (Cancienne and Fox, 2008) Pop-out or tension failure and seepage undercutting in sandy loam soils (Fox and Felice 2014) 8 Design Methods 1. Direct alteration to streambank Natural restoration (excavation/fill and use of native vegetation) Man-made stabilization (mattresses, gabions, retaining walls, etc.) 2. Alteration to stream flow Retards, dikes, jetties, fences, etc.

Julien (2002) 9 Design Method: Bank Sloping A simple stabilization method is to slope the banks (either by excavation or fill) Rule of thumb is 3:1 Table 8.3 Recommended maximum side slope, z, in various materials (Chow, 1959) Material Rock Maximum side slope (z) Nearly vertical Muck and peat soils 0.25

Stiff clay or earth with concrete lining 0.5-1 Earth with stone lining, or earth for large channels Firm clay or earth for small ditches 1 1.5 Loose sandy earth 2 Sandy loam or porous clay 3

10 Design Method: Bioengineering Vegetation can both reduce near-bank groundwater levels, prevent seepage erosion, and increase bank stability Generally takes time to establish but is generally inexpensive and lowmaintenance Can either allow riparian buffers to establish naturally or undertake planting programs Combination of rip-rap and vegetation to stabilize banks and lower groundwater levels (Holanda and da Rocha, 2011) 11 Design Method: Bioengineering Additionally, riparian vegetation increases resistance to flow (e.g. Manning n)

During overbank flow, this reduces the shear stress induced by the flood, decreasing the risk of streambank failure 12 Design Methods: Bank Drainage Drain pipes can be installed parallel or perpendicular to the bank face to reduce near-bank groundwater levels Impervious surfaces can also be placed on top of the bank to reduce nearbank infiltration Julien (2002) 13

Design Method: Articulated Concrete Mattresses Precast concrete blocks held together by cables or rods Flexible Open to allow hydrostatic pressure www.pondsuk.co.uk Julien (2002) 14 Design Method: Gabions

Wire boxes filled with smaller stones usually less than 8 in. Used where flow velocities would make stone size unstable in rip-rap blanket Max velocity: 8 15 ft/s Petersen (1986) www.gabion1.com 15 Design Method: Retaining Walls Near-vertical structures designed to prevent erosion and streambank failure while maximizing usable land area Three types: Gravity walls

Cantilever walls Sheet-piling walls Can be porous to allow for bank drainage Julien (2002) Example of a Gravity Wall (www.verti-crete.com) 16 Design Method: Dikes Two types of dikes:

Stone Fill Dikes Timber pile dikes Below is an example of a small-scale timber dike on Marshyhope Creek in Maryland Before After www.duffnet.com Julien (2002) 17 Design Method: Retards

Low permeable structure placed near bank toe used to reduce velocity and induce deposition and vegetation growth Often 1/3 to 2/3 height of streambank Julien (2002) 18 Design Method: Jetties Kellner Jacks (steel posts tied with cables) placed in rows are called Jetties Increase roughness, lower velocities, and encourage sediment deposition

Most effective when river contains large amounts of debris (tree limbs, sage brush, etc.) Petersen (1986) Jacks along the Santa Cruz River (www.tuscon.com) 19 Design Method: Vanes Structures designed to redirect high velocities away from streambanks Often built of rock or timber Water is free to pass over or around the structure www.pitriveralliance.net

Petersen (1986) 20 References Cancienne, R. M. and G. A. Fox. 2008. Laboratory experiments on three-dimensional seepage erosion undercutting of vegetated banks. ASABE Annual International Meeting, Providence, RI 2008. Chu-Agor, M. L., G. V. Wilson, and G. A. Fox. 2008. Numerical modeling of bank instability by seepage erosion undercutting of layered streambanks. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 13: 1133-1145. Fox, G. A. and R. G. Felice. 2014. Bank undercutting and tension failure by groundwater seepage: predicting failure mechanisms. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 39: 758-765. Francisco Sandro Rodrigues Holanda and Igor Pinheiro da Rocha (2011). Streambank Soil Bioengineering Approach to Erosion Control, Progress in Molecular and Environmental Bioengineering - From Analysis and Modeling to Technology Applications, Prof. Angelo Carpi (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953307-268-5, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/20659. Fredlund, D. G., N. R. Morgenstern and R. A. Widger. 1978. The shear strength of unsaturated soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 15: 313-321. Julien, P. 2002. River Mechanics. Oxford Press: 434p. Langendoen, E. J. and A. Simon. 2008. Modeling the evolution of incised streams II: Streambank erosion. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 134: 905-915. Petersen, M.S. 1986. River Engineering. Prentice Hall: 149-224.

Simon, A. and A. J. C. Collison. 2002. Quantifying the mechanical and hydrologic effects of riparian vegetation on streambank stability. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 27: 527-546. Simon, A., A. Curini, S. E. Darby, and E. J. Langendoen. 2000. Bank and near-bank processes in an incised channel. Geomorphology, 35: 193217. 21

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