RHETORIC OF THE OP-ED PAGE ERWC MODULE 2 THREE WAYS TO PERSUADE Activity 1: Getting Ready to Read Consider the title and the subheads in the article Three Ways to Persuade by John R. Edlund. What is this article about? What do the three terms ethos, logos, and pathos mean? Now read the whole article, thinking briefly about the discussion questions at the end of each section. Then, move on to the QUICKWRITE.
THREE WAYS TO PERSUADE Quickwrite: Think of something you tried to persuade a parent, teacher, or friend to do or believe. It might have been to buy or pay for something, to change a due date or a grade, to change a rule or decision, to go somewhere, or some other issue. What kinds of arguments did you use? Did you use logic? Did you use evidence to support your request? Did you try to present your own character in a way that would make your case more believable? Did you try to engage the emotions of your audience? Write a short description of your efforts to persuade your audience in this case. THREE WAYS TO PERSUADE discussion Do people use Aristotles concepts of ethos, logos, and
pathos every day without thinking about it? Can you think of some examples? Do these concepts apply to politics and advertising as well as person-to-person persuasion? Can you think of some examples? Are there other means of persuasion that Aristotle did not discuss? ETHOS ~ LOGOS ~ PATHOS Activity 2. For each term answer the following questions: What do these terms mean to you? Should we use the Greek word, or is there an English word that means exactly the same thing? Look at the discussion questions for each
ACTIVITY 3: EXPLORING THE CONCEPT OF PERSUASION The article is called Three Ways to Persuade. Aristotle says that the art of rhetoric is the art of finding the available means of persuasion. What does it mean to persuade someone? Is it the same as convince? In the dialogue called Gorgias, Plato has the famous sophist (=rhetorician) Gorgias define rhetoric as the art of persuasion in courts of law and other assemblies about the just and unjust Plato then has Socrates ask Gorgias, Which sort of persuasion does rhetoric create in courts of law and other assemblies about the just and unjust, the sort of persuasion which gives belief without knowledge, or that which gives knowledge? Gorgias answers, Clearly, Socrates, that which only gives belief. This exchange leads to some important philosophical questions: 1. What is the difference between knowledge and belief? One way of
thinking about this is to take a current controversial event such as murder, a scandal, a celebrity divorce, or other prominent news item What I How I know and fill out a box with four quadrants labeled like this: know: it: ACTIVITY 3 2. Is proving different from persuading? Does proving lead to knowledge while persuading leads to belief? How do we prove that something is true? Are there some notions that we believe strongly, even though we cant prove them? 3. What is the difference between what is certain and what is
probable? If, as in a courtroom, the jury decides that something has been proved beyond a reasonable doubt, does that mean that it is certainly true or merely highly probable? Are we persuaded only by what is certain or sometimes by what is probable, in that it is likely to be true, or that most people would agree that it is true? 4. In the dialogue mentioned above, Gorgias says that rhetoric is about the just and unjust. How would you distinguish a just action from an unjust action? (The word just here is related to the word justice) A CHANGE OF HEART ABOUT ANIMALS ACTIVITY 4: SURVEYING THE TEST Look at the article A Change of Heart about Animals by Jeremy Rifkin. Think about the following questions: 1. Where and when was this article published? 2. Who wrote the article? Do you know anything about this
writer? (Hint: Look at the end of the article.) How could you find out more? 3. What is the subtitle of the article? What does that tell you about what the article might say? 4. The article was published on the editorial page. What does that mean? ACTIVITY 7 READING FOR UNDERSTANDING Now that you have read Rifkins article once, answer the following questions: 1. Which of your predictions turned out to be true? 2. What surprised you? 3. What does Rifkin want readers to believe? 4. What are some of the things people believe humans
can do that animals cannot? How does Rifkin challenge those beliefs? 5. What authorities does Rifkin use to support his case? 6. What action does Rifkin want readers to take? 7. How does Rifkin organize his essay? Is it an effective ACTIVITY 7A Quickwrite: Explain your understanding of the Aristotelian categories of ethos, logos, and pathos, and identify examples of these in the Rifkin article. ACTIVITY 8 CONSIDERING THE STRUCTURE OF THE TEXT Now that you have read and discussed the content of the Rifkin
essay, you are ready to begin analyzing its organizational structure. First, divide the text into sections: 1. Draw a line across the page where the introduction ends. Is the line after the first paragraph, or are there more introductory paragraphs? 2. Divide the body of the essay into sections on the basis of the topics addressed. 3. Draw a line where the conclusion begins. Is it the last paragraph, or does it begin before that? ACTIVITY 8 CONSIDERING THE STRUCTURE OF THE TEXT You are now ready to begin a process called descriptive outlining: 1. Write brief statements describing the rhetorical function and
content of each paragraph or section. a) What does each section do for the reader? What is the writer trying to accomplish? b) What does each section say? What is the content? 2. After making the descriptive outline, ask questions about the articles organizational structure: a) Which section is the most developed? b) Which section is the least developed? Does it need more development? c) Which section is the most persuasive? The least? From your work charting the text, what do you think is the essays main argument? Is it explicit, or is it implicit? ACTIVITY 8 EXAMPLE OF DESCRIPTIVE OUTLINE
1.Though much of big science has centered on breakthroughs in biotechnology, nanotechnology, and more esoteric questions like the age of our universe, a quieter story has been unfolding behind the scenes in laboratories around the world one who effect on human perception and our understanding of life is likely to be profound. 2.What these researchers are finding is that many of our fellow creatures are more like us than we had ever imagined. They feel pain, suffer and experience stress, affection, excitement, and even love and these findings are changing how we view animals. Introduction WHAT DOES IT DO? Places the thesis in context WHAT DOES IT SAY? States the thesis (thesis is underlined) ACTIVITY 8A DRAWING CONCLUSIONS FROM STRUCTURE
Write a summary of the Rifkin article that considers the following questions: 1.How are the authors arguments ordered? (Which arguments come first, in the middle, last?) What is the effect of this on the reader? 2.How has the structure of the text helped make the argument clear, convincing, and engaging? Your summary should be about 2 pages long, ACTIVITY 9 NOTICING LANGUAGE Create a visual representation of your word, study its origin or history, and be prepared to share it (and its synonyms and antonyms) with the class. You
might choose to construct a tree, chart, or table from Activity 6. WORDS HUMANE/INHUMANE ACTIVISTS ESOTERIC COGNITIVE HUMAN CONSUMPTION DETERIORATION
ACTIVITY 10 ANNOTATING AND QUESTIONING THE TEXT You should question the text in your second reading, reading against the grain and playing the disbelieving (or doubting) game. As you read, look for claims and assertions Rifkin makes. Does he back them up? Do you agree with them? As you read, do the following: 1. Underline (with a double underline) or highlight in one color the thesis and major claims or assertions made in the article. 2. Underline (with a single underline) or highlight in a second color the evidence in suppor of the claims and assertions. 3. Write your comments and questions in the margins. After reading the article again, answer the following questions: 4. What is the thesis of Rifkins article? 5. Does Rifkin make any claims that you disagree with? What are
TABLE DISCUSSION AND NOTES Why should we be interested in developing our ability to question a writers claims? How do you go about questioning the information and opinions writers present? What do you look for when youre evaluating a writers beliefs? How do you assess evidence a writer includes? How do you react when a writer states opinions but gives no evidence? Where did you acquire these strategies to question ANALYZING STYLISTIC CHOICES Word Choice What are the denotative and connotative meanings of key words? How do the specific words the author chooses affect
your response to the article? Which words or synonyms are repeated? Why? What figurative language does the author use? What does it imply? Sentence Structure Is the sentence structure varied? What effects do the authors choices for sentence structure and length have on the reader? ACTIVITY 11 ANALYZING STYLISTIC CHOICES LOADED WORDS: LANGUAGE THAT PUTS A SLANT ON REALITY Paragraph 4 of the article says: Studies on pigs social behavior funded by McDonalds at Purdue University, for example, have found that they crave
affection and are easily depressed if isolated or denied playtime with each other. The lack of mental and physical stimuli can result in deterioration of health. The first sentence uses words associated with human behavior such as affection and playtime, while the second sentence uses formal scientific words such as stimuli and deterioration. What is the effect of this movement from emotional to scientific? Try rewriting the first sentence to make it sound more scientific. ACTIVITY 11 ANALYZING STYLISTIC CHOICES LOADED WORDS: LANGUAGE THAT PUTS A SLANT ON REALITY Paragraph 7 of the article says:
Researchers were stunned recently by findings (published in the journal Science) on the conceptual abilities of New Caledonian crows. Because scientific experiments are carefully planned and controlled, scientists are rarely stunned by their results. What is the effect of using the word stunned here? What are some other words or phrases that might fit here that would sound more scientific? Try rewriting this sentence. ACTIVITY 11 ANALYZING STYLISTIC CHOICES LOADED WORDS: LANGUAGE THAT PUTS A SLANT ON REALITY Paragraph 10 of the article says:
An orangutan named Chantek who lives at the Atlanta Zoo used a mirror to groom his teeth and adjust his sunglasses. Groom is a word that has different meanings when applied to humans and animals. If animals groom each other, it usually means that one cleans the others fur or searches the fur to remove fleas and other parasites. It is part of social bonding. If a human grooms a horse, it means combing and brushing the animal. What does groom mean when applied to humans? In what sense is the word used here? Rewrite the ACTIVITY 12 QUESTIONS ABOUT THE RIFKIN ARTICLE Answer the following questions about the Rifkin article: 1. How would you describe the style of this article? Is it formal? Informal? Academic? Scientific? Conversational? 2. What is the effect of giving the names of most of the animals involved
in the experiments, but not the names of the scientists? 3. Throughout most of the article, Rifkin refers to researchers and scientists. In paragraph 13, however, he directly quotes Stephen M. Siviy, whom he refers to as a behavioral scientist at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania. What is the effect of this sudden specificity? 4. What is the effect of all the rhetorical questions in Paragraph 15, followed by such questions are being raised in the next paragraph? ACTIVITY 13 SUMMARIZING AND RESPONDING Summarizing the ideas of others accurately is a fundamental element of academic writing. Summarizing is a powerful metacognitive skill that enables readers and writings to synthesize a texts meaning. It integrates the results of previous reading processes students have engaged in and helps them further
understand major ideas and the relationships among them. Some options for summarizing the Rifkin article are the following: 1.Use the annotations you made from the lefthand margins and/or the descriptive outlining activity to construct a summary using your knowledge of the authors structure of the text. 2.Work in groups to summarize a main part of the text. Then, ACTIVITY 13 SUMMARIZING AND RESPONDING Responding gives you the opportunity to articulate your personal reactions to the text. Possible ways to respond to the text are the following. 1.Revisit the reflections you made in the right-hand margin when you annotated the text, and write a paragraph based on your experiences and opinions.
2.Write open-ended questions that can be used as the basis for a class discussion. ACTIVITY 14 THINKING CRITICALLY At this point, the concepts of ethos, logos, and pathos come back into play. From the analysis you have done so far, you should be well prepared to analyze the logic an support of the arguments, the character and intentions of the author, and the emotional effects on the reader of the language used and the details provided. ACTI VI T Y 14 T H I NKING CRI TI CALLY
Questions about the Writer 1. Who is Rifkin? If you have not done so already, do an Internet search to find out something about him. What is his profession? What does he usually write about? Does everybody agree with him? Do the facts you find about his life, his credentials, and his interests make him more credible to you? Less credible? 2. Pick one of the studies Rifkin mentions, and try to find out more. Is Rifkins description of the study accurate? 3. Does Rifkin have the right background to speak with authority on this subject? 4. What does the authors style and language tell you about him? 5. Do you trust this author? Do you think this author is deceptive? ACTI VI T Y 14 T H I NKING CRI TI CALLY
Questions about Emotions (Pathos) 10.Rifkin says that Germany is encouraging farmers to give pigs human contact and toys. Does this fact have an emotional impact on the reader? If so, what triggers it? What are some other passages that have an emotional effect? 11.Rifkin calls his essay A Change of Heart about Animals. Does this imply that the scientific discoveries he summarizes here should change how we feel about animals? 12.Does this piece affect you emotionally? Which parts? 13.Do you think Rifkin is trying to manipulate your emotions? How? ACTI VI T Y 14 T H I NKING CRI TI CALLY
Questions about Logic (Logos) 6. Locate major claims and assertions you have identified in your previous analysis, and ask yourself the following: Do I agree with Rifkins claim that? 7. Look at support for major claims and ask yourself the following: Is there any claim that appears to be weak or unsupported? Which one and why? 8. Can you think of counterarguments that the author does not deal with? 9. Do you think Rifkin has left something out on purpose? Why or why not? TABLE DISCUSSION Which are superior in an argument: logical appeals or
emotional appeals? HOOKED ON A MYTH: DO FISH FEEL PAIN? MAKING PREDICTIONS The next article that we are going to study is more limited in scope than Rifkins article. With this knowledge, what can you predict about the kind of language it will use and the kinds of arguments it will make? ACTIVITY 15 SURVEYING THE TEXT: HOOKED ON A MYTH: DO FISH FEEL PAIN? BY VICTORIA BRAITHWAITE
The following questions, applied to the Rifkin article previously, are equally relevant here: 1. Where and when was this article published? 2. Who wrote the article? Do you know anything about this writer? (Hint Look at the beginning of the article.? How could you find out more? Is this writer more or less credible than Jeremy Rifkin? 3. What is the title of the article? The subtitle? What do these words tell you about what the article might say? Can you ACTIVITY 16: UNDERSTANDING KEY VOCABULARY 1. Nociceptors: nerve endings that detect damage and cause feelings of pain 3
2. Trigeminal nerve: the main nerve for the face in all vertebrates3 3. Vertebrates: animals with a spine 3 4. A-delta and C fibers: types of nociceptors 3 6. Adverse behavior: contrary, harmful or unfavorable 5 7. Mammalian: an adjective describing animals that have breasts and nurse their young 12 8. Amygdala: part of the brain associated with emotions 12 9. Hippocampus: part of the brain
associated with memories 12 10.Automata: a self-operating machine 13 11.Crustacean: an animal with an exoskeleton such as a crab, shrimp, or lobster 17 ACTIVITY 17: READING FOR UNDERSTANDING (BRAITHWAITE) Before reading the Braithwaite article, discuss the following questions and write your responses to them. 1. Have you ever gone fishing? Did you catch a fish? What did the fish do? How did it behave? Did you eat it? 2. What other experiences have you had with live fish? Do you have an aquarium at home? Have you been to a public aquarium? What did you learn from these experiences?
3. From your experiences, do you think that fish feel pain? Why or why not? HOOKED ON A MYTH Create a T-chart with your beliefs about fish on the left side of the T. You might ask yourself: Do fish have emotions? Are fish smart? Do fish feel pain? et cetera. Now read the article, noting on the right side of the T confirmations of your experiences and/or challenges to your previous interpretation of fish behavior. ACTIVITY 18: CONSIDERING THE STRUCTURE OF THE TEXT DESCRIPTIVE OUTLINE
Do a descriptive outline of the Braithwaite text. Are we justified in treating fish differently from other animals? Fish 1. 2. 3. 4. Therefore, ACTIVITY 19: ANALYZING STYLISTIC CHOICES Answer the following questions about the Braithwaite text: 1. What is the effect of the use of scientific terms in an article that is written for newspaper readers?
2. Do these terms confuse the reader? 3. Do they make the writer more credible? 4. Do they help the reader understand the type of argument being made? ACTIVITY 20: SUMMARIZING AND RESPONDING QUICKWRITE Summarize the article in your own words, answering the following questions: Why does Victoria Braithwaite think that we should treat fish more like the way we treat other animals, such as birds and mammals? Do you agree? Why or why not? TEXT OF PRIMATES AND PERSON HOOD:
WILL ACCORDING RIGHTS AND DIGNITY TO NONHUMAN ORGANISMS HALT RESEARCH? ACTIVITY 21: READING FOR UNDERSTANDING Discuss the first part of the title, From Primates to Personhood, and write your ideas in your notebook. 1. Have you ever seen gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos (which are sometimes called pygmy chimpanzees) or orangutans, all of which are considered to be great apes, at a zoo? In what ways are they like humans? In what way are they different? 2. Most of us know people who treat their pets like people. What does this mean? What types of behavior characterize these pet owners? ACTIVITY
22: NOTICING LANGUAGE VOCABULARY Below are lists of words and phrases from the Yong article that you might not know (or might be confused about), some that are related conceptually to the modules key concept, and some that are technical. 1.primates (title): apes and monkeys 2.primatologists (1): scientists who study primates 3.schism (1): a split 4.great apes (1): humans, chimpanzees, bonobos (pygmy chimpanzees) and orangutans 5.unprecedented (1): without precedent; never happened before
6.domain (1): a territory one rules or controls 7.implement (3): put into effect 8.ventures (3): businesses or projects 9.captivity (3): a state of being held captive; to be capture or imprisoned 10.obligations (4): duties; requirements 11.compelling (4): compelling reasons are reasons that are so ACTIVITY 22: NOTICING LANGUAGE VOCABULARY Below are lists of words and phrases from the Yong article
that you might not know (or might be confused about), some that are related conceptually to the modules key concept, and some that are technical. 12.salvo (6): a volley of gunfire; in this case, the gunfire is metaphorical and the word refers to opening arguments or legal moves 13.traction (6): a tire with traction sticks to the road and can move forward; in this case, the traction is political: people are buying the argument and making changes. 14.sanctuary (7): a safe place 15.inroads (8): advances into defended territory 16.invasive (8): something that invades across a boundary, such as a border, or the skin. 17.rigorously (8): done with great care and precision 18.paragon (9): a person or thing that is a perfect example of something, or a high point in excellence. 19.unaligned (9): independent, not part of a group of faction
20.dignity (9): a state of respect and status 21.interventions (9): literally, to come between; acts by an outsider that ACTIVITY 22: NOTICING LANGUAGE VOCABULARY Below are lists of words and phrases from the Yong article that you might not know (or might be confused about), some that are related conceptually to the modules key concept, and some that are technical. 22.humiliation (9): from humility, the state of being humble; to reduce the dignity of an individual
23.disproportionately (9): out of proportion; unequal or unfair 24.instrumentalized (9): made into a tool or object 25.decapitation (10): beheading; cutting of the head 26.impermissible (10): not permitted or allowed 27.preliminary (10): at the beginning; before the actual start 28.macaques (11): a type of monkey 29.advisory (11): giving advice, not orders 30.clinical (11): related to medical practice 31.termination (12): ending 32.enamored (13): in love with 33.obligation (14): duty; required action ACTIVITY 23: ANALYZING STYLISTIC CHOICES REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS AND POSITIONS Words and phrases can be used to position ideas in relationship to each other. These distinctions might be according to time, location,
degree, or other types of differences. In your group, for each phrase below, discuss how the language positions the ideas that follow it in relation to other ideas. 1. At the forefront of the battle ( 2) 2. Other countries have taken steps ( 3) 3. Not everyone is comfortable ( 4) 4. Speaking personally ( 5) 5. In the US, there is greater resistance ( 8) 6. Weaker than its Spanish counterpart, the bill ( 8) 7. In the EU [European Union], renowned chimpanzee researcher Jane Goodall has called ( 9) 8. A discussion paper defines ( 10) 9. In the US, Edwin McConkey, a biologist agrees that ( 12) 10.One kind of primate experiment seems to be safe ( 13) ACTIVITY 24: SUMMARIZING AND RESPONDING - QUICKWRITE
Summarize the Yong article in your own words, answering the following questions: What is the event or events related to animal rights that motivate Ed Yong to write this article? What questions does Yong raise about this issue? What positions do people take on these questions? ACTIVITY 25: THINKING CRITICALLY DEFINING PERSONHOOD In paragraph 7, Yong discusses the case of Hiasl (pronounced Hee-sel), a former research chimpanzee who is going to be homeless because his sanctuary is going bankrupt. It is clear from the article that Hiasls fate depends on how we define person. Can Hiasl be declared a person with rights? Answer
the following questions: 1. What exactly is Hiasl? 2. What qualities does Hiasl have that would make us call him a person? What qualities does he have that would make us call him something else? (Make a chart.) 3. Is Hiasl a person? 4. What should we do about Hiasl? 5. Does Hiasls plight have potential as an appeal to pathos? 6. Does Yong use it for this purpose? ACTIVITY 26: REFLECTING ON YOUR READING PROCESS Answer the following questions: 1.What problems did you have reading these texts? 2.What strategies helped you overcome these problems?
3.Do you think these strategies will work with other readings? ACTIVITY 27: CONSIDERING THE WRITING TASK LETTER TO THE EDITOR A common way to respond to an editorial is to write a letter to the editor. Now that you have worked extensively with this text, you are ready to write a well-informed response to Rifkins or Braithwaites ideas. Some points to note before writing your letter to the editor follow: 1.A good letter to the editor is focused and concise. It should make your point, but no words should be wasted. It is sometimes best to write a longer draft and then cut out everything that is not essential.
2.Newspaper editors often cut letters to fit the available space or to make a letter more focused. If your letter is published unedited, you are very lucky. 3.Some letters respond to the thesis of the editorial, either in ACTIVITY 27: CONSIDERING THE WRITING TASK LETTER TO THE EDITOR 4. These days, most letters are emailed to the newspaper. To get a letter published in a major newspaper, you must write quickly and send it within a day or two of the publication date of the editorial to which you are responding. 5.If the newspaper wants to publish your letter, you will normally receive a call or an email to get permission and to verify that you really are who you say you are. 6.Newspapers are interested in a wide range of viewpoints from
diverse citizens. If your letter is a good expression of a particular viewpoint, brings up new information or arguments, or has some particularly good phrases, it has a good chance of being published. ACTIVITY 27: CONSIDERING THE WRITING TASK LETTER TO THE EDITOR Response to Rifkin After thinking about your reading, discussion, and analysis of Rifkins article and the letters in response to it, what do you personally think about Rifkins point? Do you think it is true, as Rifkin says, that many of our fellow creatures are more like us than we had ever imagined? Do you think we need to change the way we treat
the animals around us? Or do you think Rifkin is wrong? Write a letter expressing your viewpoint ACTIVITY 27: CONSIDERING THE WRITING TASK LETTER TO THE EDITOR Response to Braithwaite Victoria Braithwaite argues that fish have nervous systems that are similar to humans and are very likely to feel pain the way we do. She says, We should adopt a precautionary ethical approach and assume that in the absence of evidence to the contrary, fish suffer. She also says, Of course, this doesnt mean that we necessarily must change our behavior. One could reasonably adopt a utilitarian costbenefit approach and argue that the benefits of sportfishing, both financial and recreational, may outweigh the ethical costs of the likely suffering of fish.
Should we ban the use of barbed hooks? Should we change our fishing practices because fish might suffer? Or is ACTIVITY 28: CONSIDERING THE WRITING TASK ESSAY ASSIGNMENT We are skipping this! ACTIVITY 29: TAKING A STANCE LETTER TO THE EDITOR Before you write your own letter in response to Rifkin, look at the two sample letters to the editor written in response to A Change of Heart about Animals. Then discuss the following questions with your table group and jot down your responses: 1. Bob Stevens disagrees with Rifkin and makes several points. Does
Stevens refute Rifkin arguments? 2. In his first paragraph, Stevens argues that because a predator (such as a hawk) does not feel empathy for its prey, humans do not need to feel empathy for the animals they eat and that such feelings would be unnatural. Do you agree? 3. Stevens notes that some animals can mimic human speech but argues that that do not understand what they are saying. What would Rifkin say to this? 4. Is it true, as Stevens argues, that Rifkin wants animals to have more rights than humans? 5. Lois Frazier says that pet owners know that animals have feelings and abilities not too different from humans. Do some pet owners treat their ACTIVITY 30: TAKING A STANCE (ANIMAL BILL OF RIGHTS)
We are skipping this! ACTIVITY 31: TRYING ON WORDS, PERSPECTIVES, AND IDEAS One way to practice looking at the situation from multiple perspectives is to engage in an activity in which different personas are adopted. First, adopt a persona or perspective based on writers of the articles you have been reading or sources quoted in them, but they could also be based on other people you know or know of, such as a teacher, the school principal, the President of the United States, or even a movie actor or a rock star. Then answer the following questions based on the issues raised by the articles you have been reading. These could be policy questions What should we do about __________________?
or value questions Is _____________________ good or bad? Your task is to think ACTIVITY 32: GATHERING EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT YOUR CLAIMS 1. What are you going to quote or paraphrase from the article or articles you read? What do you want to say in response? 2. What information do you need to support your claims? Where are you going to find it? (This may involve Internet searchs. If so, what search terms will you use? 3. How closely does this piece of evidence relate to the claim it is supposed to support? 4. Is this piece of evidence a fact or an opinion? Is it an example? 5. If this evidence is a fact, what kind of fact is it (statistic,
experimental result, quotation)? 6. If it is an opinion, what makes the opinion credible? 7. What makes this evidence persuasive? 8. How well will the evidence suit the audience and the rhetorical
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