Research Rescue Lab: A Holistic View of the Research Paper

Research Rescue Lab: A Holistic View of the Research Paper

Qualitative Data Collection Instruments Research Rescue Lab Dr. Kelley Wood Business & Graduate Studies, Trinity Washington University A Holistic View of the Research Paper Topic of Inquiry Inquiry Literature Survey Survey Research Questions Questions

Abstract Abstract Introducti on on Literature Review Research Methods Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies Results / Findings Findings Discussion Discussion

2 Data Collection Instruments Literature Review This chapter builds the argument, through logic, that is the basis of the study The result of this is the Theoretical Framework ,or Theoretical Construct, or Conceptual Map Research Methods Determine the strategy for collecting data Develop the Data Collection Instrument Derived from the Quantitative Theoretical Framework, or the Qualitative Theoretical Construct, Conceptual Framework, or Literature Map Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 3

A Holistic View of the Research Paper Literature Review Sections of the chapter Preamble A brief argument, moving from general to specific, that prepares the reader for engaging in the topic areas you have determined must be covered to support the Theoretical Framework or Theoretical Construct Sections and subsections as necessary to the argument Case studies should include the subject of the case Review of other research methods Used in investigating similar topics Theoretical Framework or Theoretical Construct Describe and define the elements as they will be used in your study Including a figure or model as a visual representation Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies

4 Data Collection Instruments Research Methods Preamble Setting Population/ Data Source Your potential participants Research Strategy/ Measurements Intervention Protocol Data Collection Instrument Protocol Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Survey Secondary data, content or document analysis - How data sources will be selected Data Analysis Strategy Summary Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate

Studies 5 Variabl e or Factor Variable or Factor Theory Data Collection Instruments Conce pt Concep t Concep t

Becomes the Concep t Concep t Concep t Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 6 Data Collection Instruments Questio n Becomes the

Questio n Questio n Questio n Questio n Data Collection Instrument Facto Factor r Questio n Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies

7 Variabl e or Factor Variable or Factor Conce pt Questio n Concep t Questio n Concep

t Questio n Concep t Questio n Concep t Questio n Concep t Questio n

Data Collection Instrument Facto Factor r Theory Data Collection Instruments Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 8 Data Collection Instruments Purpose of data collection instrument To test the hypotheses

Clarify relationships between variables (concepts) To test propositions To discover more about the phenomena of interest Which is really to say we are testing the theoretical framework, construct, or model Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 9 Data Collection Instruments Interviews, Questionnaires, and Surveys Schensul, Schensul, & LeCompte (2009, chapters 6, 7, & 8) Ethnography Process is predicated on the

understanding that nothing is really known of a new culture to be studied Uses scientific methodology to develop a greater understanding Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 10 Data Collection Instruments Ethnography Process is predicated on the understanding that nothing is really known of a new culture to be studied Moves from Open-ended Observation Open-ended Interviews

Semi-structured Interviews Structured (directed) Surveys Follows the Mixed Methods pattern Qualitative to Quantitative Development of theory Testing of theory Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 11 Data Collection Instruments Ethnography Process is predicated on the understanding that nothing is really known of a new culture to be studied Follows the sequential mixed methods pattern Qualitative Development and testing of propositions Propositions = local or low level theories

Testing Development of theory Quantitative Development of hypotheses Testing of hypothesis Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 12 Data Collection Instruments Developing the instrument Follow the continuum of abstraction Observation Description of domains, macro-structural features, cultural continuities Interviews Description of factors, sub-factors, identification

of cultural variation Questionnaire Refined description of factors, sub-factors, identification of cultural variation Survey Identification of variables, testing of associations and predictive models Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 13 Data Collection Instruments Constructing the instrument Variable (concept) development Domain to Factors to Variables (concepts) Example Domain - Work Factor - Satisfaction with job Variables (concepts)

Compensation, autonomy, motivation, relationships coworkers and supervisors or management Position, advancement, relevance, decision making power, support Schensul, Schensul, & LeCompte (2009, pp. 174-176) Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 14 Data Collection Instruments Interviews Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 15

Developing the Interview Open-ended interviews Schensul, Schensul, & LeCompte (1999, chapter 6) Purpose of the open-ended interview Explore undefined domains Identify new domains Break known domains into factors and subfactors Obtain contextual and historical information to orient the research Build understanding and positive relationships with the study population To understand the individual lived experiences of participants To understand participants meaning schemas Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies

16 Developing the Interview Think of the interview in the continuum of ethnographic methodology Qualitative Open-ended observation Structured observation Observe for specific constructs, interactions, behaviors Open-ended interview Open-ended questions Semi-structured questionnaire Semi-directed questions Quantitative Survey Closed-ended questions Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies

17 Developing the Interview And the continuum of the data developed Qualitative Open-ended observation Determine initial constructs and domains Structured observation Refine domains and constructs Open-ended interview Deeper understanding of domains and constructs Determine factors that comprise the domains and constructs The factors are your Dependent and Independent Variables Semi-structured questionnaire Specific understanding of factors (variables) Determine subfactors that comprise the factors Quantitative Survey Measuring the subfactors

Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 18 Developing the Interview Interview questions relate to a factor Do not go as deep as the variable (concept) Develop data that relates to your research questions Purpose of the questions Open-ended questions Inspire a narrative account of the participants experience Inspire the participant to relate naturally Not to meet an expectation Applied to a limited population Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies

19 Developing the Interview Open-ended questions Represent the factors in the domain Inclusive of a factor or multiple factors Do not lead the response or express bias Prepare probing and clarifying questions Neutral agreement Repeat what is said as a question

Ask for more information Ask for their opinion Ask for clarification of discrepancies Ask for clarification of terms and acronyms Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 20 EXERCISE 1 In the handout Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 21 Data Collection Instruments Questionnaires

Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 22 Developing the Questionnaire Open-ended and semi-structured interviews Schensul, Schensul, & LeCompte (1999, chapter 7) Purpose of the semi-structured interview Clarify central domains and factors Operationalize factors into variables (concepts) Develop a preliminary hypothesis Develop the qualitative base for a quantitative survey Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies

23 Developing the Questionnaire Think of the questionnaire in the continuum of ethnographic methodology Qualitative Open-ended observation Structured observation Observe for specific constructs, interactions, behaviors Open-ended interview Open-ended questions Semi-structured questionnaire Semi-directed questions Quantitative Survey Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Closed-ended questions

Studies 24 Developing the Questionnaire And the continuum of the data developed Qualitative Open-ended observation Determine initial constructs and domains Structured observation Refine domains and constructs Open-ended interview Deeper understanding of domains and constructs Determine factors that comprise the domains and constructs The factors are your Dependent and Independent Variables Semi-structured questionnaire Specific understanding of factors (variables) Determine subfactors that comprise the factors Quantitative Survey

Measuring the subfactors Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 25 Developing the Questionnaire Questions link back directly to a variable (concept) Develop data that relates to your research questions Purpose of the questions Semi-structured questions Semi-directed Provide focus Not leading Question does not contain the expected answer Not closed

Applied to a larger population with a limited interpretation Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 26 Developing the Questionnaire Developing semi-structured questions Use terms and phrases that the participant Will understand Are appropriate to their context Keep the length minimal Avoid leading questions Avoid two for one questions Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 27

Developing the Questionnaire Developing semi-structured questions Avoid negatively phrased questions Avoid rank ordering Save for the survey Avoid questions that require directions or tasks to complete Avoid yes or no questions Be sensitive to cultural context or social meanings in the questions Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 28 Developing the Questionnaire Developing semi-structured questions Ordering the semi-structured questions Temporally use an arc of time Earliest to latest

Complexity use an arc of complexity Least to most complex Group by topic or domain Topically similar questions together Abstraction use an arc of abstraction Most concrete to most abstract Threat level Least sensitive to most threatening Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 29 Using both Open-ended and Semi-Structured Questions Lead with open-ended questions Opens the participant up Refreshes their sense of the experience Transition

Briefly review what you have heard to clarify Allow them to correct or modify Discuss purpose of the next section without giving too many specifics The next section may ask the participant to repeat or clarify Move to semi-structured questions Transition Briefly review what you have heard to clarify Allow them to correct or modify Closing comments from participant Ask them if there is anything that they wished you asked Or that occurred to them that they would like to share Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 30

Data Collection Instruments Research article showing a coding key Jehn, K. A. (1997) A qualitative analysis of conflict types and dimensions in organizational groups. Administrative Quarterly 42(3) 530557 retrieved from ProQuest Social Sciences Journals While you are developing your instruments Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Interview, Questionnaire, or Survey Studies 31 EXERCISE 2 In the handout

Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 32 Data Collection Instruments Surveys Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 33 Developing the Survey Structured (directed) Surveys Schensul, Schensul, & LeCompte (1999, chapter 8) Purpose of the directed question survey Clarify relationships between factors and

variables (concepts) Operationalize factors into variables (concepts) Test hypotheses Develop detailed , granular understanding of factors Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 34 Developing the Survey Think of the questionnaire in the continuum of ethnographic methodology Qualitative Open-ended observation Structured observation Observe for specific constructs, interactions, behaviors Open-ended interview Open-ended questions

Semi-structured questionnaire Semi-directed questions Quantitative Survey Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Closed-ended questions Studies 35 Developing the Survey And the continuum of the data developed Qualitative Open-ended observation Determine initial constructs and domains Structured observation Refine domains and constructs Open-ended interview Deeper understanding of domains and constructs Determine factors that comprise the domains and constructs

The factors are your Dependent and Independent Variables Semi-structured questionnaire Specific understanding of factors (variables) Determine subfactors that comprise the factors Quantitative Survey Measuring the subfactors Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 36 Developing the Survey Questions link back directly to a variable (concept) Develop data that relates to your research questions Purpose of the questions Directed questions

Provide measurement of behaviors at specific points in time Detailed examination of relationships between dependent and independent domains (variables) Not leading Question does not contain the expected answer Closed response Larger random and generalizable population Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 37 Developing the Survey Constructing the instrument Considerations Exhaustive no surprise responses Mutually exclusive response fits only one option Avoid two or more nouns or verbs you want to have no confusion of subject or

action Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 38 Developing the Survey Constructing the instrument Variables (concepts) to questions Question or statement format Avoid open-ended questions Each items is stated clearly Mutually exclusive Avoid more than one noun or verb Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 39 Developing the Survey

Constructing the instrument Variables (concepts) to questions Can respondents answer the question Are questions relevant to the topic Questions are as short as possible Avoid alternating positive and negative questions in the same scale Avoid items and terms that have hidden or unclear meanings Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 40 Developing the Survey Constructing the instrument Level of Measurement Nominal number is assigned to represent something as numbers are easier in statistical programs Vary by quality but not quantity Country, gender, etcetera

Ordinal values convey order or rank only Ordered by ranking, not absolute May chose only one answer Interval values have no true zero and are equidistant Distance between ranked intervals, no zero start point 100 to 120 = 90 to 110 (interval of 20) Ratio has a true zero and values are equidistant Based on a zero input Age, income, numbers of a variable (units) Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 41 Developing the Survey Constructing the instrument Types of questions Fill in correct answer

Multiple choice choose correct answer from options Scaled such as Likert, continuous (on a continuum with decimals), or discrete (whole numbers or units not on a continuum) Semantic Differential Choose from opposites Ranking Order (<=) 10 items against each other Rating Rate(<=) 10 items from 1 to 10 Category Often a yes/no choice of distinct options Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 42 Developing the Survey Scales an aside

Scales can easily convey bias or preferred response Choosing a scale of measurement When using Median or Mean Order does a larger number indicate a greater value than a smaller number Ordinal, interval, ratio Differences does subtracting two numbers indicate a meaningful value Interval, ratio Ratio Does dividing two numbers indicate a meaningful value Ratio Use the same pattern for consistency parallelism Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 43

Developing the Survey Scales an aside Likert is not the only game in town The point of Likert is to cause data to be easier to summarize around a central tendency Median, Mode, Mean Using a 5 point scale should encourage the response to be either positive or negative, unless it is central Often encourages the selection of the central value 12345 Some use a 6 point Likert Middle two values are the central tendency 123456 Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 44

Developing the Survey Scales an aside When is Central Tendency important, or when to use Likert? Ordinal One sample sign test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon sign-ranks T test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Friedman test Interval/Ratio One-independent sample t-test, Two-independent sample t-test, Related samples t-test, One-way between-subjects ANOVA, One-way withinsubjects ANOVA, Two-way between-subjects ANOVA Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 45 EXERCISE 3 In the handout

Dr. Kelley D. Wood, Business & Graduate Studies 46

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