Reimagining the Library's Connection to student success:

REIMAGINING THE LIBRARYS CONNECTION TO STUDENT SUCCESS: An Assessment Revelation COMO 2016- Athens, Georgia Presenters from Columbus State University Alison Cook, Business Liaison & Government Documents Coordinator Dr. Florence Wakoko, Assistant Director, Library Assessment Paul Luft, Science Liaison Paula Adams, Head of Reference Services & Student Outreach COLUMBUS STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES Who Are We?

CSU founded in 1958, library first built in 1959 Regional State University Student Enrollment (Fall 2015) = 8,400 1,503 are graduate students (Fall 2015) 11 Post graduate degree programs CSU Library current building built in 1975 Currently houses over 400,000 volumes Two CSU Libraries Music Library (RiverPark Campus) & Main Campus Library So, Whats There to Prove? The major question is.. Why do we care? The good news: The literature also suggests there may well be some correlation between library use (Soria et al, 2013) and more importantly, library instruction (Cook, 2014) and student academic success. Assessment and the CSU Libraries past efforts.

Whats the Point of it All? Academic libraries and methodologies used for such assessment. Institutional data and library related data (Stone, Ramsden, 2013) (Cook, 2014) CSU Libraries and a multi-modal approach. Our next presenter will provide more details concerning how we came to this question CONCEPTUAL MODEL Visualizing How and Where to Begin Figure 1: Examining What We Provide Bis/Library workshops LIBR 1105 Class 2 Credit Hrs. Library Services Reference Desk Access Services

Collaborative Learning Spaces Forums Student Research Consultations CSU Libraries E-Resources Student Networking CONCEPTUALLY CONNECTING LIBRARY SERVICES TO STUDENT SUCCESS (Figure 2) LIBRARY SERVICES GPA Graduation Rate Satisfaction COLLECTIONS

LIBRARY INSTRUCTION LIBRARY PHYSICAL SPACE Person-Environment Interaction Models (PEIM) STUDENT SUCCESS (Strange and Banning, 2006) Physical surrounding (Learning Spaces) Organizational Structures & Polices Social Climate & Culture Socialization REVIEWING THE LITERATURE How are others defining student success and measuring the value of libraries? Which Studies Should We Consider? There are tons of studies done that try to measure and/or define student success A comprehensive picture of different schools Demographics Geographic location Size of student body Program areas

Universities similar to CSU in student composition Universities in Georgia and with in the University System of Georgia (USG) Continually cited in research Highlighted Research Studies 1. University of Minnesota- Twin Cities (large public university) 2. United Kingdom: 8 unidentified universities of various sizes, demographics, urban and rural surveying 33,074 undergraduate students 3. University of West Georgia: mid-sized public university, similar to demographic of Columbus State University, and a USG sister school 4. Georgia State College: Large metropolitan research university and USG sister school 5. University of Nebraska- Lincoln: Large public university How do other schools define student success? schools highlighted used different factors and asked different questions

All Different but similar to what we at CSU were trying to learn and define All studies looked at came up with a definition of what student success is AND defined how they would measure it Common themes, definitions, and questions surrounded: Grade point average (GPA) Retention Progression Graduation (RPG) Format of instruction: one-shot classes, for credit Author(s) Research Question(s)/Statements Element Looked At Soria, K. M. & Fransen, J. & Nackerud, S.(2013)

Is the use of the library, especially by first-year students, associated with academic success and retention? - Logins to databases and websites Participation in workshops Demographics, academic background, ethnicity, race, ect. Weaver, M. (2013) How are academic libraries developing and supporting students into and beyond higher education? - Tied common themes of library use

and the success Retentions rates Stone, G., & Ramsden, B. (2013) There is a statically significant correlation between library activity and student attainment. - Cook, J. M. (2014) How does the library contribute to student retention and graduation rates? - Large public university- University of MinnesotaTwin Cities

Looked at universities across the US and the UK Looked at 33,074 undergraduate students across eight UK Universities University of West Georgia - - - Kot, F. C., & Jones, J. L. (2015) Georgia State College How does using library resources and services impact undergraduate students' academic performance in their first term? -

- - e-resource usage, library borrowing statistics Gate count Compared against final degree award RPG rates of full-time students entering UWG in the fall semester of each year First-year students (never took a college course) GSU Library provided data on student's utilization of library workstations, group study room reservations, and research clinic attendance. Office of Institutional Effectiveness merged library use data with student background characteristics and

academic records. GPA Study Research Question(s)/Statements Findings Findings - Students who use the library had an average GPA of 3.18 Soria, K. M. & Fransen, J. & Nackerud, S.(2013) Is the use of the library, especially by first-year 2.98 average GPA of students did not use GPA the Large public university- University of Minnesota- Students students,who associated

with academic success and use the library had an averagevs. GPA of 3.18 vs. 2.98who average of library Twin Cities retention? students who did not use the library - significant association between library usage and first to second semester significant association between library usagestudents' and students' first toretention. second

semester retention. - The most significant correlation observed between the number of databases and e-journals accessed and Weaver, M. (2013) Looked at universities across the US and the UK The most significant correlation observed between of databases and enrollment the into a number LIBR type course e-journals accessed and enrollment type course - Retention is increased if the library is used within the first How are academic

libraries developing and into a LIBR few weeks. supporting students into and beyond higher Student engagement is critical to retention: Librarians need to engage - Student engagement is critical to retention: Librarians education? need to engage students in their learning. students in their learning. - The more resources used = more likely student will attain a degree Stone, G., & Ramsden, B. (2013)

Looked at 33,074 undergraduate students across eight UK Universities Cook, J. M. (2014) University of West Georgia Statistical analysis shows a positive relationship between book - Statistical analysis shows a positive relationship between There is a statically significant correlation between borrowing and degree result book borrowing and degree result library activity and student attainment. - No correlation between library entries and degree those attainment who took a for-credit library - The library is important to students regardless of what they could find on the internet Graduation rates were higher for

course - Graduation weredid highernot for those who took GPAHow significantly highertothan thoserates who take thea fordoes the library contribute studentthose retentionthat credit library course and graduation rates? course - GPA significantly higher than those that those who did not take the course

Kot, F. C., & Jones, J. L. (2015) Georgia State College How does using library resources and services Increased use of workstations impact undergraduate students' academic by performance in their first term? a - Student credit load appeared to be positively related to the likelihood library workstations student leadof using to higher GPA - Increased use of workstations by a student lead to higher GPA

- Possible bias in the study More Takeaways From the Literature Students value the library They want library resources and will use them It is not the reason why they choose the university, but a reason why they stay (Weaver, 2013) The IS a correlation between student success and use of the library Questions We Wanted Answered How do students use library resources? What is the value of the library to students? What is the impact of library on student success? Hypothesis There IS a correlation that CSU Libraries too, has an impact upon student success through support services and resources offered! THE METHOD The Rationale For the Narrative

Mixed-Methodological Approach September 2015 research process began Formed the Library Research Team Literature review relevant to the study Institutional Review Board (IRB) for review and approval Sampling Technique Methods: Research Questions 1) What percentage of students use library services regularly? 2) How do students rate the value of library services? 3) Does library usage relate to student academic performance? If so, which services and resources have the most impact? Figure 3: Summary of Methods Method Data Discussed

SURVEYS Fall 2015 Library Usage Perceptions of library services on academic achievement Satisfaction Ratings Relationship between library use and G.P.A (correlation/linear regression analysis) Qualtrics Software, MS Excel & SPSS FOCUS GROUPS Spring 2016 6 focus-groups: 4 student groups (N= 35); 2 Groups Faculty/staff (N = 15). Key Themes Library Instruction (LIBR course); Collections Technology: computers, and Online resources -GALILEO, GIL, ILL Facilities / Learning Spaces; Staff support

DeskTracker, Library Services Data Collection Tool Gate Count, Online Searches Office of Institutional Research (Spring 2016) Institutional data on graduation rates (LIBR 1105) (Annual Reports) Figure 4:Respondent Characteristics by Sex Answer % Count Female 69.96%

333 Male 30.04% 143 Total 100% 476 Figure 5:Respondent Characteristics (by Race/Ethnicity) Question Black/African American Hispanic/Latin

American Pacific Islander/Asian Middle Eastern Native American White/Euro American Other, please specify Female Male Total 77.44% 151 22.56%

44 195 47.83% 11 52.17% 12 23 81.82% 9 18.18% 2

11 100.00% 0.00% 4 0 0.00% 0.00% 0 0 4 0 65.14% 142 34.86%

76 218 62.50% 15 37.50% 9 24 Figure 6: Respondent Characteristics (by Sex & Academics Classification) (N= 476) Question Freshman Sophomore Junior

Senior Other (Please specify) Female 75.41% 74.73% 65.42% 67.14% 71.43% 46 68 70 94 Male 24.59% 25.27% 34.58% 32.86%

15 23 37 46 Total 61 91 107 140 55 28.57% 22 77 Figure 7: Respondent Characteristics (N=576) Answer

Response % International Students 15 3% Transfer Student 91 20% Fully-Online Degree Student 31

7% Military/Veteran 50 11% Traditional College Student 263 57% Non-traditional College Student 76 17% First Generation student

(1st in my family to attend college 50 11% RESULTS Q1:Students using library services (Figure 8) 500 450 434 400 350 300 250 200 150 100

50 29 21 0 Main Library RiverPark Use Both Libraries LIBRARIES RESPONSE % Schwob Library (Main campus) 434

89.67 Music Library (River Park) 21 4.34 Use both libraries 29 5.99 Total 484 100 Various ways in which students use

library services at CSU Planning meetings for student clubs Networking, consultations & collaborative work Use Printing & Photocopying Services Access & use computers, Chrome Books & WiFi connection Hangout/catch up on unfinished business Annual Library Usage by Patrons (Figure 9) Gate Count Totals 500,000 450,000 Y E

A R 400,000 350,000 300,000 T O 250,000 D A T E 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0

2013 June 2014 June Gate Count Totals 2015 June 2016 June Searches of Online Resources (Figure 10) Annual Totals

Annual Totals # of Searches 2012-2013 2,395,336 2013-2014 4,627,670 2014-2015 6,367,318 2015-2016 6,003,389 7,000,000

6,000,000 Y E A R 5,000,000 4,000,000 T O 3,000,000 D A T E 2,000,000 1,000,000

0 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 Annual Totals Q2 (a). How do students perceive the value of the selected Library services ? (Figure 11) Helpfulness (Figure 12) Resources with relatively low ratings of use Resources Most Used Interlibrary Loan 76% Online Databases

(GALILEO) 96% Library Instruction 76% Printing 93% CSU E-Press 71% Library Computers 93% Universal Cataloging (GIL)

91% Summary of Services Used in the Library (Figure 13) Response Percentage of students who have used services Have you ever -Taken LIBR 1105 -Academic Research Methods course 97% Have you ever Participated in library workshop (e.g. by a librarian who visited your class). 91% Have you ever -Taken a course in which the instructor required you to

use library resources 77% Have you ever Participated in Online library tutorials 93% Have you ever -Attended a lecture at the CSU Libraries 82% Have you ever -Attended a Workshop at the CSU Libraries 96% Q2(b) What impact has CSU libraries had on your ability to do the following: (Figure 14) Learning activities

Percent of students who say that by having access to, and use of library services, they have been able to successfully perform the listed activities Locate print, electronic, and multimedia resources 86% Gather information ethically to avoid plagiarism and copyright issues 83% Write a successful research assignment/paper 83%

Earn better grades on research assignments 81% Q2 To what extent are you satisfied with the following Library Services ? (Figure 15) Question Total Response Response Rate Very Satisfied 192 40.94% Satisfied

260 43.28% Dissatisfied 10 2.13% Very Dissatisfied 7 1.49% Total 469 100.00%

Q3.If library usage relate to student academic performance, which services have the most impact? (Figure 16) R2= 0.140 F= 48.7 P= 0.000 Parameters Standardized Beta Coefficients P- value N=331 Taken LIBR 1105Academic Research Methods course 0.022 0.682 Participated in a library workshop

(e.g. by a librarian who visited your class) 0.113 0.045*** Taken a course in which the instructor required you to use the library -0.076 0.473 Participated in Online library tutorials 0.541 0.03*

Attended a lecture at the CSU Libraries -0.804 0.422 Attended a Workshop at the CSU Libraries 0.594 0.000*** Six Year Graduation Rates for FTFT Students Taking LIBR 1105 (Figure 17) Graduation Rates for FTFT Library Students (Figure 18) FOCUS GROUPS RESULTS RiverPark Campus & International Students

Figure 19: RiverPark Focus Group Resources Thread Battle of the Print Books vs EBooks Print Books E-Books Some students prefer print books Some students prefer e-books (Survey seem to indicate that students want print books related to courses ) Some profess require print books for assignments (Informal polling Suggest the same) Ebooks provide multiple copies A social science major wants more than one book on a subject because of different viewpoints on a topic.

Ebooks are more current Access to computers - Not everyone has access to computers or not enough computers to access ebooks Print books are outdated RiverPark Focus Group Library Spaces Thread Study Areas= Forum Areas= Workshops= RiverPark Focus Group Library Services Thread Librarians & Staff Finding information (electronically and physical location) Providing Research Advice & Developing Topics Understanding the available resources

Bibliographic Instruction Beneficial that librarian came to her class in her freshmen years Functionality of the Library: and Interlibrary loan Librarians and Staff are AWESOME! Library Space: Noise Noise: 1st Floor, 2nd Floor Not enough quiet spaces in the library Einsteins: Extremely Loud = Noisy Squared Dislike coming to library between 12-1:30 A positive comment: I like the food and studying Separate But Special Issue The Music Library does not feel welcoming to Non-art majors International Students & Library Services Librarians dont connect with international students

People in the library dont understand international students Make resources/services known to international students Hire international students Positives Library hours are good White boards are good International Students &Library Spaces More quiet spaces (MC) Paint Color and Carpet color needs to change Library need to focus on more study rooms Einstein's is convenient /Designated spaces for eating Designated social spaces in the library *MC= Multiple Comments*

International Students & Technology Not enough outlets for charging laptops Wi-fi is spotty on 3rd floor Figure 20: International Students & Resources Print Books E-Books Print Books are old Electronic books are easy to access Interlibrary loan books should be added to the collection I use online resources heavily Never find what I need FOCUS GROUPS RESULTS Graduate and LIBR 1105 Students

Graduate Students: 8 Participants Collection: students used the library resources and found them helpful in their academic success; love historical collections Technology: Wi-fi is spotty at best on the 2nd and 3rd floors of the library; love dual monitors; want longer checkout period for laptops Services: Promote more services and resources so students will know about them; love online services; staff is helpful If it werent for the library sources, I couldnt be successful in my classes.

The checkout hours [for laptops] are actually only three hours of limit. We feel that it could have been like five to six hours. The online services are absolutely fantastic. I have never had any issues with those Graduate Students Continued Library should create Instruction: wished librarians would come to videos to promote library graduate classes like they services and resources., do for undergraduate Create an LIBR course for courses graduate student research; LIBR should

be mandatory or Library Space: Quiet something rooms dont help with [The noise] deters me noise from coming in. LIBR 1105: 2 Credit Information Literacy Course: 10 Participants Technology: Love two computer screens You look back and you say, wow, if I had taken this in the beginning I'd have such great papers. Space: Study rooms are not any quieter LIBR should be mandatory. Collections

I really don't know what I learned from Instruction: LIBR should be shorter; wished they had taken it in the beginning. the class. I feel like we just keep learning how to use search engines. Limitations of the study The Survey One-stop-shop type of study very limiting in determining correlations: Use longitudinal study Too many questions: survey fatigue Sample selection procedure (use random selection to allow probability analysis Short time for planning and executing the project Focus-groups Increase the number of students to include Online-students Annual public service statistics Need for disaggregated data from all library departments Standardized reports on other services (instruction, archives etc)

Concluding Remarks Results indicate that majority of students in at CSU access the main library for their research and academic related needs. Both undergraduate and graduate students find library resources very helpful. International students Non-traditional students are particularly interested in using hard-copy textbooks in addition to online materials. Graduate students need specialized learning spaces for quiet study and collaboration on research Overall, comments received on the survey and focusgroups addressed the following themes (next slide) Figure 21: Recommendations Collections Update Print Books NOISE! ! RiverPar

k Campus Expand Service QUIETER! WIFI Improve services & Expand Computer Access Info Commons Expand & Update Study Spaces Expand ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Mark Flynn, Dean of Libraries Thomas Ganzevoort, Associate Professor, Library Science Dr. Katherine White, Associate Professor, Psychology Sridhar, Sitharaman, Director of Institutional Research Julie Caulder, Administrative Assistant to Dean of Libraries BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SOURCES Cook, J. M. (2014). A Library Credit Course and Student Success Rates: A Longitudinal Study. College & Research Libraries, 75(3), 272-283. Kot, F. C., & Jones, J. L. (2015). The Impact of Library Resource Utilization on Undergraduate Students' Academic Performance: A Propensity Score Matching Design. College & Research Libraries, 76(5), 566-586. Krueger R. 2015. A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 5th Edition. Sage Publishers. Stone, G., & Ramsden, B. (2013). Library Impact Data Project: Looking for the Link between Library Usage and Student Attainment. College & Research Libraries, 74(6), 546-559. Soria, K. M. & Fransen, J. & Nackerud, S.(2013). Library Use and Undergraduate Student Outcomes: New Evidence for Students Retention and Academic Success. portal: Libraries and the Academy 13(2), 147-164. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from Project MUSE database. Weaver, M. (2013). Student Journey Work: A Review of Academic Library Contributions to Student and Success. New Review Of Academic Librarianship, 19(2), 101-124.

CSU statistical data obtained through the Office of Institutional Research Transition Questions? Comments? Thank You!

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