RHETORICAL APPEALS When you read or listen to an argument, determine what type of persuasive argument is being used: Logos, Ethos, or Pathos
LOGOS logic Appeals to (The Mind) Uses definitions, analogies, factual data, statistics, and quotations Structure and layout
Repetition of words, phrases, or ideas Uses citations from experts and authorities Denotative meanings/reasons Causes a cognitive, rational response FAVORED IN ACADEMIC SETTING ETHOS and Appeals to values ethics and credibility
appropriate to audience and Language (Right and wrong) subject Restrained, sincere, fair minded presentation Asks questions of right and wrong Presents author or speaker as being reliable and respectful of audience
Asks audience to make a value judgment OFTEN USED IN LAW PATHOS Appeals to emotions Vivid, concrete language Emotionally loaded language Emotional, personal examples Figurative language Evokes an emotional response MOST POWERFUL APPEAL
Why I should have an extra hour past curfew: Identify the type of appeal Havent I always been trustworthy? Puppy-dog eyes Studies show that teens whose parents trust them have higher self esteem.
Persuasive Techniques More Techniques an author uses to persuade Glittering generalities Bandwagon Testimonials Citing statistics (logos) Emotional or loaded words
Name calling Plain folk Snob appeal Faulty cause Bandwagon Everybody else is buying this product. Millions of people agree; [our product] really works! or- [our candidate] will be the voice of the people! You dont want to miss out.
Jump on the bandwagon by being like everyone else! Testimonials A celebrity endorses a product. The consumer believes I can be just like him/her! or- If its good enough for [Bob], its good enough for me!
Citing Statistics Uses numbers to prove their product is better. 1 our of 2 people agree that [our product] is better! or- [Our product] is already used in over 1 million homes! orResearch shows the air in our homes is 4 times more polluted! Emotional/Loaded Words Positive words make you feel good- so,
consumers buy the product. Do you want your home smelling clean, fresh, and odor-free? Negative words make you feel badthis plays on your heart. [Our product] cleans even the dirtiest bathrooms! or- Are you suffering from allergens and pollutants you cannot see? Name Calling Slamming the competition
Selected words give a negative impression of the product, person, or group of people. We guarantee you customer satisfaction, unlike the other guys! Plain Folk This is an appeal to the common person. Anybody can use/benefit from [our product]!
or- Its so easy to use, even a cavemen can do it. Everyday folk use [our product] or support [our candidate]. Snob Appeal Only the elite use this! You are special! I use this hair color because Im worth it! orI send my kids to Flighty Magnet
School because theyre worth it! [Our product] takes a lifetime to earn it. Faulty Cause Promise of something it cant deliver. Do you want to eliminate fine lines and wrinkles? [Our product] will diminish the
look of fine lines and wrinkles in less than six weeks!
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