Sparts of Peach A REVIEW of PARTS OF SPEECH Do you know them all and can you identify them in a paragraph? Common Noun Proper Noun Abstract Noun Concrete Noun Pronoun Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns
Conjunctions Interjections Verb tenses Superlative forms Comparative forms Why Do You Need to Know& Remember APRIL!!!
APRIL TESTING I F YOU DO NOT PASS April testing with a 70%, you will be taking additional LA classes next year (2 or 3 LA a day)NO ELECTIVES! This goes for Math too! IT IS VITAL THAT YOU NOT ONLY LEARN THIS YEAR BUT THAT YOU REMEMBER WHAT YOU LEARN AS WELL!!!! How do Sparts of Peach (Parts of Speech) Help you? If you know them you can use them to figure out the answers to questions
you dont know. Example Suppose you have an analogy question and you have no idea what the answer is. Gasoline is to a car as _________is to a cell. A. mildly B. aqua C. glucose D. because If you know your parts of speech, you
know a noun has to go in the blankthe only noun in the answer list is C: Glucose. THIS SHOULD BE REVIEW FOR ALL OF YOU!!! Take good notes. You will need them to study for. APRIL!!! NOUNS
A PERSON, PLACE, THING, EMOTION, IDEA OR PHILOSOPHY. TYPES OF NOUNS PROPER: CAPITALIZE THEM! They are specific people, places, etc COMMON: Everything else! CONCRETE: You can Touch these nouns (like you can touch CONCRETE) ABSTRACT: You cannot touch these
nouns. Examples: love, anger, Hinduism, etc Collective: group nouns (families, sisters , students) Compound: 2 words together that make a new noun Singular and Plural and Possessives USUAL RULE :ADD AN S OR ES TO PLURAL, MEANING MORE THAN ONE SOME NOUNS ARE IRREGULAR, YOU WILL SPELL THEM DIFFERENTLY TO MEAN MORE THAN 2.
Possessive means ownership. If a word ends in ANY letter other than s the rule is add: S If the word ends in S already add: S Think of the apostrophe as a leashif you OWN a dog it has a leash, if you OWN anything else, it needs a leash too! There is only one word that doesnt use an to show ownership. Do you know what it is? The exception..because there always is one. If the word is singular and ends in s add
s The word ITS is the only word in our language that does not use an apostrophe to show ownership. PRONOUNS Lets take apart the word first. PRO = FOR (pro is a prefix) Noun = person, place, thing, emotion, idea, philosophy
So>>> a PRONOUN stands in FOR a noun 4 kinds ***Hint: take the word apart to figure out what they are asking for. Personal Interrogative Demonstrative Indefinite Reflexive and Intensive
Personal Pronouns YOU USE THEM ALL THE TIME!!!! I, me, mine, my, we, our, ours = 1 st Person You, your, yours=2nd Person He, she, it, his, hers, theirs= 3 rd Person 2nd person is never to be used again on penalty of DOOM!!!! Never, Never, rrogativeNEVER!!!!!!!
Pronouns= Question W Who, which, where, why, when, whom, who Indefinite Pronouns= you Somewhere, someone, anyone, dont know how no one, everyone, any, few,
most, several, etc Demonstrative many Pronouns=demonstr ate where things are This, That, These, Those Reflexive & Intensive The Pronouns=self,
coach congratulated himself. = reflexive (by itself) He himselfselves, trained the fine athletes.=intensive (there are two pronouns back to back referring to the same person.) Agreement w/Indefinite pronouns & Subject Verb Agreement Pronouns and their verbs must agree dont forget!!!
Each of the countries in the world has its own holiday. Some have holidays in honor of their independence. Also, especially with pronouns, be sure your verbs agree! NO! NO! NO! In LA or in ANY class, you will use Formal
Language. Do not text in your papers. Capitalize your I, when you are talking about yourself, DO NOT USE TEXTING SYMBOLS: &, -N-, ----, 2, 4, C, etc. Remember This Word!!!!!! ANTECEDENT The word the pronoun has replaced Verbs =Doing Words Types of Verbs
Action: Can you stand up and DO it. Being: Can you Do it, but no one can see you doing it? (being verbs are usually helping verbs too) To Test a Verb by inserting it into this question: Can you ______________? Does it end in ed or ingif so, its a verb Other Kinds of Verbs Helping Verbs: Verbs that help others to establish tense, usually past or future. Linking Verbs: If can substitute the verb
is for the verb in the sentence, then the verb in the sentence is a linking verb. Infinitive forms: The verb with the word to in front of it. (to run, to jump, to have, to be) Irregular verbs: Not conjugated using the original root word. Example: TO BE VERB PHRASES: Two verbs working together in the same sentence. ***Verb Direct and Indirect Objects or (Who gets what for Christmas?)
A direct object receives the ACTION of the verb. An indirect object shows who or what was effected by the verb. Example: Jill showed Tom a diagram of a large ant colony. The diagram was showed (shown)it is the DO-it received the showing. Tom was the who that was effected. (Hopefully he learned something about ants) ADJECTIVES
Modify =Describe ADJECTIVES Modify (describe) NOUNS They can clump together in a sentence They can Compare Proper= capitalized : Parisian jewelers, Swiss chocolate Positive form= Regular Adjective: COLD or FRIDGID Comparative form= COLDER or MORE FRIDGID Superlative Form= COLDEST or MOST
Comparative Adjective Rules Regular Adjectives: Comparative= add ER Superlative= add EST (see spelling rules page186-187) Irregular Adjectives: Listen! (See Box on Page 188) Correct: Good Better
Best *we dont say Gooder or Betterer Article Adjectives = The and A vs. An If the word after the article starts with a vowel or a silent vowel sound, use AN otherwise use A. AN Apple, AN Honorable Man A cupcake ADVERBS=
ADDS TO A Adverbs Modify almost EVERYTHING! ( Verbs, other adverbs, and adjectives) VERB Verbs: Jack jumps very well. Adjectives: Joan wore a slightly torn dress. Other Adverbs: John ran quickly quietly down the hall.
Adverbs usually end in ly except the word Very, which you will see a lot on standardized tests Adverbs Tell When or If something happens Yesterday, now, later. Never Be sure never to use double negatives. (Youll sound like a country bumpkin!) Example: I dont never go to the movies
Correct: I dont EVER go to the movies. Tells: How, When, How much. 4 Tests for an Adverb Does it end in ly Is there a Very? (often it is modifying the very next word in the sentence) Does some word tell when or if it happened (day) words. Find the verb, then ask does this word describe how that verb was done?
UH-OH: They have comparative and superlative forms too! (its a syllable thing) Positive: Brightly Comparative: more brightly Superlative: most brightly One or two syllables-add er (C)and est (S) (dont forget to drop the ly) More than two syllables add more and most (s) Dont use more or most with er or est njunctions = AND, BUT, O
Conjunction, junction, whats your function? Hookin up words and phrases, and clauses Conjunctions join things. You will need to use them when we get to sentence pathways. Dont Forget! Correlative conjunctions: 2 together Example: either +or, both + and INTERJECTIONS!!!!!!!!!
EXTREME Emotion; they end Show with a ! Appositive Phrases An appositive phrase modifies (describes) a word FURTHER. IT IS ALWAYS SET APART BY 2 COMMAS IN THE MIDDLE OF A SENTENCE! It modifies the noun it refers to. Examples:
Mrs. Kemp, the Wicked Witch of the West, tortures us with homework. Mrs. Kemp , the Good Witch of the North, gave us an extra day on yesterdays homework. Dont confuse Appositives with Antecedents. Appositives modify words. Antecedents are the words REPLACED by pronouns!
Prepositions, Prepositional Phrases and Objects of the Preposition Show relationships Prepositional Phrases start with a preposition and end with a noun. The NOUN at the end is always the object (beware of compound
objects) When you look for parts of speech in a sentence, cross out all the prepositional phrases firstthen test and choose from what is left. Don t let them dangle, it will be lonely. Ex: Give me the paper she was writing on. Should be: on which she was writing. Let The Music Begin. ABOUT, ABOVE, AFTER, AGAINST ALONG, AMONG, AROUND, AT BEFORE, BEHIND, BELOW, BENEATH BESIDES, BETWEEN, BEYOND, BY DOWN, DURING,FOR,FROM,IN,INTO
ON, WITH, OVER, THROUGH, TO, TOWARDS, LIKE, NEAR, AS, OFF, UNDER WITHIN, WITHOUT, UNTIL 4 Types of Sentences Declarative: Makes a statement ;ends with a period. Interrogative: Asks a question; ends with a question mark. Imperative: Gives an order or command; ends with a period. (Think training your dog)
Exclamatory: Expresses STRONG feeling; ends with an exclamation point. 4 Sentence Pathways (use one of each in every paragraph!) Simple=1 subject + 1 verb Example: The dog ran through the woods. Compound= 2 subjects + 2 verbs + 1 conjunction joining the two. Example: The dog ran through the woods and the cat jumped over the fence. Complex= 1 simple sentence + a dependent phrase+
a comma Example: While I was in the garage, the dog ran through the woods. Compound-Complex: 1 dependent phrase + a comma + 1 compound sentence Example: While I was in the garage, the dog ran through the woods and the cat jumped over the fence. Complex and Compound Confusion? HINT: If they confuse you, always put your phrase at the beginning and then just add a simple or compound sentence.
Question: Is a sentence with an apositive phrase a simple sentence? NO!!!!! Any time you put an appositive phrase in a sentence, that sentence then becomes either complex or compound complex depending upon
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