Science 1206 Unit 2: Chemistry Periodic Table Videos 1 Chemical Reactions Chemistry: the study of matter, its properties and its changes Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space (energy is not matter). The 3 states of mater: 2 Solid liquid

gas Pure Substances Pure Substances: have constant composition; all the particles that make up the substance are the same 1. Elements: - the simplest form of matter that can exist under normal conditions - composed of only one kind of atom - cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical means (heat/electricity) - combine to form other substances 2. Compounds: substances composed of two or more different kinds of atoms can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means 3

Mixtures Mixtures have variable compositions Homogeneous Mixtures: solutions have only one visible component Heterogeneous Mixtures: mechanical mixtures have 2 or more visible components 4 Composed of 2 or more substances eg. sand in water, vegetable soup

Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds 5 Mixtures Homogeneous 6 uniform look Mixtures Heterogeneous 7 Mixtures A closer look

8 Properties of Matter Physical Property: 9 characteristics of matter, used to identify substances eg. state at room temperature, boiling and melting points, color, solubility, mass, electrical conductivity Properties of Matter Chemical Property: characteristic of

matter that can be observed when matter undergoes a change in composition (chemical reaction): 10 describes "how it reacts butane reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water Examples Substance Iron Sodium Sugar Propane 11 Physical

Property Chemical Property Changes in Matter Physical Change: a change in the size or form of a substance that does not change its composition 12 cutting, bending, changes in state: boiling, melting, condensing, and solidifying Changes in Matter Chemical Change: a chemical reaction; a

change in which at least one or more new substances 13 (products) are formed. The products have different properties from the starting substances (reactants). Fe(s) + O2(g) Fe2O3(s) The rust produced has completely different properties from iron and oxygen. Change in Matter Evidence

14 of Chemical Change: change in color, odor, energy (temperature change, light) bubbles = new gas produced precipitate = new solid produced Hard to reverse Homework Read pg. 172-174 Questions: 1,2,4,7 Homework 15 Check:

All elements can be split into two groups Metals and Nonmetals Elements and Periodic Table PROPERTY LUSTRE MALLEABILITY 16 METALS shiny malleable (bendable) NONMETALS dull brittle

CONDUCTIVITY OF HEAT & ELECTRICITY good conductors STATE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE all solids except mercury, Hg = liquid most are gases, some are solids and bromine, Br = liquid REACTIVITY WITH ACID

mostly yes no left of staircase line right of staircase line LOCATION (PERIODIC TABLE) poor or nonconductors Metals and Nonmetals 17 Metalliods METALLOIDS

18 (Semimetals) elements that have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals includes all elements on either side of the staircase line except Al and At also includes one form of Carbon, graphite, which is dull and brittle (nonmetal), but is a good conductor of electricity (metal) CHEMICAL FAMILIES (GROUPS): Elements are grouped on the periodic table according to physical and chemical properties These are called Chemical Families or Groups

19 Noble Gases Alkali Metals Halogens Alkaline Earth Metals Metals and Nonmetals Transition Elements Lanthanides Actinides 20 Hydrogen Special Case - the lightest element and most abundant element in the universe

- doesn't really belong to any group - it sometimes behaves like an alkali metal, sometimes like a halogen and at other times in its own unique way ie. as an acid 21 Groups and Periods Groups (Families) refer to the vertical columns Numbered on top Periods 22 refer to the horizontal rows (Think school periods)

The Atom THE ATOM: The basic building block of all matter Electrically neutral: # of positive charges = # of negative charges composed of 3 types of subatomic particles: PARTICLE 23 SYMBOL RELATIVE CHARGE ACTUAL MASS (g) LOCATION Proton

p+ 1+ 1.67 x 10-24 nucleus Neutron no 0 1.67 x 10-24 nucleus Electron e-

1- 9.11 x 10-28 orbital Finding the # of Protons The Atomic Number IS the # of Protons Mass Number/ Finding the # of Electrons If the element is NEUTRAL, then # protons = # electrons Finding the # of Neutrons Mass Number = # p + # n Therefore # n = Mass Number - # p 24 Examples 25

Quantum Mechanics According to this theory, an electron with a specific energy occupies a region in space (orbital) or electron energy level. 26 Electron Energy Diagrams 27 The number of occupied energy levels in any atom is normally the same as the period number in which the atom appears for the first 3 energy levels, the maximum number of electrons that can be present are 2, 8 and 8 in order of increasing energy

(increasing distance from nucleus) a lower energy level is filled with electrons to its maximum before the next level is started. the electrons in the highest (outermost) occupied energy level = valence electrons, which is the same as the group number (for group A elements) Example (max 8) (max 8) (max 2) 28 The electrons in the Outermost shell are called Valence Electrons Examples 29 Worksheet

Complete the worksheet # 1 on pg 12 Checked as homework tomorrow 30 IA,1 VIIIA, 18 Worksheet 1 1 1e1p+ H 3 1e2e3p+ Li 31

2 2e2p+ He IIA, 2 IIIA, 13 IVA, 14 VA, 15 VIA, 16 VIIA, 17 4 2e2e4p+ Be

5 3e2e5p+ B 6 4e2e6p+ C 7 5e2e7p+ N 8 6e2e8p+ O 9 7e2e9p+ F 11 1e8e2e11p+

Na 12 2e8e2e12p+ Mg 19 1e8e8e2e19p+ K 20 2e8e8e2e20p+ Ca 13 3e8e2e13p+ Al 14 4e8e2e14p+ Si

15 5e8e2e15p+ P 16 6e8e2e16p+ S 17 7e8e2e17p+ Cl 10 8e2e10p+ Ne 18 8e8e2e18p+ Ar How many VALENCE e-s on each one?? STABLE ATOMS (pg. 4 notes)

(pg 188 Book) The noble gases are very stable (unreactive) They all have 8 valence electrons Other elements are unstable (reactive) They have to lose OR gain electrons to find stability a) Octet Rule: - atoms attempt to obtain 8 valence electrons b) Duet Rule: - atoms attempt to obtain 2 valence electrons - includes H, Li and Be

32 Valence electrons = electrons in the outermost shell Ions When an element loses or gains electrons, they become charged Sngle atoms: form simple ions (monatomic ions) Na = sodium atom become: Na+ = sodium ion and

Cl = chlorine atom Cl- = chloride ion group of atoms: form complex ions (polyatomic ions) 33 and Ex. N and O can form Atoms = No charge NO3- - nitrate ion Ions = Charged Sodium metal and chlorine gas react to produce NaCl, a very stable and unreactive substance, compared to Na (alkali metal) or Cl (halogen).

They do so by first forming ions. 34 Finding the charge of an ions 35 1. Determine how many electrons an element must lose/gain 2. Use the periodic table of elements Positive and Negative Ions Elements

that lose electrons form positive ions called Cations Elements that gain electrons form negative ions called Anions 36 WORKSHEET #2: ELECTRON ENERGY-LEVEL DIAGRAMS FOR IONS IA,1 VIIIA, 18 1 1 2

Homework X Complete energy diagrams for IONS Write new symbol with charge Try to find the charge by comparing p+ and e- totals 37 IIA, 2 3 4

IIIA, 13 5 IVA, 14 6 VA, 15 7 VIA, 16 8 VIIA, 17 9 XX 11

12 13 14 X 19 20 10 X 15 16 17 18

X Homework Check Worksheet # 1 Energy Diagrams of Atoms Worksheet # 2 Energy Diagrams of Ions Todays 38 Class Quick recap Naming Ions Biomes Test IA,1

VIIIA, 18 Worksheet 1 1 1e1p+ H 3 1e2e3p+ Li 39 2 2e2p+ He ATOMS IIA, 2

IIIA, 13 IVA, 14 VA, 15 VIA, 16 VIIA, 17 4 2e2e4p+ Be 5 3e2e5p+ B 6 4e2e6p+ C

7 5e2e7p+ N 8 6e2e8p+ O 9 7e2e9p+ F 11 1e8e2e11p+ Na 12 2e8e2e12p+ Mg 19

1e8e8e2e19p+ K 20 2e8e8e2e20p+ Ca 13 3e8e2e13p+ Al 14 4e8e2e14p+ Si 15 5e8e2e15p+ P 16 6e8e2e16p+ S

17 7e8e2e17p+ Cl 10 8e2e10p+ Ne 18 8e8e2e18p+ Ar How many VALENCE e-s on each one?? IA,1 VIIIA, 18 1 1p+ H+

3 2e3p+ Li+ 11 8e2e11p+ Na+ 40 19 8e8e2e19p+ K+ 2 Worksheet 2 2e1p+ H- IONS IIA, 2

IIIA, 13 IVA, 14 VA, 15 VIA, 16 VIIA, 17 4 2e4p+ Be2+ 5 6 X 7

5e2e7p+ N3- 8 6e2e8p+ O2- 9 7e2e9p+ F- 15 8e8e2e15p+ P3- 16 8e8e2e16p+ S2- 17 8e8e2e17p+ Cl1-

12 8e2e12p+ Mg2+ 20 8e8e2e20p+ Ca2+ X 13 8e2e13p+ Al3+ 14 X 2 X 10 X

X A quick review Elements Pure substances composed of 1 type of atom Everything on the periodic table Compounds Pure substances that have more then 1 type of atom Mixtures 41 Substances with made of more then one

compound A quick review Physical properties Chemical properties Physical Changes Chemical Changes 42 Previously The Metals and Nonmetals Groups/Families Periods]

The 43 periodic table Atom Protons Electrons Neutrons Mass Number/ Last Class Energy Levels (2, 8, 8 rules)

Ions: elements that do not have the same number of protons and electrons They have a charge Ex: Ca 2+ 44 Ions Cations Formed when elements lose electrons

Anions 45 : Positive Ions : Negative Ions Formed with elements gain electrons Naming Ions (Notes: pg 5) Write this down!! To name ions: Cations element Ex:

name + the word ion Try: Na = sodium atom Na+ = sodium ion 46 Mg Mg2+ Naming Ions (Notes: pg 5) To name ions: Anions stem Ex:

of element name + ide + the word ion Try: Cl = chlorine atom Cl- = chloride ion F F- More Practice: S 47 O N P

Homework: # English Name International Symbol Number of Proto ns Number of Electron s Number of electron s lost or gained

Eg. Sodium ion Na+ 11 10 Lost 1 1 Neon atom 2 Lithium ion 3

48 Worksheet # 3 - Atoms and Ions 4 Net Cha rge 1+ Lost 1 47 1+ 18 2- Homework Check and Review Worksheets

# 1,2, and 3 should be done Today: 49 Review Worksheet #3 step by step Introduce Naming Ionic Compounds Review Ecology Test #2 # English Name International Symbol Number of Proton

s Number of Electr ons Eg. Sodium ion Na+ 11 10 1 Neon atom 2

Lithium ion 47 4 2- Si 33 7 36 54 8 30 9 50

1+ 1+ 18 6 10 Lost 1 Net Char ge Lost 1 3 5

Number of electrons lost or gained 28 1 P Lost 1 0 Name 11 12 Symbol Charge

p+ Selenide ion 13 14 Intern ationa l Symb ol Nu mbe r of Prot ons 16

17 Numb er of electr ons lost or gaine d Net Ch arg e 18 18 8 10

Pu 19 51 Nu mbe r of Elec tron s Iodine atom 18 20 3+

Rb+ English Name 15 Loss or gain? Ca2+ 13 # e- 54 Unnilseptium atom Gained 2

Ionic Compounds (Notes: pg. 5) (Text: pg 188-195) Ionic Compounds are composed of a cation and an anion Cation Usually a metal (Na+, Mg2+, Li+, Ca2+, Fe3+, etc) Exception - Ammonium, NH4+ Anion Can be a nonmetal (Cl-, N3-, O2-) Polyatomic Ions (NO3-, PO43-, CH3COO-)

52 Ionic Compounds All are solids at SATP (Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure) of 25oC and 100 kPa. When they dissolve in water, they form aqueous solutions that conduct electricity they are electrolytes These compounds form after an electron transfer: 53 Ionic Compounds

These compounds form after an electron transfer: 54 Ex: Calcium and Chlorine form Calcium Chloride Homework 55 Check: Read pg 188 189 Answer questions #1,2,3 Ionic Compounds (metals with

nonmetals) the resulting ions (cations and anions) are attracted to each other (since they are oppositely charged) and they form ionic bonds Together all of the ions present form an ionic crystal lattice in which the net charge is zero 56 Eg: (1) in a sample of sodium chloride, NaCl, for every Na + ion there is one Cl- ion Eg: (2) in a sample of calclium chloride, CaCl2, for every Ca2+ ion there are 2 Cl- ions Crystal Lattice

NaCl : A Formula Unit expression of the simplest whole number ratio of cations to anions 57 Types of Ionic Compounds Monatomic Ions (Simple Ions) Polyatomic Ions (Complex Ions)

58 Single atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons Form Binary Ionic Compounds (2 simple ions) Eg. Na+ Cl- Cations or anions composed of a group of atoms with a net positive or negative charge NH4+ NO2NO3CO32Ammonium ion Nitrite ion Nitrate ion Carbonate ion Types of Ions and Compounds Multivalent Ions

Hydrated Ionic Compounds 59 certain transition metals can form more than one type of ion, each with a different charge Eg. Fe3+ Fe2+ The more commonly occurring is listed on top, thus Fe 3+ is more common than Fe2+ Others: Water molecules are loosely held within the ionic compound Eg.

ZnCl2 6H2O CuSO4 5H2O Binary Ionic Compounds (Write this Down) 60 Composed of two different ions Only Name Formula sodium chloride NaCl

magnesium oxide MgO lithium nitride Li2N aluminum oxide Al2O3 two different types of elements! Binary ionic formulas Given the name, write the formula: Steps 1. Write the symbols for the ions 2. Balance the charges

3. Write the chemical formula Ex: potassium iodide 1. 2. 3. Remember: BaCl2 not BaCl2 Ex: calcium iodide 1. 2. 3. 61 Example: silver oxide 62

beryllium bromide What about these? aluminum oxide 63 zinc nitride Nomenclature (Naming) Name the cation and anion and put them together NaI CaI2 Al2S3 64 Worksheet #4 (Pass in tomorrow) #

Eg. Chemical Formula CaCl2 1. 2. 3. 65 Name of Compound Calcium chloride Potassium chloride MgO Aluminum chloride Science 1206 Complex Ionic

Compounds 66 Write this Down!! Complex Ions More then one type of atom is in the ion Listed on the back of periodic table 67 68 Write this Down!! Give formulas for the following: potassium silver

nitrate aluminum 69 bromate cyanide ammonium carbonate (2 complex ions) calcium 70 hydrogen carbonate Name the following formulas

71 Identify cation and anion first (Look at the tables) NaCH3COO KMnO4 Continued,,, Na3BO3 Man, this is COMPLEX !!!! NH4NO3

If you see lots of letters -- 72 Worksheets Worksheet # 4 Binary Ionic Compounds Worksheet # 5 Complex Ions Both 73 due to be passed in on Tuesday Science 1206 Multivalent Ions 74

Worksheets Due: Worksheet # 4 Binary Ionic Compounds Worksheet # 5 Complex Ions Both 75 due to be passed in Today Quick Review Binary Ionic Compounds Complex 76

Ions Write this Down!! Multivalent Ions Some 77 elements can form more then one ion Multivalent Ions Ex: Can form Fe3+ and Fe2+ the most common ion is listed on top Fe3+ and Cl-

78 Iron Fe2+ and Cl- Naming Rules Named the same as other ionic compounds, but we specify the charge using Roman Numerals 1=I Ex: 2 = II Iron (III) chloride 3 = III

4 = IV 5=V Iron (II) chloride 6 = VI 7 = VII 79 8 = VIII Names Formulas Ex: copper (I) nitrate Ex: copper (II) nitrate 80 Names Formulas continued

Ex: ruthenium (IV) oxide Ex: bismuth (V) carbonate 81 Formulas Names Need to identify which ion is present Use the anion (-) to find the charge of the cation (+) Ex: 82 1. CrF3 2. CrS Cntd

3. Pd(CO3)2 4. Au2O3 83 Worksheets Worksheet Test: 84 # 6 - Multivalent Ions Next week Science 1206 Hydrated Compounds 85

Homework Check Worksheet Return 86 #6 Multivalent Ions Worksheets #4 & #5 Fix mistakes are return to me for marks!! # Chemical Formula Eg. Cu2S

1. AuCl3 2. 2 Cu+ S2- Copper(I) sulfide Mercury(II) oxide 3. Sb2S3 4. V2O5

5. Iron(III) iodide 6. Copper(II) sulfide 7. 87 Name of Compound 8. FeS Tin(II) fluoride 10. 11.

12. 13. Lead(IV) oxide Chromium(III) oxide HgS Uranium(VI) fluoride 14. 15. SnO2 Uranium(IV) oxide 16. 17. Fe2O3 Cobalt(II) chloride 18.

88 19. TiO2 NiBr Write this Down!!! Hydrated Compounds (pg. 6 notes, not in textbook) Ionic compounds sometime have water molecules held loosely Ex: Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate Cobalt chloride dihydrate 89 1 = mono 2 = di 3 = tri 4 = tetra

5 = penta 6 = hexa 7 = hepta 8 = octa 9 = nona 10 = deca Name Formula 1. 2. Give the formula as usual Add #H2O on the end Ex. Zinc chloride hexahydrate 90 1 = mono 2 = di 3 = tri 4 = tetra

5 = penta 6 = hexa 7 = hepta 8 = octa 9 = nona 10 = deca continued Ex: copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate 1 = mono 2 = di 3 = tri 4 = tetra 5 = penta 6 = hexa 7 = hepta 8 = octa 9 = nona 10 = deca 91

Formula Name 1. Name the ionic compound 2. Add prefixhydrate on the end Ex: 92 Ba(OH)2 8H2O 1 = mono 2 = di 3 = tri 4 = tetra 5 = penta 6 = hexa 7 = hepta 8 = octa 9 = nona 10 = deca

Continued Ex: NiCl2 H2O Dont forget to check if the cation is MULTIVALENT!!! 93 1 = mono 2 = di 3 = tri 4 = tetra 5 = penta 6 = hexa 7 = hepta 8 = octa 9 = nona 10 = deca Homework Worksheet

#7 Fix/Finish Worksheets 4 & 5 Remember: 94 Lunchtime tutorial today Friday @ 3:00pm Test Outline Classifications of Matter Pure substances Compounds Mixtures

Properties and Changes of Matter Elements and the Periodic Table 95 Groups/Families Periods The Atom

Naming and Formula Writing 96 # of protons, electrons, neutrons Energy diagrams Ions Binary Ionic Compounds Complex Ions Multivalent cations Hydrated compounds Test 25 Multiple Choice Short Answer Naming

Formula Writing 97 Homework Check Worksheet #6 Multivalent Ions Worksheet #7 Hydrated Compounds Return 98 Worksheets #4 & #5 Fix mistakes are return to me for marks!! Worksheet #6 99 1.

AuCl3 Au3+ 3 Cl- 2. HgO Hg2+ 3. Sb2S3 2 Sb3+ 3 S2- 4. V2O5 5.

FeI3 Fe3+ 3 I- Iron (III) iodide 6. CuS Cu2+ S2- Copper (II) sulfide 7. FeS

Fe2+ S2- Iron (II) Sulfide 8. SnF2 Sn2+ 2 F- Tin (II) fluoride 9. MnO2 Mn4+

2 O2- Manganese (IV) oxide 10. PbO2 Pb2+ 2 O2- Lead (IV) oxide 11. Cr2O3 2 Cr3+ 12.

HgS Hg2+ 13. UF6 14. O2- Gold (III) chloride Mercury(II)oxide Antimony (III) sulfide 2 V5+ 5 O2- Vanadium (V) oxide 3 O2-

Chromium (III) oxide S2- Mercury (II) sulfide U6+ 6 F- Uranium (VI) fluoride SnO2 Sn2+ 2 O2- Tin (II) oxide 15.

UO2 U4+ 2 O2- Uranium (IV) oxide 16. Fe2O3 2 Fe3+ 3 O2- Iron (III) oxide 17. CoCl2 Co2+ 2 Cl-

Cobalt (II) chloride 18. TiO2 Ti4+ 2 O2- Titanium (IV) dioxide 2+ - Worksheet #7 # 10 Name of Hydrate

Chemical Formula Eg. Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate CuSO4 5H2O 1 Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate MgSO4 7H2O 2 Sodium carbonate decahydrate Na2CO3 10H2O 3

Magnesium chloride hexahydrate MgCl2 6H2O 4 Barium chloride dihydrate BaCl2 2H2O 5 Cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate Cd(NO3)2 4H2O 6 Zinc chloride hexahydrate ZnCl2 6H2O

7 Zinc sulphate heptahydrate ZnSO4 7H2O 8 Lithium chloride tetrahydrate LiCl 4H2O 9 Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate Na2S2O3 5H2O 10 Cobalt(II)chloride hexahydrate

CoCl2 6H2O Aluminum chloride hexahydrate AlCl3 6H2O 12 Calclium chloride dihydrate CaCl2 2H2O 13 Barium hydroxide octahydrate Ba(OH)2 8H2O 14 Nickel(II)chloride hexahydrate

NiCl2 6H2O 15 Sodium sulfate decahydrate Na2SO4 10H2O 16 Iron(III)phosphate tetrahydrate FePO4 4H2O 17 Iron (III) sulfate heptahydrate FeSO4 7H2O 18

Calcium sulphate dihydrate CaSO4 2H2O 11 Review: Worksheets 10 Science 1206 Molecular Compounds 10 Molecular Compounds (Handouts pg 8, Text pg 201) MOLECULAR

SUBSTANCES: are solids, liquids or gases at SATP if soluble, dissolve in water to form colorless aqueous solutions that do not conduct electricity they are non-electrolytes they 10 contain only nonmetal atoms Molecular Compounds Molecule: a particle of a molecular substance that contains a fixed number of covalently-bonded nonmetal atoms

Covalent 10 Bond: formed from the sharing of valence electrons between nonmetal atoms, which results in an electron structure that is the same as a noble gas, for each atom in the molecule Covalent Bonding Hydrogen Chlorine Carbon 10

dioxide Note: Ionic vs Molecular 10 Ionic Compounds Molecular Compounds Cation (+) and Anion (-) Electrons exchanged Ionic bonds Solids at Room Temp Electrolytes Only nonmetals Electrons shared Covalent bonds Gas, liquids, and solids Nonelectrolytes

1. Molecular Elements Only contain 1 type of nonmetal Type Molecular Elements Monatomic one atom Noble gases:He(g) Ne(g) Ar(g) Kr(g) Xe(g) Rn(g) Diatomic two atoms/molecule Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and the Halogens The "HONorable Halogens" H2(g) O2(g) N2(g) Polyatomic more than 2 atoms/ molecule 10

F2(g) Cl2(g) Br2(l) I2(s) At2(s) ozone = O3(g) Phosphorus = P4(s) Sulfur (Sulphur) = S8(s) 2. Molecular Compounds 10 Molecular Compounds a) Common (to memorize): H2O(l) = water CH4(g) = methane CH3OH(l) = methanol H2O2(l) = hydrogen peroxide C3H8(g) = propane C2H5OH(l) = ethanol NH3(g) = ammonia C6H12O6(s) = glucose C12H22O11(s) = sucrose

2. Molecular Compounds B. 10 Binary Molecular Compounds 2 different nonmetals CO CO2 CCl4 Writing Molecular Formulas General Rules

1. Write each atom symbol. 2. Each prefix indicates the subscript for the nonmetal atom that precedes it (# of atoms present). 3. If no prefix is present, then there is only one atom of that nonmetal present. Monoxide = one oxygen atom present. Examples: 11 Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon tetrachloride Suphur trioxide Dinitrogen monoxide Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Naming Molecular Substances General Rules 1. First element is named in full. 2. Second element name is shortened and given an ide ending.

3. Use prefixes (same as for hydrates) to indicate the number of each kind of atom. 11 The prefix mono is usually only used for molecules with 1 atom of oxygen (monoxides). Certain Hydrogen compounds (those with H first in the formula) do not use prefixes. H2S(g) = hydrogen sulfide, not dihydrogen sulfide Examples Examples: NO(g) P4O6(s) SO2(g) SO3(g)

N2O(g) PCl3(s) NI3(s) 11 Homework Worksheet 11 #8 Science 1206 Acids and Bases 11 Homework Check Worksheet

11 8 Molecular compounds Eg. CCl4 1 2 Nitrogen O2 3 4 Argon CO2 5

11 The other noble gases (besides Argon) 6 NO 7 NO2 8 Carbon tetrachloride Sulphur dioxide 9 11

SO3 10 Carbon monoxide 11 Ozone 12 Ethanol 13 Sucrose 14 Sulphur (sulfur)

15 P4O10 16 P4O6 17 Chlorine dioxide 18 Methanol 19 P4 20

21 CH4 22 H2O 23 11 Ammonia Dinitrogen monoxide Acids (p. 10 notes) ACIDS

Properties of acids: 11 Molecules that ionize in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+ (aq), ions which give acids their properties Conduct electricity Turn blue litmus paper red Taste sour React with many metals to produce hydrogen gas, H2(g) Have a pH value of less than 7 Neutralize or partially neutralize bases Acids

General Formula: H____ (aq) or ____COOH (aq) Note: not all hydrogen containing compounds are acids 12 Eg: NH3 CH4 CH3OH

C2H5OH Naming Acids 1. 2. General Rules Name the hydrogen compound like an ionic compound Then convert the ionic name to the acid name hydrogen _______ide becomes hydro______ic acid hydrogen________ite becomes __________ous acid hydrogen________ate becomes __________ic acid 12 Naming Acids hydrogen _______ide becomes hydro______ic acid hydrogen________ite becomes __________ous acid hydrogen________ate becomes __________ic acid

Acid Formula HCl(aq) HCN(aq) HNO2(aq) H2SO3(aq) HNO3(aq) H2SO4(aq) H3PO4(aq) 12 CH3COOH(aq) Ionic Name Acid Name Writing Acid Formulas General Rules: 1. Translate acid name into ionic name: hydro___ic acid hydrogen ___ide

___ous acid hydrogen ___ite ___ic acid hydrogen ___ate 12 2. Write chemical formulas for each ion, using rules for writing formulas for ionic compounds. 3. Hydrogen symbol is written first (cation), except for carboxylic acids (those with COO group), in which case hydrogen is placed at the end eg: CH3COOH 4. Give the state as aqueous = (aq). Examples Acid Name Hydroiodic acid Chlorous acid Chloric acid Boric acid 12 Benzoic acid

hydro___ic acid hydrogen ___ide ___ous acid hydrogen ___ite ___ic acid hydrogen ___ate Ionic Name Formula Homework Worksheet 12 #9 hydrogen _______ide becomes hydro______ic acid hydrogen________ite becomes __________ous acid hydrogen________ate becomes __________ic acid E

HCl(aq) H+ Cl- hydrogen chloride Hydrochloric acid 1 HBr(aq) Hydrogen bromide Hydrobromic acid 2 H2CO3(aq) Hydrogen carbonate Carbonic acid

g . 3 4 Hypochlorous acid H2CrO4(aq) Hydrogen chromate 5 Chlorous acid 6 H2S(aq) Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrosulfuric acid 7 H3BO3(aq) Hydrogen bromate bromic acid 8 HI(aq) Hydrogen iodide Hydroiodic acid 9 12

Chromic acid 10 Oxalic acid HClO4(aq) Hydrogen chlorate Chlroic acid hydrogen _______ide becomes hydro______ic acid hydrogen________ite becomes __________ous acid hydrogen________ate becomes __________ic acid 11 Nitrous acid 12 Benzoic acid

13 H2SO3(aq) Hydrogen sufite 14 15 Sulfurous acid Chloric acid H2S2O3(aq) Hydrogen thiosulfate Thiosulfuric acid 16 Permanganic acid

17 Hydrofluoric acid 18 19 1220 HCN(aq) Hydrogen cyanide Hydrocyanic acid Thiocyanic acid Sulphuric acid Base Most are ionic compounds with OH- and (aq) Properties of bases:

12 Conduct electricity Turn red litmus paper blue Taste bitter Feel slippery Have a pH value greater than 7 Neutralize or partially neutralize acids Bases Naming Bases

Follow the general rules given for ionic compounds NaOH(aq) NH4OH(aq) Writing Base Formulas follow the general rules given for ionic compounds lithium hydroxide 12 Calcium hydroxide WHMIS Workplace and Hazardous Materials Information System

MSDS Material 13 Safety Data Sheet Homework WHMIS Passed in on Monday Very short assignment Naming 13 and MSDS Worksheet and Formula Review Sheet

Science 1206 Chemical Equations 13 Pass in Assignments WHMIS Passed in on Monday Very short assignment Naming Get 13 and MSDS Worksheet

and Formula Review Sheet Homework Checklist Chemical Equations Show how chemicals react to form new compounds and molecules 2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO(s) Reactants Products The number of atoms must be conserved!!! We use Coefficients to balance 13 Before we start:

Learn to count the atoms: Ca(NO3)2 (NH4)2SO4 Ca = N= O= O= 13 N= H= S= Balancing Chemical Equations Start by balancing the atom with the highest numbers: Mg + O2

13 MgO Note: Sometimes easier to balance the IONS instead of the atoms!!! Cu + AgNO3 Ag + 13 Cu(NO3)2 Pb(NO3)2 + 13 KI

PbI2 + KNO3 NH3 13 N2 + H2 CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O 14 Try These: 1. Fe 14 +

O2 Fe2O3 2. Na + Cl2 NaCl 3. AsCl3 + H2S As2S3 + HCl 4. H2SO4 + NaHCO3 Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O 5. 14

C3H8 + O2 CO2 + H 2O Homework Worksheet #10 Balancing We will correct this at the beginning of next class Have it done!!!! Test Review:

14 14 14 WRITING BALANCED CHEMICAL EQUATIONS (pg. 2, Part II notes) To write a balanced chemical equation from a statement or word equation: 1. 2. 14 Write the chemical formulas for all reactants and products involved Arrange as Reactants Products

Example Hydrogen and chlorine react to produce hydrogen chloride gas. 1. Word Equation: 2. Chemical Equation: 14 Example 2 (pg. 6, Balancing Worksheet) Solid potassium and aqueous magnesium chloride react to produce solid magnesium and aqueous potassium chloride. 1. Word Equation: 2. Chemical Equation: 14 Remainder of Class (Homework) Worksheet

#11 Balancing Chemical Reactions 14 Dont forget: WHMIS Worksheet and Formula Review Science 1206 Reaction Types 15 Homework Worksheet Reactions

#11 Balancing Chemical Dont forget: WHMIS Worksheet and Formula Review Quiz Both have to be passed in today on Monday Balancing and Reaction Types 15 Worksheet #11 2. Solid aluminum combines with oxygen gas to produce solid aluminum oxide. Aluminum + oxygen aluminum oxide Al

15 + O2 Al2O3 3. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes (breaks down) into water and oxygen gas. Hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen 2 H2O2 15

2 H2 O + O2 4. The combustion (burning) of ethyne gas, C2H2(g) in the presence of oxygen gas produces carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. ethyne + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 2 C2H2 15 + 5 O2 4 CO2 + 2 H2O Types of Chemical Reactions (pg 2-4

notes) There are 5 types of reactions that you need to recognize: 15 Simple Composition Simple Decomposition Single Replacement Double Replacement Hydrocarbon Combustion 1. Formation (Simple Composition) 2 elements or compounds react to form 1 new compound

Example: General: 2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO A + B AB Word: element + element compound 15 Formation: A + B AB 15 magnesium reacts with oxygen from the air Magnesium + oxygen

Mg + O2 Formation: A + B AB hydrogen 15 and oxygen react to produce water Hydrogen + oxygen water 2 O2 H2 +

2 H2O 2. Decomposition 1 compound breaks down into 2 elements or compounds General: Word: AB A + B compound element + element OR compound compound + compound Example: 2 Cu2O(s) 4 Cu(s) + O2(g) 15 AB A + B water is broken down into its elements Water H2O 16

AB A + B mercury(II) oxide decomposes Mercury(II) oxide HgO 16 3. Single Replacement (Single Displacement) A element replaces the cation/anion in a compound General: A + BC B + AC Word: element + compound element + compound Example:

16 Zn(s) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) Pb(s) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) A + BC B + AC 16 Barium and zinc chloride react Barium + zinc chloride Ba + ZnCl2 A + BC B + AC

chlorine reacts with sodium bromide solution Chlorine + sodium bromide 16 Cl2 + NaBr 4. Double Replacement (Double Displacement) Two compounds react and switch ions General: AB + CD AD + CB Word:

compound + compound compound + compound Example: 16 BaCl2(aq) + AgNO3(aq) Ba(NO3)2(aq) + AgCl(s) 16 solutions of barium chloride and potassium carbonate react barium chloride + potassium carbonate

BaCl2 + K2CO3 5. Hydrocarbon Combustion (Not on midterm) A hydrocarbon (CxHy) reacts with oxygen to produce CO2 and H2O General: CxHy + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g) Word: hydrocarbon + oxygen carbon dioxide + water Example: 16 C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g) 16

Butane, C4H10(g) is burned as fuel in a lighter Butane + oxygen Formation Decomposition Single Replacement Double Replacement Hydrocarbon Combustion 16

Formation Decomposition Single Replacement Double Replacement Hydrocarbon Combustion 17 Homework Worksheets

17 12 13 14 (Not Combustion) Monday Short Quiz Balancing Give equations from names Identify reaction types

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