Protozoa Objective: To know the basic cytology and characteristics of protozoa. Understand their importance in the ecology of water treatment and significance as pathogens in water supply. References Sleigh, M. Protozoa and other Protists Curds, C.R. Protozoa in the Water Industry Mitchell, R Environmental Microbiology Gray, N F Biology of Wastewater Treatment Outline Introduction, Classification, Characteristics, Water Ecology, Water
Pathogens. Protozoa - Introduction Members of Protista kingdom Eukaryotic mostly Unicellular Reproduce - sexually (Conjugation) asexually (Binary Fission) Motile (not all) swimming, gliding, crawling May have Plastids (Algae?) these can be lost Size 5 m - > 500 m Extremely Diverse Morphology c.f. bacteria, fungi Morphology Nucleus in nuclear membrane 1 or 2 nuclei Cytoplasmic Membrane Present in all
Organelles often present mitochondria, golgi, Chloroplasts! Cell Wall - Absent Cell Coat / Shell Pellicle Test Lorica Cilia, Cirri Flagella Contractile Vacuole in free-living protozoa Feeding Autotrophs (Phototrophic) Primary producers like Algae Heterotrophs Saprobic - dead and decaying matter Holozoic - whole live organisms bacteria, algae, other protozoa
Raptorial Feeding Actively seek prey (Didinium) Filtration Cilia beat, cilia trap (Vorticella) Buccal Cavity (Mouth region) Cytostome - Phagocytosis Stick to Prey Suctoria tentacles with haptocyst (Acineta) suck contents of cell Pinocytosis - cell drinking soluble organics Sarcomastigophora Mastigophora subphylum having flagellum Phytomastigophora phototrophic flagellates can lose chloroplasts e.g. Euglena, Peranema
Zoomastigophora animal-like flagellates e.g. Bodo, Oikomonas some parasitic e.g. Giardia*,Trypanosoma* Sarcodina subphylum having pseudopoda Rhizopoda move by pseudopoda Naked - Amoeba, Entamoeba* Testate - Arcella Actinopoda planktonic Radiolaria radial axopoda, siliceous skeleton. ` Apicomplexa Sporozoea simple , resistant spores and oocysts parasitic e.g. Cryptosporidium*
Plasmodium (malaria)* Toxoplasmosis* Microsporidia Myxosporidia Obligate intracellular parasites in vertebrates, invertebrates, protists e.g. Nosema disease in Honey bees Ciliophora The major Phylum in terms of diversity and actual numbers in Aquatic Environments. A number of sub-classes, all have cilia or ciliary organelles. Most are free-living. Four types are of most interest. 1. Suctoria Predatory on other protozoa, sessile. no cilia, but have tentacles. e.g. Acineta,
Podophyra 2. Peritrichia Sessile usually stalked. Bell-shaped pellicle, some have lorica. Cilia bands. e.g. Vorticella Carchesium Opercularia Ciliophora 3. Holotrichia
free-swimming body covered in cilia some predatory e.g. Paramecium Chilodonella Colpidium 4. Spirotrichia cilia in rows, sheets, tufts, - i.e. Cirri Crawl on surfaces e.g. Aspidisca Euplotes Ecological Function Surface waters Sewage treatment primary feeders holozoic - bacterial predation particulate ingestion (detritus)
uptake of dissolved BOD Benefits Purification Clarified effuents Pathogen Removal Ecological Factors Affecting Protozoa Water essential, Encyst when shortage. Temperature Survive extremes by spores or cysts. Oxygen free-living species mostly aerobic gut parasites, symbionts anaerobic. Carbon Dioxide high conc. toxic to many species Paramecium, & Bodo tolerant, find them with pollution.
Salinity Strong effect on water uptake by cell. Contractile vacuole compensates. most species either fresh- or saltwater. Saprobic Zones - Protozoa scheme of Kolkwitz & Marsson (1902) 1. Polysaprobic (large numbers small diversity) BOD (10 - 50 mg/l) 2. Mesosaprobic Bodo, Oikomonas, Paramecium (greater diversity, + pigmented - BOD (5 - 10 mg/l) flagellates)
- BOD (2.5 - 5 mg/l) Chladydomonas (pigmented flagellate) Chilomonas (flagellate) Colpidium (ciliate) Arcella (amoebae) 3. Oligosaprobic BOD (< 2.5 mg/l) photosynthetic protozoa Dinobryon Ceratium + ciliates and amoebae (limited application due to the lengthy identification process) Protozoal Diseases Giardiasis - Giardia lamblia flagellate, symmetrical organelles waterborne epidemics, 106 cases/yr giving diarrhoea, nausea, cramps. adhesive disc attaches to gut wall
animals and humans transmission through faeces cysts resistant to chlorination 108 cysts/g faeces infectious dose 25 cysts Filtration best method for removal Cryptosporidiosis -Cryptosporidium sp. only recently identified epidemiology Sporozoan oocysts Cow faeces (177days 40% viable) 1989 Reading outbreak 1993 Milwaukee 419,000 infected. filtration best prevention Protozoal Diseases
Trypanosomes flagellates T.cruzi Chagas Disease South America animals and man Bugs faeces entersInfants Eyes fatal T. brucei African Sleeping Sickness Tsetse fly vector invade cerebrospinal fluid and brain fatal Amoebic Dysentery Rhizopod Entamoeba histolytica mild infection (gut lumen) severe (gut wall) abscess, metastases in liver warm climates increase incidence of the latter condition. Protozoal Diseases Malaria Plasmodium malariae Sporozoan Complex life cycle Mosquito vector, liver cells and
blood cells. Synchronised erythrocyte lysis 72 hourcycle of fever Prophylactic drugs for blood cells Liver infection resistant - recurrent Leishmanias (flagellates) Oriental Sore - Sand Fly vector local abscess Kala-azar tissue parasite liver, spleen, bone marrow Naegleria fowleri Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis PAM Watersports, Roman Baths + sewage contamination death 7 days , headaches, fever, encephalitis Can harbour Legionella in water tanks
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