FIRE BEHAVIOR Three types of fire behavior Surface

FIRE BEHAVIOR Three types of fire behavior Surface

FIRE BEHAVIOR Three types of fire behavior Surface fire: Fuels at or near the surface Ground: Subsurface organic fuels (duff, organic soils) Crown:

Tree crowns Categories of fires according to human management action: Wildfire: Suppression action is taken Management ignited prescribed fire: Ignited to meet a management objective Prescribed natural fire:

Allowed to burn under a management plan to preserve natural role of fire Fire Behavior: The Wildland Fire Environment Weather Topography

FIRE Fuels Components of the Wildland Fire Environment Weather Temperature

Relative Humidity Atmospheric Stability Windspeed and Direction Precipitation Components of the Wildland Fire Environment Topography Elevation

Position on Slope Aspect Shape of Country Steepness of Slope Components of the Wildland Fire Environment Fuels Fuel Loading

Size and Shape Compactness Horizontal Continuity Vertical Continuity Effects of topography on fire behavior. Fuel load Temperature

Winds Moisture Effect of Aspect on Fuel Temperature and Moisture Heaviest snows Highest Moisture Lowest Temperature Wind Direction

Later Curing of Fuels Late Snow Melt Fuels Transition Fuels Transition Earlier Heating

Later Heating Earlier Cooling Later Cooling Generally Lee Side of Mountain

Generally Windward Side of Mountain Lightest Fuels Lowest Fuel Moisture Highest Temperature Earlier Curing of Fuels Earlier Snow Melt

Slope Affects Fire Behavior Burning Material Rolling Downslope Preheating Draft Faster Ignition and Spread

Characteristics of Fire Behavior FIRE INTENSITY Heat release per unit time (BTUs or KJ) Fire Intensity Affected by Fuel loading Fuel moisture content Compactness or arrangement of

fuels Spread Direction Fla me Le ng th

Flame Height Flaming Zone Rate of Spread (ROS) The distance a fire travels during a given period of time. Burned Area

Primary factors affecting rate of spread? Increased fire intensity Windspeed

Steepness of slope Rate of spread = distance/time 4 acres 16 acres 36 acres

(front) Team Work Construct a sentence using your term(s) that explains the behavior of a particular fire situation but WITHOUT USING THE TERM IN THE IN THE EXPLANATION the rest of the class should be able to determine what the term is based on your

explanation. Running Creeping Smoldering Spotting Spot fires Fire brand Torching

Crowning Flareup Blowup Fire Whirls Wildfire Management ignited prescribed fire Prescribed natural fire Ground fire Surface fire

Crown fire Chimney effect Slope reversal Chimney Effect Slope Reversal Bottom of a Narrow Canyon

Slope Reversal Three types of fire behavior Ground fire: Subsurface organic fuels (duff, organic soils) Surface: Fuels at or near the surface Crown: Tree crowns

Categories of fires according to human management action: Wildfire: Suppression action is taken Management ignited prescribed fire: Ignited to meet a management objective Prescribed natural fire: Allowed to burn under a management plan

to preserve natural role of fire Types of fire behavior Running spreading quickly Creeping spreading slowly with low flames

Smoldering burns without flames; barely spreading Spotting sparks/embers carried by wind or combustion column or moved by gravity Spot fires new ignition points Fire brand a piece of burning material Types of extreme fire behavior orching

surface fire moves into crowns of individual trees Crowning spreads from tree crown to tree crown (dependent, active, or independent) Flareup sudden acceleration of fire spread or intensity (short duration, for portion of fire) Blowup dramatic change in the behavior of the whole fire (rapid transition to a severe fire)

Fire Whirls vortex (gas mass with rotational motion) Fire Affects Its Own Environment Local Winds Atmospheric Stability Clouds/Precipitation Fuel Temperature

Fuel Moisture Wind-driven fire behavior Plume-dominated fire behavior (with downbursts)

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