sustainable development is development that meets the needs
sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (UN Bruntland commission). sustainability is the ability to continue a defined behavior indefinitely (thwink.org, 2014). Sustainable food production is the ability to keep producing food in a way that not only conserves, but renews our natural resources, while it improves nutrition and health outcome for the worlds increasing population (McCann, 2017). Sustainable agriculture and water Depletion: In Punjab: groundwater is being pumped at a rate 30% higher than is being recharged (Pearce, 2006) In California, groundwater is being pumped at an average of 15% more than
the rains can replenish (Pearce, 2006) Usage: Agriculture is responsible for some 69% of the worlds fresh water withdrawals (FAO 2016) 1 kilogram of beef = some15,414 liters of water Degradation: In the U.S., agriculture is cited as a leading cause of groundwater pollution (FAO, 2009) Nitrogen used in agriculture fertilizers have disturbed the natural biogeochemical nitrogen cycle of earth ecosystems, resulting in soil acidification, eutrophication, and nitrate pollution of ground and surface waters (Kanae, Hirabayashi, Yamashiki, & Takara, 2011) Photo Credit/data credit: http://www.globalagriculture.org/report-topics/water.html
Almost half (some 40%)of global land surface is devoted to some form of agriculture Sustainable agriculture and Land (ourworldindata.org). 12% is in cropland, and out of that 12%, over half (8%) is dedicated to animal feed The changing global landscape of crop production, 1700-2000 Alston, Babcock, & Pardey, 2010) based on SAGE data
(ourworldindata.org). Photo credit: https://ourworldindata.org/la nd-use-in-agriculture/: 70% of previous forested land in the Amazon is occupied by pastures, and feedcrops cover a large part of the remainder (FAO, 2006). And Deforestation and overgrazing are the leading agricultural activities responsible for most types of soil degradation (WHO, 2017). Direct drivers of biodiversity loss are: habitat change, climate change, invasive alien species,
overexploitation, and pollution. Todays commercialized, industrial agriculture and in particular, animal agriculture, contributes either directly or indirectly to all these drivers of biodiversity loss, from local to global levels (FAO, 2009). EPA estimates from 2010 put agriculture, forestry, and other land use annual global emission outputs at 24%. Annually and globally agriculture is responsible for the emissions of approx. 10 billion tons of greenhouse gases (FAO, 2014).
Animal agriculture accounts for approx. 18% of global & annual greenhouse gas emissions: 35% of methane 9% of carbon dioxide 65% of nitrous oxide (Winebarger, L. 2012). Sustainable Agriculture and Emissions Photo Credit: https://eumetcal.eu/event/climatechange-agric/ The New 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount. To meet nutrient needs within calorie limits, choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods across and within all food groups in recommended amounts. So then, what about variety only three food crops (rice, corn and wheat) provide nearly 2/3
of global dietary energy intake. (Jones & Ejeta, 2015) "Ninety percent of the world's food is derived from just 15 plant and 8 animal species (Pimentel & Giampietro, 1994) The New 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount. To meet nutrient needs within calorie limits, choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods across and within all food groups in recommended amounts. So then, what about nutrient density Underutilized plants/crops that are nutrient dense and environmentally versatile. The New 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount. To meet nutrient needs within calorie limits, choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods across and within all food groups in recommended
amounts. So then, what about amounts Nutrients to increase: Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. In other words, whole foods. Why? Because these foods contain important macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytochemicals, whose nutrient potential is just recently been and is being discovered. Substances to decrease: Overall calorie consumption, refined, added sugars, processed foods, meat and meat products. Why?
Because these substances are known to cause and/or contribute to: Diabetes, CVD, Diverticulitis, some cancers, hypertension, obesity, and a host of other health problems. Nutritional and Environmental Sustainability Plants Drought tolerant Ecosystem services: gives and renewably uses Utilizes a greenhouse gas Contains healthful fiber and phytochemicals More nutrient dense On average: feeds 15-23 people/2.5 acres Animals
VS . Largest user of land resources Largest user of water resources Tends to be high in Saturated fats Produces greenhouse gases On average: feeds 1-2 people/2.5 acres zoonotic diseases (E. coli, salmonella, SARS, Bird Flu, Ebola) Health Promotion is.any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and
communities (Joint Committee on Terminology, 2012, p. 19). Health promotion specialists can help producers and consumers, move towards a more sustainable agriculture/food system/diet through the implementation and evaluation of the right programs But first What are the main factors influencing sustainable food production and diet? Individual behaviors, culture, and societal norms Example: culturally/religiously encouraged vegetarianism (like Hinduism) Policies, both locally and globally Example: higher taxes on processed foods Education Example: a consumer-friendly approach to labelling Economics Example: the link between income and the types of food purchased Health outcome: for both humans and the
environment Example: one positively or negatively effects the other Health Promotion ProgramsShould: Support these determinants and needed changes in individual behaviors and cultural traditions, policies, economics and environments in settings such as schools, worksites, health care organizations, and communities. Information Notifies the Mind, an Experience Changes the Heart it became apparent that as a result of being more actively involved in food preparation from the seed to the plate, there was a significant improvement in attitudes and awareness of health and food (Lakin & Littledyke, 2008). ...the gardening is such a great thing, it encourages love for the area, love for the city (wakefield, Yeudall, taron, Reynolds & Skinner, 2007).
Growing evidence suggests that school-based gardening activities can encourage children to eat more fruit and vegetables and there is evidence that garden enhanced education can promote environmental awareness (Weitkamp, Jones, Salmon, Kimberlee & Orme, 2013). School gardens have been shown to increase students preferences for fruits and vegetables and increase fruit and vegetable consumption (Beery, Adatia, Segantin & Skaer , 2014). ...sometimes when you are stressed out... when you go to the garden, you feel different wakefield, Yeudall, taron, Reynolds & Skinner, 2007). the gardens appear to have played a role in changing mindsets about healthy eating and increasing knowledge of various aspects of growing, preparing, and eating health-promoting fruits and vegetables (Beery, Adatia, Segantin & Skaer , 2014). teaching and learning in the school garden can make a valuable contribution to childrens social, academic and emotional development, and how the sheer pleasure of creating a garden can have a ripple effect throughout the school, as others enjoy the beauty and/or the produce that result from this effort (Passy, R., 2014). participating in gardening activities may be an effective approach to increase young peoples awareness of food related environmental issues, including sustainable production of food (Weitkamp, Jones, Salmon, Kimberlee & Orme, 2013). Future Plans & Interests?
http://www.permaculture.org/ Permaculture teaches that life is in the soil & with good soil comes nutritious food. With good soil begins water conservation, nutrient cycling, biodiversity of lifeforms and ecological resiliency/ stability. Permaculture works with plants that support beneficial insects. In permaculture gardens, food/seed security and genetic diversity are the main concern to the land stewards (Gardens: Permaculture Approach, 2014). http://blog.landcentral.com/land-university-blog/what-is-permaculture/ https://catholicclimatemovement.global/catholics-in-action-teaching#.WOwIPtLyvcs permaculture/
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