Mill Frequency and Sediment Load in Bennington, Caledonia,

Mill Frequency and Sediment Load in Bennington, Caledonia,

Mill Frequency and Sediment Load in Bennington, Caledonia, and Chittenden Counties, Vermont Andrew Boule and Miles Sturm December 10, 2003 How A Mill Works - The Wheel House Introduction - counties chosen for varying geography -painting of mills, dams,

and ponds Methods Looked for mills on Wallings maps, 1856 - 1858 Calculated mill frequency for each town (per square mile) Looked for relationship between mill frequency and population and relief In the field, we looked for sediment deposits behind former mill sites and other evidence of landscape change Sample Town Woodford, 1856 Population: 423 Mills: 20 saw mills

(orange) 4 ocher mills and 1 oil mill (pink) Area: 123.28 sq. km Mill Frequency: .2028 mills/sq. km (highest of towns sampled) Bennington County 142 mills Results -predominantly saw mills

-mill frequency Bennington 0.03 /sq km Caledonia 0.03 /sq km Chittenden 0.02 /sq km 4% 3% 2%1% 9% Saw Mills Grist Mills Paper Mills

Ocher Mills 81% Flax Mills Oil Mills Caledonia County 133 mills Chittenden County 75 mills 4% 1% 4% 3%

14% 17% Saw Mills Saw Mills Grist Mills Grist Mills Woolen Mills 81% Oil Mills

Woolen Mills 76% Paper Mills Results Population vs. Mill Frequency 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Burlington Woodford 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Mill Frequency (mills per square kilometer)

-slight inverse relationship 0.25 Affect On Stream Path Upon Removal Of Dams 1857 Jericho 1996 Conclusions Higher mill frequency was found in mountains

with higher average slope and less population density. Sediment trapped behind dam was likely transported downstream after the destruction of the dam. Change in Browns River displays the impact humans have on landscape change as far as the construction and destruction of dams Old Red Mill, Jericho Circa 1895 Yesterday

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