READING A NUTRITION FACTS LABEL Nutrition and Adolescent Health Sugar Avoid too Much Added Sugar Other Names for Sugar 1. Dextrose 2. Brown Sugar 3. Lactose 4. Invert Sugar 5. Fructose 6. Fruit Juice Concentrate 7. Corn syrup 8. Raw Sugar 9. Syrup

10. Sucrose 11. High fructose corn syrup 12. Honey 13. Corn sweetener Nutrition Facts Labels -Calories -Serving size -Major Nutrients -Total Fat -Amount of substances in one serving size. -Percentage of daily values for selected vitamins and minerals A Calorie A calorie is a unit of energy. In

nutrition and everyday language, calories refer to energy consumption through eating and drinking and energy usage through physical activity. For example, an apple may have 80 calories, while a 1 mile walk may use up about 100 calories Calories Normally, calories depends on type of food as follows Carbohydrates: 4 Calories per gram Proteins: 4 Calories per gram Fats: 9 Calories per gram Calories and Energy

Each gram of fat you consume provides more than twice as many calories as a gram of protein or carbohydrate! As an example of how these numbers are used, imagine a food containing 10 grams of protein, 10 grams of fat, and 10 grams of carbohydrates. That would total 170 calories: (10 g protein x 4) + (10 g fat x 9) + (10 g carbs x 4) = 170 In this imaginary food 40 calories come from protein, 90 calories come from fat, and 40 calories come from carbohydrates.

Age and gender Calories Estimated calories for those who are not physically active Total daily calorie needs* Daily limit for empty calories Children 2-3 yrs 1000 cals

135** Children 4-8 yrs 1200-1400 cals 120 Girls 9-13 yrs 1600 cals 120 Boys 9-13 yrs 1800 cals

160 Girls 14-18 yrs 1800 cals 160 Boys 14-18 yrs 2200 cals 265 Females 19-30 yrs

2000 cals 260 Males 1930 yrs 2400 cals 330 Females 31-50 yrs 1800 cals 160 Males 3150 yrs 2200 cals

265 Females 51+ yrs 1600 cals 120 Males 51+ yrs 2000 cals 260 How Many Can I Have? The chart gives a general guide.

Daily Allowance If you are a boy ages 9-13 you need 1800 calories a day to be healthy. If you are a girl ages 9-13 you need 1600 calories a day to be healthy. How many Calories in 1 Pound of Fat? A pound of body fat is roughly equivalent to 3500 calories burned through

activity How long do you need to exercise? DO THE MATH If you want to lose 1 pound of fat you need to burn of 3500 calories. Basketball game 476/hr Shooting Baskets 238 Football 544 Field Hockey 476 Soccer 612 Running 12:00 mile(5mph) 432 Wrestling

340 How does the body use calories? All three sources; Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats must be processed and converted into energy before your body can use them. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are converted into energy the quickest, so the human body relies heavily on the easy access of stored carbohydrates as

its main energy source. Fat isnt as quickly available as carbohydrates; it must go through additional processes before being converted into energy. Protein contributes very little energy. Carbohydrate Simple Carbohydrates are easy to digest and converted into energy. Complex Carbohydrates are digested and converted into energy at a slower rate. The energy from Carbohydrates are

stored in the muscles, liver and blood. The stored energy last for about a day. Storage and Excess!! Stored Carbs are formed as glycogen. 20 calories are stored in the blood, 300-400 stored in the liver, 14001600 in the muscles. Excess Carbohydrates are converted and stored as Fat!! Our bodies have an unlimited ability

to store fat. Carbohydrate Foods Bread Noodles & Starches Cereal Rice Beans Potatoes Pancakes Sugars:

Fruits Sweet Potatoes Honey, Molasses, Sugar Milk Dietary Fibers Soluble Fibers: can reduce blood cholesterol and control blood sugar. Sources: Oats(oat bran), legumes, corn, rice Insoluble Fibers: can improve gastrointestinal regularity and prevent colon cancer:

Sources: Leafy vegetables, whole grains such as oats, wheat, rice, corn, barley, legumes and unpeeled apples & pears. Protein Our bodies are made up of 18-20% protein by weight. Our muscles are 22% protein and 70%

water. Protein provides amino acids which are the building blocks of the body. Amino Acids: build body structure and repair body tissues. Our body needs 20 different amino acids. Proteins are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen Amino Acids There are 20 different amino acid structures that link together to for a protein molecule. A single protein could have 300 amino

acids structures. Of the 20 amino acids, Nine of them are considered to be essential and must be provided by the diet. The other 11 are Non-essential and can be made by the body if necessary. Dietary Amino Acids Essential Non-essential

Histidine Alanine Isoleucine Arginine LeucineAsparagine Lysine Aspartic Acid Methionine Cysteine Phenylalanine Glutamic Acid Threonine Glutamine Tryptophan Serine Valine Tyrosine Proline Glycine Protein In Food

All 20 amino acids must be available for the body to do its work: All natural, unprocessed animal and plant foods contain all 20 of the amino acids However the amount may vary from food to food. Protein In Food

Those food that contain enough of the nine essential amino acids are called Complete Proteins Those that do not are called Incomplete Proteins. These foods do not contain enough amino acids to support life However, various protein sources can be put together to complete each other Example::: Example A peanut butter sandwich is a

complete source of amino acids. However the contents alone are not. Peanuts alone lack the amino acid Methionine and the bread lacks Lysine. Together they are complete. Animal foods = complete Legumes + Grains = complete Foods With Protein Milk, Yogurt, Cheeses and Meats are complete. Most other groups are considered incomplete and lack one or more of the essential amino acids

Protein In Foods Food Amount Protein(gm) Milk 8 oz 8 Cheddar cheese 1 oz 7 Beef/chicken 1 oz

7 Egg 1 6 Peanut butter 1Tbsp 4 Kidney beans cup 7 Tofu cup 10 Broccoli cup 2 Proteins In The Body

Body Structure- Proteins are part of all the cells in the body. They are the main nutrient in the formation of all tissues. Enzyme and Hormone function- Proteins are the basis of all enzymes and hormones which regulate various processes in the body. Ex. Metabolism Transportation- Proteins carry other substances throughout the body in the blood and other body fluids. Such as vitamins, minerals and lipids Proteins In The Body

Immune Function- Proteins form the basis of antibodies which defend and protect the body from harmful invaders.(bacteria, viruses, toxins) Acid-base balance- proteins maintain the bodys PH or level of acidity in body fluids. Blood Clotting- Proteins form the netting material that is responsible for forming a blood clot. Proteins In The Body

Fluid balance- proteins keep the fluids of the body at optimal levels. This is referred to as osmotic pressure. Energy- proteins can be used as a source of energy, yielding 4 calories of energy per gram. Fats Functions: 1. Concentrated energy source, yielding 9 calories per gram. 2. Insulation: of the bodys fat is below the skin and protects the body from temperature changes. 3. Protection: fat surrounds the vital organs such as the heart, and kidney for protection.

Fatty Acids There are two types of fatty acids: 1. Saturated- usually from animal organs, lard, meat, cream, whole milk, cheese, butter, eggs, solid margarines, palm oil and coconut oil. 2. Unsaturated- can lower blood cholesterol levels. 1. Mono-unsaturated- found in both plant and animal fat. Found in olive oil, peanut oil and coconut oils. 2. Polyunsaturated- usually from plants. Found in sunflower, corn, soybean and cottonseed oils. Fats

Any fat not used is stored as a body fat. As a general rule: Oil means fat that is liquid at room temperature Fat means fat that is solid at room temperature. Margarine is a vegetable oil that is solid at room temperature because it has been changed by a hardening process called hydrogenation. Vitamins Regulate all chemical reactions in the

body. Keep our bodies functioning properly. Our bodies need at least 15 different vitamins a day. These are the water soluble vitamins.(B, C) Fat soluble can be stored. To much can be toxic. Vitamins A, D, E and K Minerals Minerals are needed to build and regulate

body processes. They do not provide energy! Our bodies need 21 different minerals Potassium and sodium are very important to athletes. Adequate amount of minerals are found in varied diets. Some need more Iron and Calcium because of stress and body growth.

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