Basic Observation Buoys Introduction to Hard Substrate Epifaunal

Basic Observation Buoys Introduction to Hard Substrate Epifaunal

Basic Observation Buoys Introduction to Hard Substrate Epifaunal Organisms the Fouling Community May 31, 2014 John Hamilton

Marine Sciences Department University of Connecticut Basic Observation Buoys Basic Observation Buoys

Benthic Invertebrate Life Cycle Many benthic invertebrates have a two-phase or complex life cycle: (1) Part of the life cycle is spent on or in the substrate (2) Part of the life cycle is spent in the water column Epifaunal organisms live on a hard substrate.

Infaunal organisms live in a soft sediment. Meroplankton organisms live in the water column for a portion of their life cycle.

Benthic Invertebrate Life History Larvae M Water Column

Adult Juvenile M M

Substrate Growth and Development M

= Mortality Strathmann, 2002 Basic Observation Buoys Electra crustulenta adult (colonial bryozoan)

www.discoverlife.org Basic Observation Buoys Bryozoan larvae Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Basic Observation Buoys Botrylloides violaceus adult (colonial ascidian) www.exoticsguide.org Basic Observation Buoys

Botrylloides violaceus larvae Photo: R Nolan, University of New Hampshire Basic Observation Buoys

Styela clava adult (solitary ascidian) www.geog.ubc.ca, www.wascuba.org Basic Observation Buoys Adult

Larval Settlement and Recruitment Larvae Next Generation Settlement changing from the larval stage in the water column to the juvenile stage on or in the substrate.

Recruitment settlement, plus survival into the next generation * * or, until observed by a marine biologist! Basic Observation Buoys Benthic Invertebrate Life Cycle

Why ?? Basic Observation Buoys Benthic Invertebrate Life Cycle Complex life cycle what are the benefits and costs?

Promote dispersal to new habitats Reduce intra-specific competition Reduce predation risk Access to different resources (food, space) Basic Observation Buoys

Benthic Invertebrate Life Cycle Some larvae do not feed in the water column. They are Lecithotrophic they obtain energy from internal sources. Examples: colonial tunicates (Botrylloides, Botryllus). Larvae that do feed in the water column are Planktotrophic. Examples: solitary tunicates, some bryozoans.

Basic Observation Buoys Planktonic Larval Duration How long do larvae remain in the water column, and what are the implications of a short or long Planktonic Larval Duration (PLD) ? Barnacles: usually 10-20 days, but can be up to 6

weeks Solitary ascidians, bryozoans: hours to days Colonial ascidians: minutes to a few hours Basic Observation Buoys Planktonic Larval Duration

Distance = Velocity X Time Time = Planktonic Larval Duration Example Pine Island Harbor Velocity = 10 cm/s Time = 10 minutes (e.g. Botrylloides) Distance = ________ ? (in meters)

Thames River Pine Island Harbor Long Island Sound photo: Univ of Conn

Jesus Pineda, 2000 Basic Observation Buoys How To ...

Photo: Jesus Pineda, WHOI Photo: City College of San Francisco Photo: City College of San Francisco Basic Observation Buoys

Next Step ... Build A BOB ! Photo: Oregon Institute of Marine Biology Photo: Oregon Institute of Marine Biology

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