2018 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules

2018 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules

2018 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman [email protected] C. Robyn Fischer National Event Supervisor

Ecology Events Ecology principles of ecology related to terrestrial environments 2 year rotation by biomes ( 1tundra & forests & 2-grasslands & deserts) Water Quality principles of ecology related to aquatic environments 2 year rotation by aquatic biomes (1-freshwater & 2- marine & estuary) Green Generation (Environmental Science) mans impact on ecology and possible solutions 2 year

rotation by problem issues (1-Aquatic, Air, Climate & 2-Terrestrial, Population Growth) Event Rules 2018 DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official

rules. Event Rules 2018 BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2018 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL TRAINING MATERIALS

Training Power Point content overview Training Handouts content information Sample Tournament sample problems with key Event Supervisor Guide prep tips, setup needs,

and scoring tips Internet Resources & Training Materials on the Science Olympiad website at www.soinc.org under Event Information A Biology-Earth Science CD, an Ecology CD as well as the Division B and Division C Test Packets are available from SO store at www.soinc.org EVENT COMPONENTS

Ecology Content 2018 PART 1-Principles of Ecology (about 1/3) PART 2- Terrestrial Ecosystem Grasslands and Deserts of North America (about 1/3) PART 3- Human Impact on Ecosystems (about 1/3) Process skills in data, graph and diagram analysis Event parameters check the event parameters in the rules for resources allowed.

PART I: General Principles of Ecology ECOLOGY how organisms interact with one another and with their environment ENVIRONMENT living and non-living components ABIOTIC non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperatures BIOTIC living component are other organisms.

ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION INDIVIDUAL individual organisms POPULATION organisms of same species in same area (biotic factors) COMMUNITY several populations in same area (biotic factors) ECOSYSTEM community plus abiotic factors BIOSPHERE all ecosystems on earth

ECOLOGY OF INDIVIDUALS Homeostasis delicate balance Components Physiological Ecology Temperature and Water Balance Light and Biological Cycles Physiological Ecology and Conservation ECOLOGY OF POPULATIONS

Properties of populations

Patterns of distribution and density Intra-specific competition Population dynamics Growth and regulation Altering population growth Human impact Growth Curves

Human Population Survival Curves Survivorship is the percentage of remaining survivors of a population over time; usually shown graphically. Type I survivorship curve: most

individuals live out their life span and die of old age (e.g., humans). Type II survivorship curve: individuals die at a constant rate (e.g., birds, rodents, and perennial plants). Type III survivorship curve: most individuals die early in life (e.g., fishes, invertebrates, and plants).

ECOLOGY OF COMMUNITIES Closed vs. Open communities Closed sharp boundaries Open Lack boundaries Species abundance and diversity Trophic Structure of Communities Food chains Food web

Trophic pyramid INTERACTIONS AMONG SPECIES Interactions Interspecific competition Predation Exploitation Symbiosis

Types of Species Interactions Neutral two species do not interact Mutualism both benefit

Commensalism one benefits, other neutral Parasitism one benefits, one harmed but not usually killed Predation one benefits, other usually killed Predator - Prey Relationship Food Chain Producer

1st order Consumer or Herbivore 2nd order Consumer or 1st order Carnivore 3rd order Consumer or 2nd order Carnivore 4th order Consumer or 3rd order Carnivore Decomposers consume dead

and decaying matter Food Web ECOLOGY OF ECOSYSTEMS Energy Flow Energy Flow Pyramids Bio-mass Pyramids

Community Succession and Stability Nutrient Recycling nutrient cycles Energy vs Nutrient Nutrients cyclic (Biogeochemical Cycles) Energy flow one way

Ecologic Pyramids Ecological pyramid - a graph representing trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The primary producer level is at the base of the pyramid with the consumer levels above. Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight

of the organisms in each trophic level. Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories. Numbers Pyramid Biomass & Energy Flow Pyramids

Biogeochemical Cycles Hydrologic Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Carbon Cycle Hydrologic (Water) Cycle Phosphorus Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle Carbon Cycle Biosphere Types of Ecological Spheres

Biosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Biogeochemical Cycles

Disruption of Biosphere Species Extinction & Biosphere Destruction ECOSYSTEM STABILITY Ecosystem stability and the response of ecosystems to disturbance are of crucial importance Biological diversity acts to stabilize ecosystem functioning in the face of

environmental fluctuation. Variation among species in their response to such fluctuation is an essential requirement for ecosystem stability Climate change and other humandriven (anthropogenic) environmental changes will continue to cause biodiversity loss in the coming

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ADAPTATION TYPES OF ADAPTATIONS Structural, Physiological and Behavioral Adaptations help species to survive

in their environment. Most organisms have combinations of all three types Extinction There are natural causes Mans activities have accelerated

extinction rates. Part 2: ECOLOGY OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS 2017 Terrestrial Ecosystems of NA Tundra Taiga (Boreal Forest or Coniferous Forest) Deciduous Forests

2018 Terrestrial Ecosystems of NA Grasslands Deserts Terrestrial Ecosystems Latitude vs. Altitude Ecosystems:

Temperature and Climate for Terrestrial Biomes Adaptations of Plants & Animals Not intended to be a taxonomic event Emphasis on adaptations of common plants and animals to each biome Common members of food chains and food webs of each biome Limiting factors for each biome

ANNUAL RAINFALL OF BIOMES BIOMES OF THE US The Ecology event will concentrate on the US biomes deserts grasslands forests

taiga tundra Adaptations of Plants & Animals Not intended to be a taxonomic event Emphasis on adaptations of common plants and animals to each biome Common members of food chains and food webs of each biome

Limiting factors for each biome Grasslands of North America Grasslands Abiotic factors Moderate temperature with notable extremes: -20 F to 110 F common, and even colder temperatures in the north Precipitation is too low to support trees but too great for

deserts to form Variable precipitation: 6-40 in (15-100 cm) Scattered rain and lightening common in summer months ("convection storms") with more general rains and snows in winter months Fire a major factor in maintaining biome Droughts may be severe Grasslands Plants

Grasses are major producer with several genera and species common but usually with one or two dominate Herbs and legumes (nitrogen fixing) among the grasses Many plants possess rhizomes (underground stems) and are wind pollinated Soils generally fertile, deep and rich in nutrients (Bread baskets of the world) Growing season of 120-200 days Generally flat to rolling topography

North American Grassland (Prairie) types Grasslands (Prairies) of North America Tall-grass Prairie: eastern unit nearest to Eastern Deciduous Forests Tall grasses (3-4 ft or 1-1.5 m tall) with roots up to 6 feet deep 24-40 in (65-100 cm) precipitation annually

Mid-grass Prairie: between Tall Grass and Short Grass gradual change Grasses to 4 ft (1.5 m) tall, mixture of sod and "bunch" grasses. 14-25 in (35-65 cm) precipitation annually Short-grass Prairie: western element, largest. Nearest to deserts of west US Short grasses (less than 20 in or 50 cm tall) About 10 in precipitation annually. Conservation Concerns: Majority of tall- and mid-grass prairie are now farmland. Short-grass prairie is grazed, some areas are now overgrazed

Grasslands (Prairie) in North America Grassland (Prairie) Plant Adaptations Native plants are perennials while crop grains are annuals Grasses have three strata roots, growth at

ground level, and taller foliage Half of growth may be below ground Grazed taller foliage will grow back Taller foliage above ground adapted to withstand strong winds, fires, extreme temperature changes Grasslands Animal Dominated by grazing animals (deer, antelope, buffalo - once common but now rarely native to

the range) Herds (safety in numbers) Burrowing small animals (colonies such as prairie dogs) Rodents and Jack Rabbits Flight song birds strong fliers Insects esp. grasshoppers Grassland (Prairie)

Animal adaptations

Long distance vision for predator & prey Eyes of grazing animals well above snout Many are built for speed live in herds or colonies Small creatures can stand on haunches Some hop up and down or hop long distances Camouflage coloration Underground burrows Birds strong fliers (strong winds), flight song birds to

attract mates in air, nest in tall grass GRASSLAND FOOD WEB Grassland (Prairie) Environmental Concerns Most disturbed biome farming & domestic grazing with fences Annuals replace perennials with annual soil

disturbance by the plow Overgrazing problems dust bowl Biodiversity disturbed extinct & endangered species Fire allowed vs fire control Native grasslands being reintroduced Deserts Regions of low, sparse

vegetation with minimal precipitation and humidity Food web Special adaptations Plant and animals Temperature variations Special environmental issues Effect of human populations

Deserts Abiotic Features Regions of low, sparse vegetation with minimal precipitation and humidity; high temperatures during some of the year and great daily temperature fluctuations Cover 1/5 of earths land surface Scarcity of water less than 25 cm (10 inches) of precipitation per year Water loss tendency for water loss may

exceed annual rainfall Deserts Abiotic factors Relatively poor soil quality high mineral content but little organic matter Intense solar radiation strong tendency to lose water by evaporation Temperature variation daytime over 120 degrees and drops as sun sets

Winters may be cold Deserts Plants Succulent plants juicy plants as cacti store water, spines are remnants of leaves Annuals dormant during dry season, germinate and grow rapidly to seed after rains Desert shrubs have small thick leaves with sunken stomates

Desert Plant Adaptations Succulents store water in stems no stomates to lose water green stems functions of leaves spines thought to be remnant leaves Annuals have short life cycle of flower to seed after rain seeds during dry times Shrubs have small thick leaves with sunken stomates with widely branching roots which rapidly collect

moisture or deep tap roots to underground moisture as mesquite. Some depend upon animals digestion for dispersal of seeds Deserts Animals

Insects and scorpions Lizards and Snakes Birds from hummingbirds to roadrunners Bats Small mammals as rodents

Larger mammals as coyotes Deserts Animal Adaptations Burrow for protection from heat Conserve water loss from evaporation, exhalation, elimination of body waste Nocturnal activity when cooler or hide/burrow during day to protect from heat Many cold blooded insects and reptiles

Exoskeletons or scales Deserts - Animal Adaptations Lizards & scorpions no glands in skin so do not sweat Mammals panting & large ears nocturnal hunters - many lack sweat glands Concentrate waste as urea or crystallized uric acid

Become sluggish during intense heat DESERT FOOD WEB Types of Deserts Hot - Arid regions with little or no annual precipitation, usually rain, no snow or frost Warm - Arid regions where precipitation falls seasonally principally as rain, some snow and

frost each year Cold - Arid regions where precipitation falls sparingly principally as snow and permafrost is not a factor Deserts of North America Warm Desert Mojave Desert Warm Desert Sonoran

Desert Warm Desert Chihuahuan Desert Cold Desert Intermountain West or Great Basin Environmental Concerns Deserts Many endangered, rare and unusual plants

and animals live in the desert. Slow to recover from habitat damage Desert expansion growth of deserts in parts of the world Flooding problems during rains Competition of man for limited water supply BIODIVERSITY It is the number of different organisms &

their relative frequency in an ecosystem Levels of Biodiversity: o Genetic diversity varies in the genetic make-up among individuals within a single species o Species diversity variety among the species or distinct types of living organisms found in different habitats of the planet o Ecological diversity variety of forests, deserts, grasslands, streams, lakes, oceans, wetlands, and other biological communities.

SPECIES DIVERSITY LEVELS ALPHAWITHIN HABITAT BETA BETWEEN COMMINITIES GAMMA IN A REGION

PART 3 HUMAN IMPACT ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS Environmental concerns for tundra, taiga, and deciduous forests Role of these ecosystems in Earths climate Major Environmental Issues Conservation Biology goals, environmental threats, actions

MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AFFECTING TERRESTRIAL BIOME

Pollution of Air, Water and Land Hazardous Chemicals and

Wastes Land Degradation Loss of Biodiversity Ozone Depletion Climate Change Environmental Factors Loss of natural and cultural resources Habitat loss

Overexploitation Exotic species and introductions Overpopulation Pollution Harmful materials entering the environment Point source pollution from a clearly identifiable source Nonpoint pollution comes from many

different sources. Four main categories industrial, residential, commercial, and environmental Acid Rain Greenhouse Effect Ozone Depletion

Ozone Hole over Antartica Source: NASA Biodiversity Threats Habitat Fragmentation

& Destruction Habitat destruction and fragmentation is a process that describes the emergences of discontinuities (fragmentation) or the loss (destruction) of the environment inhabited by an organism. It results in

1. Loss of resident species 2. Loss of food sources INVASIVE SPECIES PROBLEMS

World-wide problem Increase in travel and trade open routes In U.S. costs $137 billion dollars per year Approximately 42% of Threatened or Endangered species are at risk due to non-native, invasive species. Raise havoc in ecosystems and threaten species diversity

CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interactions among organisms, and the interactions between organisms and the physical environment. Conservation Biology is the scientific study of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.

Conservation biologists investigate the impact of humans on Earth's biodiversity and develop practical approaches to prevent the extinction of species and promote the sustainable use of biological resources CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Strategies for a Sustainable World advancing technologies

to reduce waste increasing recycling and reuse creating even safer treatment and disposal options developing sources of renewable energy sharing the benefits of

our learning and innovation MAINTAINING BIODIVERSITY CONTROLLING INVASIVE SPECIES INVASIVE SPECIES Control Methods

Prevention

Eradicating potential invaders soon after invasion Physical (manual & mechanical) Cultural Ecosystem Management Biological natural enemies Chemical - pesticides Integrated Pest Management Uses a combination of methods OFTEN MOST EFFECTIVE RECLAMATION OF DISTURBED

AREAS REINTRODUCTION OF SPECIES ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGE S Nonrenewable vs. Renewable

Energy Sources Non-renewable energy sources fossil fuels as coal, oil and natural gas as well as nuclear fuels limited supply will run out and have negative environmental impacts Renewable energy sources sun, wind, waves, heat, hydropower and biomass that can be used again and again and is cleanest energy sources.

There are pros and cons for each type of energy

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