Chapter 14 Working Capital and Current Assets Management

Chapter 14 Working Capital and Current Assets Management

Chapter 14 Working Capital and Current Assets Management Copyright 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Objectives Understand working capital management, net working capital, and the related trade-off between profitability and risk. Describe the cash conversion cycle, its funding requirements, and the

key strategies for managing it. Discuss inventory management: differing views and common techniques Explain the credit selection process and the quantitative procedure for evaluating changes in credit standards. Review the considerations for changes to the cash discount and other aspects of credit terms, including credit monitoring. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-2

Net Working Capital Fundamentals: Working Capital Management Working capital (or short-term financial) management is the management of current assets and current liabilities. Current assets include inventory, accounts receivable, marketable securities, and cash Current liabilities include notes payable, accruals, and accounts payable Firms are able to reduce financing costs or increase the funds available for expansion by minimizing the amount of funds tied up in working capital Working capital refers to current assets, which represent the portion of investment that circulates from one form to another in the ordinary conduct of business. Net working capital is the difference between the firms current assets and its current liabilities; can be positive or negative. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-3

Net Working Capital Fundamentals: Trade-off between Profitability and Risk Profitability is the relationship between revenues and costs generated by using the firms assetsboth current and fixedin productive activities. A firm can increase its profits by (1) increasing revenues or (2) decreasing costs. Risk (of insolvency) is the probability that a firm will be unable to pay its bills as they come due. Insolvent describes a firm that is unable to pay its bills as they come due. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-4

Cash Conversion Cycle The cash conversion cycle (CCC) is the length of time required for a company to convert cash invested in its operations to cash received as a result of its operations. A firms operating cycle (OC) is the time from the beginning of the production process to collection of cash from the sale of the finished product. It is measured in elapsed time by summing the average age of inventory (AAI) and the average collection period (ACP). OC = AAI + ACP 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-5 Cash Conversion Cycle: Calculating the Cash Conversion Cycle However, the process of producing and selling a product also includes the purchase of production inputs (raw materials) on account, which results in

accounts payable. The time it takes to pay the accounts payable, measured in days, is the average payment period (APP). The operating cycle less the average payment period yields the cash conversion cycle. The formula for the cash conversion cycle is: CCC = OC APP Substituting for OC, we can see that the cash conversion cycle has three main components, as shown in the following equation: (1) average age of the inventory, (2) average collection period, and (3) average payment period. CCC = AAI + ACP APP 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-6 Cash Conversion Cycle: Example In 2007, IBM had annual revenues of $98,786 million, cost of revenue of $57,057 million, and accounts payable of $8,054 million. IBM had

an average age of inventory (AAI) of 17.5 days, an average collection period (ACP) of 44.8 days, and an average payment period (APP) of 51.2 days (IBMs purchases were $57,416 million). Thus the cash conversion cycle for IBM was : = 17.5 + 44.8 51.2 = 11.1 days. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-7 Cash Conversion Cycle: Calculating the Cash Conversion Cycle The resources IBM had invested in this cash conversion cycle (assuming a 365-day year) were: 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-8

Cash Conversion Cycle: Funding Requirements of the Cash Conversion Cycle A permanent funding requirement is a constant investment in operating assets resulting from constant sales over time. A seasonal funding requirement is an investment in operating assets that varies over time as a result of cyclic sales. An aggressive funding strategy is a funding strategy under which the firm funds its seasonal requirements with short-term debt and its permanent requirements with long-term debt. A conservative funding strategy is a funding strategy under which the firm funds both its seasonal and its permanent requirements with long-term debt. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-9 Cash Conversion Cycle: Aggressive versus

Conservative Seasonal Funding Strategies Assume ABC Company has a permanent funding requirement of $135,000 in operating assets and also seasonal funding requirements that vary between $0 and $990,000 and average $101,250. If ABC can borrow short-term funds at 6.25% and long-term funds at 8%, and if it can earn 5% on the investment of any surplus balances, then the annual cost of an aggressive strategy for seasonal funding will be: 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-10 Cash Conversion Cycle: Aggressive versus Conservative Seasonal Funding Strategies Alternatively, ABC Co. can choose a conservative strategy, under which surplus cash balances are fully invested. (This surplus will be the difference between the peak need of $1,125,000 and the total need,

which varies between $135,000 and $1,125,000 during the year.) The cost of the conservative strategy will be: 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-11 Cash Conversion Cycle: Strategies for Managing the Cash Conversion Cycle The goal is to minimize the length of the cash conversion cycle, which minimizes negotiated liabilities. This goal can be realized through use of the following strategies: 1. Turn over inventory as quickly as possible without stockouts that result in lost sales. 2.

Collect accounts receivable as quickly as possible without losing sales from high-pressure collection techniques. 3. Manage mail, processing, and clearing time to reduce them when collecting from customers and to increase them when paying suppliers. 4. Pay accounts payable as slowly as possible without damaging the firms credit rating. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-12

Inventory Management Differing viewpoints about appropriate inventory levels commonly exist among a firms finance, marketing, manufacturing, and purchasing managers. The financial managers general disposition toward inventory levels is to keep them low, to ensure that the firms money is not being unwisely invested in excess resources. The marketing manager, on the other hand, would like to have large inventories of the firms finished products. The manufacturing managers major responsibility is to implement the production plan so that it results in the desired amount of finished goods of acceptable quality available on time at a low cost. The purchasing manager is concerned solely with the raw materials inventories. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-13

Inventory Management: Common Techniques for Managing Inventory The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model is an inventory management technique for determining an items optimal order size, which is the size that minimizes the total of its order costs and carrying costs. EOQ assumes that the relevant costs of inventory can be divided into order costs and carrying costs. Order costs are the fixed clerical costs of placing and receiving an inventory order. Carrying costs are the variable costs per unit of holding an item in inventory for a specific period of time. The EOQ model analyzes the tradeoff between order costs and carrying costs to determine the order quantity that minimizes the total inventory cost. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

14-14 Inventory Management: Common Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) A formula can be developed for determining the firms EOQ for a given inventory item, where: S = usage in units per period O = order cost per order C = carrying cost per unit per period Q = order quantity in units Because the EOQ is defined as the order quantity that minimizes the total cost function, we must solve the total cost function for the EOQ. The resulting equation is as follows: 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-15

Inventory Management: Common Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) MAX Company, a producer of dinnerware, has an inventory item that is vital to the production process. This item costs $1,500, and MAX uses 1,100 units of the item per year. MAX wants to determine its optimal order strategy for the item. To calculate the EOQ, we need the following inputs: Order cost per order = $150 Carrying cost per unit per year = $200 Thus, 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-16 Inventory Management: Common Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) The reorder point for MAX depends on the number of days MAX

operates per year. Assuming that MAX operates 250 days per year and uses 1,100 units of this item, its daily usage is 4.4 units (1,100 250). If its lead time is 2 days and MAX wants to maintain a safety stock of 4 units, the reorder point for this item is 12.8 units [(2 4.4) + 4]. However, orders are made only in whole units, so the order is placed when the inventory falls to 13 units. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-17 Inventory Management: Common Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) A just-in-time (JIT) system is an inventory management technique that minimizes inventory investment by having materials arrive at exactly the time they are needed for production. Because its objective is to minimize inventory investment, a JIT system uses

no (or very little) safety stock. Extensive coordination among the firms employees, its suppliers, and shipping companies must exist to ensure that material inputs arrive on time. Failure of materials to arrive on time results in a shutdown of the production line until the materials arrive. Likewise, a JIT system requires high-quality parts from suppliers. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-18 Accounts Receivable Management The second component of the cash conversion cycle is the average collection period. The average collection period has two parts: 1. The time from the sale until the customer mails the payment. 2. The time from when the payment is mailed until the firm has the collected funds in its bank account.

The objective for managing accounts receivable is to collect accounts receivable as quickly as possible without losing sales from highpressure collection techniques. Accomplishing this goal encompasses three topics: (1) credit selection and standards, (2) credit terms, and (3) credit monitoring. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-19 Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Selection and Standards Credit standards are a firms minimum requirements for extending credit to a customer. The five Cs of credit are as follows: 1. Character: The applicants record of meeting past obligations.

2. Capacity: The applicants ability to repay the requested credit. 3. Capital: The applicants debt relative to equity. 4. Collateral: The amount of assets the applicant has available for use in securing the credit. 5. Conditions: Current general and industry-specific economic conditions, and any unique conditions surrounding a specific transaction.

2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-20 Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Selection and Standards (cont.) Dodd Tool is currently selling a product for $10 per unit. Sales (all on credit) for last year were 60,000 units. The variable cost per unit is $6 and results in a $4 contribution margin. The firm is currently contemplating a relaxation of credit standards that is expected to result in the following: a 5% increase in unit sales to 63,000 units; This is in increased contribution margin of 3,000 units x $4/unit = $12,000. an increase in the average collection period from 30 days (the current level) to 45 days; an increase in bad-debt expenses from 1% of sales (the current level) to 2%.

The firms required return on equal-risk investments, which is the opportunity cost of tying up funds in accounts receivable, is 15%. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-21 Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Selection and Standards (cont.) To determine the cost of the marginal investment in accounts receivable, Dodd must find the difference between the cost of carrying receivables under the two credit standards of 45 vs. 30 days. Because its concern is only with the out-of-pocket costs, the relevant cost is the variable cost. The average investment in accounts receivable can be calculated by using the following formula: 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

14-22 Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Selection and Standards (cont.) Total variable cost of annual sales: Under present plan: ($6 60,000 units) = $360,000 Under proposed plan: ($6 63,000 units) = $378,000 Increase in Variable Costs $ 18,000 The turnover of accounts receivable is the number of times each year that the firms accounts receivable are actually turned into cash. It is found by dividing the average collection period into 365 (the number of days assumed in a year). 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

14-23 Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Selection and Standards (cont.) Turnover of accounts receivable: Under present plan: (365/30) = 12.2 Under proposed plan: (365/45) = 8.1 By substituting the cost and turnover data just calculated into the average investment in accounts receivable equation for each case, we get the following average investments in accounts receivable: Under present plan: ($360,000/12.2) = $29,508 Under proposed plan: 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

($378,000/8.1) = $46,667 14-24 Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Selection and Standards (cont.) Cost of marginal investment in accounts receivable The resulting value of $2,574 is considered a cost because it represents the maximum amount that could have been earned on the $17,159 had it been placed in the best equal-risk investment alternative available at the firms required return on investment of 15%. It represents an opportunity cost due to use of the funds for receivables. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-25 Accounts Receivable Management:

Credit Selection and Standards (cont.) Cost of marginal bad debts: Summary of Proposed Change to Credit Standards Marginal Benefit of increased sales: 3,000 units x $4/unit contribution margin $12,000 Less: Cost of marginal investment in Accounts Receivable Less: Cost of marginal bad debts ($ 6,600) Net Profit from changing credit standards from 30 to 45 days 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. ($ 2,574)

$ 2,826 14-26 Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Terms Credit terms are the terms of sale for customers who have been extended credit by the firm. A cash discount is a percentage deduction from the purchase price; available to the credit customer who pays its account within a specified time. For example, terms of 2/10 net 30 mean the customer can take a 2 percent discount from the invoice amount if the payment is made within 10 days of the beginning of the credit period or can pay the full amount of the invoice within 30 days. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

14-27 Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Terms (cont.) A cash discount period is the number of days after the beginning of the credit period during which the cash discount is available. The net effect of changes in this period is difficult to analyze because of the nature of the forces involved. For example, if a firm were to increase its cash discount period by 10 days (for example, changing its credit terms from 2/10 net 30 to 2/20 net 30), the following changes would be expected to occur: (1) Sales would increase, positively affecting profit. (2) Bad-debt expenses would decrease, positively affecting profit. (3) The profit per unit would decrease as a result of more people taking the discount, negatively affecting profit. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-28

Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Terms (cont.) Changes in the credit period, the number of days after the beginning of the credit period until full payment of the account is due, also affect a firms profitability. For example, increasing a firms credit period from net 30 days to net 45 days should increase sales, positively affecting profit. But both the investment in accounts receivable and bad-debt expenses would also increase, negatively affecting profit. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-29 Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Terms (cont.) Credit monitoring is the ongoing review of a firms accounts

receivable to determine whether customers are paying according to the stated credit terms. If they are not paying in a timely manner, credit monitoring will alert the firm to the problem. Slow payments are costly to a firm because they lengthen the average collection period and thus increase the firms investment in accounts receivable. A frequently used technique for credit monitoring is the average collection period 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-30 Chapter Summary Working capital management focuses on managing each of the firms current assets and current

liabilities in a manner that positively contributes to the firms value. Net working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities. The cash conversion cycle has three components: (1) average age of inventory, (2) average collection period, and (3) average payment period. To minimize its reliance on negotiated liabilities, the financial manager seeks to (1) turn over inventory as quickly as possible, (2) collect accounts receivable as quickly as possible, (3) manage mail, processing, and clearing time, and (4) pay accounts payable as slowly as possible. Use of these strategies should minimize the length of the cash conversion cycle. The viewpoints of marketing, manufacturing, and purchasing managers about the appropriate levels of inventory tend to cause higher inventories than those deemed appropriate by the financial manager. A commonly used technique for effectively managing inventory to keep its level low is the economic order quantity (EOQ) model and the just-in-time (JIT) system.

Credit selection techniques determine which customers creditworthiness is consistent with the firms credit standards. Changes in credit standards can be evaluated mathematically by assessing the effects of a proposed change on profits from sales, the cost of accounts receivable investment, and bad-debt costs. Changes in credit termsthe cash discount, the cash discount period, and the credit periodcan be quantified similarly to changes in credit standards. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 14-31

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