The Global Economy in the 21st Century Jeffrey Frankel Harpel Professor of Capital Formation and Growth, Harvard University Conference celebrating the 40th anniversary of Prometeia Bologna, 26 November, 2015
My previous visit to Bologna: In 1995, at the invitation of Prometeia, I came to address the topic: "The World Over the Next Twenty-five Years: Global Trade Liberalization and the Relative Growth of Different Regions" 25 years into the future seemed so far off; I thought nobody would be checking up on my predictions! Some of what I said turned out right: Japans saving rate would fall, as the population aged. Countries that still had high unrealized growth potential
included Chile, China and (less obviously) the Philippines. Other predictions were less accurate: A 1999 start date for EMU is too optimistic. "The World Over the Next Twenty-five Years: Global Trade Liberalization, and the Relative Growth of Different Regions" Two major questions I tried to address in 1995: Would globalization continue?
particularly with respect to international trade? Which economies would perform the best? and in particular, would Chinas economy surpass the US? Let us now consider how those questions look in 2015. (I) Global trade has slowed since 2008. Why? (II) China is slowing. Why? (III) Other Emerging Markets are at a delicate juncture.
(I) Globalization Growth in trade was rapid during most of the post-war period. Trade grew about twice as rapidly as GDP. World Trade & Real GDP, 1980 2014 (2010 = 100) But, as I said 20 years ago: the trend of economic integration across national borders is not inevitable or irreversible, even if technological progress in transport
and communication is one-directional. In the period 1914-1945, political forces worked to turn the clock back on globalization: tariff protection, discriminatory economic blocs, and war. As one would expect, trade fell. It could happen again.
Trade fell during the world wars and the years of the Great Depression: 1929-38 Douglas Irwin, World Trade and Production: A Longrun View, 2015 In The Global Trade Slowdown: A New Normal? VoxEU.org eBook, ed. by Bernard Hoekman (CEPR), June. When the Global Financial Crisis hit in 2008 there was a fear that countries might revert to protectionism, as in the 1930s, and with similar results. The first two meetings of the new G-20 Leaders Summit
pledged to refrain from imposing new protection, December 2008 in Washington and April 2009 in London. But many were skeptical of the rhetoric. There was in fact no great return to protectionism. And yet both the economic downturn and the fall in trade turned out to be as bad as feared, or even worse!
Since 2008, global trade has indeed slowed. Sept. 2015. p.16, Fig.5.B The 2008-09 collapse in global trade was bigger than could be explained by the fall in GDP. 2009 Bussire, Callegari, Ghironi, Sestieri & Yamano, 2013,
"Estimating Trade Elasticities: Demand Composition and the Trade Collapse of 2008-2009." Trade still lags GDP, in particular, in EM economies. Why has trade slowed so much? Three explanations that were originally suggested in 2009 now seem wrong: Protectionism? It hasnt happened.
High prices for oil and therefore for transport? Oil prices fell by half subsequently. Trade credit froze up when financial markets did? Credit availability was subsequently restored. Three (related) explanations remain: 1. Global supply chains have matured Vertical specialization has largely run its course.
2. Physical investment spending has slowed which is trade-intensive. 3. The structure of Chinas economy is shifting away from manufacturing, toward services; away from exports, toward domestic demand. 1. The expansion of global supply chains has slowed. The ratio of foreign value added to domestic value added in world gross exports rose by 8 % points 1995-2005, but only by 2 % 2005-2012.
Cristina Constantinescu, Aaditya Mattoo, and Michele Ruta, 2015, "The global trade slowdown: cyclical or structural?" IMF WP 15/6. Global supply chains have matured Especially in China: parts and components are imported and assembled into final goods which are then exported to the US and elsewhere, but the diminishing importance of such trade is reflected in the falling share of imports of parts and components in Chinas exports. %
Chinas Share of Imports of Parts & Components in Exports Cristina Constantinescu, Aaditya Mattoo, and Michele Ruta, 2015, "The global trade slowdown: cyclical or structural?" IMF WP 15/6, January. Parts & components as a share of US imports have reversed as well.
2) Trade-intensive physical investment has slowed. The marginal propensity to import out of investment is bigger than the marginal propensity to import by consumers. Investment fell much more than consumption in 2008-09. Selected countries -- 2008-09 recession Bussire,Harvard Callegari, Ghironi, Sestieri & Yamano, 2013, ITF220 - Prof. J. Frankel,
University "Estimating Trade Elasticities: Demand Composition and the Trade Collapse of 2008-2009." Investment each kind has continued to slump for 6 years. R.Lawrence, Sept. 2015 R.Lawrence, Sept. 2015 In each region, investment which has a high import intensity -- has been weaker than consumption during the recovery.
R.Lawrence, Sept. 2015 3. The structure of Chinas economy is rebalancing. China long had great success with manufacturing; growth was led by exports and investment. But recently it has tried to move toward services, with growth led by consumer demand, appropriately. The leaders decided at the Third Plenum in 2013.
Services are less trade-intensive than manufacturing. Chinas exports & imports had risen especially fast, even relative to GDP, before 2008. (Followed by the US. EU trade/GDP had been flat.) 1997=1
China is shifting into services, judging by the available data. % of GDP Source: Nicholas Lardy, PIIE Its good to look also at other data in China. Railway data show that freight traffic is declining
(especially relative to passenger traffic). % change (year-over-year) Source: Nicholas Lardy Its good to look also at other data Decline in Chinas output of industrial products,
2010-2015 % change (year-over-year) Source: Nicholas Lardy Trades relative importance in China has peaked, in part because services are less trade-intensive. % of GDP
Source: Nicholas Lardy (II) Chinese GDP II.1 Did China catch up with US GDP in 2014? II.2 Is Chinas recent slow-down long-term. II.1 Chinas catch-up with US GDP China was the worlds largest economy two centuries ago, and appears headed for #1 again. PPP basis
The global contribution by major economies from 1 AD to 2008 AD according to estimates by Angus Maddison(2007), Contours of the World Economy I-2030AD, (Oxford Univ. Press). Or is it already there? Headlines about Chinas economy one year ago: China surpasses U.S. to become largest world economy
FoxNews.com 12/6 based on the latest 6-year update from the World Banks International Comparison Program. 28 The facts On the one hand, Chinas economic miracle is genuine: Growth 10% p.a. for 3 decades is historic. It took the UK 58 years to double income, starting from 1780
US: 47 years, from 1839 Japan: 35 years, from 1885 Korea: 11 years, from 1966 But it took China only around 8 years, from 1987 ! On the other hand, China is still poor: It ranks only midway among 190 countries (85th , just above Peru).
The claim to rival US in size comes from multiplying a middle income-per-capita times 1.3 billion people. 29 35 years of strong Chinese growth Measuring GDP The dragon takes wing
New data suggest the Chinese economy is bigger than previously thought May 3rd 2014 | Korea http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21601568-new-data-suggest-chinese-economy-bigger-previously-thought-dragon 31
Chinas GDP reportedly passed the US in 2014. But I call that a mis-application of the PPP numbers 32 Use PPP rates to compare income per capita e.g., to judge if:
Use actual exchange rates to compare GDP e.g., to judge: governments have successfully raised living standards;
How big is the market, from the view of multinational companies? a country is rich enough to cut pollution; How big should a countrys quota be in the IMF?
the currency is undervalued, given its income. How many ships can its navy buy? How big is the global role for its currency? 33
Measuring GDP Using actual exchange rates gives a different answer: The US is still 83% bigger than China. 2014 with IMF WEO forecast Thanks to 34 Qing Yu
China GDP reached US in 2014 only if measured in PPP terms. China has not yet overtaken the US. Authors calculations. (Thanks to Qing Yu.) The cross-over wont come before the 2020s.
In 2021 under aggressive projections: real growth differential = 5% & real appreciation = 3%. In 2029, if the growth differential = 4% and there is no real appreciation. II.2 Chinas recent growth slowdown Breathless reports in 2014 that the Chinese economy had overtaken the US economy as the worlds largest were followed in 2015 by breathless reports that its economy is failing. led by the bursting of a brief stock market bubble.
Is the current slowdown permanent? The slow-down from > 10% to < 7% ? Yes, that is likely permanent. What are the possible reasons? Will it be worse than that? I.e., will transition to the slower path be a hard landing or soft landing? Chinas growth has slowed down
relative to its past double-digit rates. China: Real GDP is Slowing Source: Nicholas Lardy, PIIE Chinas growth slow-down Official 7% may understate slowdown. Reasons for long-term slowdown: Natural convergence (though far from complete)
Technical catch-up, Capital/labor ratio, Rural urban migration, Rising costs of labor & land. Services have a lower rate of productivity growth
Middle-income trap? e.g., Eichengreen, Park & Shin (2012) Regression to the mean: Pritchett & Summers (2014). Aging. Is there a middle-income growth trap? Eichengreen, B, D Park and K Shin (2011), When Fast Economies Slow Down:
International Evidence and Implications for China, NBER WP 16919. Formal evidence on growth slowdowns and middle-income traps has suggested that at per capita incomes of about US$16,700 in 2005 constant international prices, the growth rate of per capita GDP typically slows from 5.6 to 2.1%. Avoiding middle-income growth traps, Pierre-Richard Agnor, Otaviano Canuto, Michael Jelenic ,VoxEU, 21 Dec. 2012 Pritchett & Summers (2014): Regression to the
mean fits the data better than middle-income trap Asiaphoria Meets Regression to the Mean, NBER WP No. 20573, Lant Pritchett and Lawrence Summers Demographic factors are reducing growth rate in China even more than in other countries Transition to slower growth path Hard landing or soft landing? High investment in heavy industry is unsustainable.
Debt Leverage becomes unsustainable when growth slows. Bad loans in the shadow banking system. $-denominated loans especially problematic as in other Emerging Market countries. Need to carry out reforms as decided at the Third Plenum of 2013: Rural land rights and hukou system Market orientation
Environment. (III) Emerging Markets generally To sharpen the question: We currently have a divergence in the world economy, with US GDP strengthening relative to the rest of the world; and the Fed about to raise interest rates while other central banks ease their own monetary policies.
Are EMEs vulnerable to higher US interest rates? They have had plenty of advance warning. Which ones are vulnerable? After the currency crises of the late 1990s, many EM countries adopted stronger policies In particular: More flexible exchange rates, Higher holdings of foreign exchange reserves,
Smaller current account deficits, Less $-denominated debt, Less pro-cyclical fiscal policy. As a result, were less vulnerable to the 2008-09 shock. But there has been back-sliding since 2009: especially on debt. Some EMEs reduced the pro-cyclicality of their fiscal policies after 2000
Fiscal policy was traditionally pro-cyclical: E.g., spending would rise in booms & fall in recessions. I.e., destabilizing. Especially among commodity-exporters. After 2000, some achieved counter-cyclical fiscal policy Notably: Botswana, Chile, China, India, Korea, Malaysia
Correlations between government spending & GDP 1960-1999 procyclical Adapted from Kaminsky, Reinhart & Vegh (2004) } countercyclical
G always used to be pro-cyclical for most developing countries (yellow) 47 procyclical Correlations between government spending & GDP 2000-2009. Adapted from Frankel, Vegh & Vuletin (JDE, 2013)
countercyclical In the decade 2000-2009, about 19 developing countries switched to countercyclical fiscal policy: Negative correlation of G & GDP. DEVELOPING: 43% (= 32 /75) countercyclical. It was 17% (= 13/75) in 1960-1999. INDUSTRIAL: 86% (= 18 / 21) countercyclical. It was 80% (= 16/20) in 1960-1999.
Update of Correlation (G, GDP): 2010-2014. procyclical countercyclical Back-sliding among some after 2009 Thanks to Guillermo Vuletin DEVELOPING: 37% (= 29 out of 76) pursue counter-cyclical fiscal policy.
INDUSTRIAL: 63% (or= 12 out of 19) pursue counter-cyclical fiscal policy. Currency composition in the post-2003 capital inflows shifted away from $-denomination, toward Local Currency. Share of External Debt in LC (Mean of 14 sample countries) Wenxin Du & Jesse Schreger, Harvard U., Dec. 2014, Sovereign Risk, Currency Risk, & Corporate Balance Sheets, Fig.2, p.19 . FX bond issuance by nonfinancial corporates
has increased since 2009, raising vulnerabilities. Foreign Bond Issuance: Nonfinancial Corporates (US$ billion) Mexico Brazil Chile Colombia
Peru Total 80 70 60 50 40 30
20 10 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Sources: Dealogic; and IMF staff calculations. Cubeddu, Iakova, & Sosa IMF, February 2015
If the ECB and other major central banks ease further at the same time that the Fed raises interest rates, shouldnt the effect on EMs cancel out? Those EMs with $-denominated debt will be hit as the dollar appreciates. Especially the commodity-exporters. But the central banks say they are ready, that the Fed should go ahead and get it over with!
Jeffrey Frankel Appendices I. More on the pause in globalization 1) Trying to explain trade slowdown since 2009 2) Has globalization slowed in finance too? II. More on China 1) The shift from manufacturing into services. 2) Slowdown.
Appendix I.1: Long-term trends in trade The growth of trade was interrupted during the period 1913-1950. Douglas Irwin, 2015 World Trade and Production: A Longrun View, The Global Trade Slowdown: A New Normal? B.Hoekman, ed. (CEPR) . The slowdown actually began in the 2000s decade.
In The Global Trade Slowdown: A New Normal? A VoxEU.org eBook, edited by Bernard Hoekman (CEPR), June 2015 Trade since 2008 has continued to run below trend, more so than GDP. GDP and imports in Advanced Economies in 2014, relative to trend Protectionist measures have not risen much since 2009 Data source:
WTO The WTO trade restrictiveness indicators capturing border measures such as tariff increases, import licenses, or new customs controls- show a modest increase in the share of world trade covered by new import restricting measures since the Great Recession (Figure 13). These findings suggest that protectionist trade policies are playing a negligible (if any) role in explaining the reduction in the world trade elasticity and, hence, in the current trade slowdown Cristina Constantinescu, Aaditya Mattoo, and Michele Ruta, 2015, "The global trade slowdown: cyclical or structural?" IMF WP 15/6, January. Reported availability of trade finance has not fallen.
The Global Trade Slowdown: A New Normal? ed. Hoekman (CEPR), 2015 References on trade globalization slowdown
Abiad, A, P Mishra and P Topalova (2014), How Does Trade Evolve in the Aftermath of Financial Crises?, IMF Economic Review, 62: 213-247. Boz, E, M Bussiere, and C Marsilli (2014), Recent Slowdown in Global Trade: Cyclical or Structural
, VoxEU.org, 12 November. Bussire, M., Callegari, Ghironi, Sestieri & Yamano (2013), "Estimating Trade Elasticities: Demand Composition and the Trade Collapse of 2008-2009," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 5, no.3, July, pp. 118-51. NBER WP 17712. VoxEU Summary, 2012. Constantinescu, C, A Mattoo and M Ruta (2015) The Global Trade Slowdown: Cyclical or Structural?, IMF WP 15/6, January. Escaith, H, N Lindenberg, and S Miroudot (2010) International Supply Chains and Trade Elasticity in Times of Global Crisis, WTO Staff Working Paper ERSD-2010-08. Evenett, S J (2014), The Global Trade Disorder: New GTA data, VoxEU.org, 13 November. Freund, C (2009), The Trade Response to Global Downturns: Historical Evidence, Policy
Research Working Paper Series 5015, World Bank, Washington, DC. Irwin, D (2002), Long-Run Trends in World Trade and Income, World Trade Review, 1:1, 89-100. -- (2105) World Trade and Production: A Longrun View, in The Global Trade Slowdown: A New Normal? VoxEU.org eBook, ed. by Bernard Hoekman (CEPR), June. Lawrence, R. (2015) Slowdown in World Trade, HKS (slides), September. World Bank (2015), What Lies Behind the Global Trade Slowdown, Chapter 4 in Global Economic Prospects, World Bank, Washington D.C. Appendix I.2: Has the trend of financial globalization slowed too?
Measures such as the pattern of equity holdings have long shown increasing international integration. September 2008 was a shock indeed. Even the most liquid and integrated of the worlds financial markets briefly became illiquid and segmented. Consider the covered interest differential: $ vs. or . Some see signs of a more lasting pause in integration E.g., a retraction of gross cross-border capital flows.
Increased home-ownership of government bonds attributed by Carmen Reinhart to financial repression. Especially in eurozone. Home bias in equity holdings (most equities are held by domestic residents) is one illustration of the long-term trend toward increased integration Surprisingly, Covered Interest Parity failed in late 2008, as money rushed to the $ as safe haven.
Covered interest differentials, using Overnight Index Swap interest rates, 2003-2011 Significant spread determinants are apparently counterparty risk & liquidity, proxied by financial stock CDS, VIX, implied fx volatility, OIS bid-ask spreads & Fed swap lines. Ins Isabel Sequeira de Freitas Serra, Covered Interest Parity, NOVA School of Business & Economics, Lisbon, Jan. 2012 http://run.unl.pt/handle/10362/9528 One measure of international diversification has apparently slowed in the US,
in a sample of 3.8 million US 401(k) stock market investors But in most countries, home bias in equity holdings has continued to decline. Verdict on financial integration Some aspects of financial integration did suffer very unexpected set-backs in 2008 and thereafter. But there is no reason to think that the longrun trend has changed.
Appendix II: More on China 1) The shift from manufacturing into services. 2) Slowdown. 3) Both imply lower global demand for commodities Since Asia is now a large share of the global economy, its growth rate matters more directly to all of us.
Asias contribution to growth this year will be less than in other recent years, but still more than other regions. The decline in Chinas growth rate is greater than that of Europe or others. Its good to look also at other data in China to verify the rising importance of services. % change (year-over-year)
Source: Nicholas Lardy China: Industrial Output Growth Source: Nicholas Lardy, PIIE Appendix III Corporate debt post-2008 swung back to $-denomination, away from Local Currency, in some EMs.
Wenxin Du & Jesse Schreger, Harvard U., Sept. 2014, Sovereign Risk, Currency Risk, & Corporate Balance Sheets p.18
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