This includes the information found in Chapter 3 in your book. You Can Prevent Contamination Objectives: 2-2 Biological, chemical, and physical contaminants and how to prevent them How to prevent the deliberate contamination of food How to respond to a foodborne-illness outbreak Common food allergens and how to prevent reactions to them How Contamination Happens
Contaminants come from a variety of places: 2-3 Animals we use for food Air, contaminated water, and dirt People o Deliberately o Accidentally How Contamination Happens
People can contaminate food when: 2-4 They dont wash their hands after using the restroom They are in contact with a person who is sick They sneeze or vomit onto food or food contact surfaces They touch dirty food-contact surfaces and equipment and then touch food
Biological Contamination Microorganism: Small, living organism that can be seen only with a microscope Pathogen: Harmful microorganism Make people sick when eaten or produce toxins that cause illness Toxin: 2-5 Poison Biological Contamination Four types of pathogens can contaminate food and cause
foodborne illness: Bacteria 2-6 Viruses Parasites Fungi Biological Contamination Common symptoms of foodborne illness: Diarrhea Vomiting
Fever Nausea Abdominal cramps Jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes) Onset times: 2-7 Depend on the type of foodborne illness
Can range from 30 minutes to six weeks The Big Six Pathogens Food handlers diagnosed with illnesses from the Big Six pathogens cannot work in a foodservice operation while they are sick. Shigella spp. Salmonella Typhi Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as E. coli Hepatitis A
Norovirus 2-8 Bacteria: Basic Characteristics Location: Found almost everywhere Detection: Cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted Growth: Will grow rapidly if FAT TOM conditions are correct
Prevention: 2-9 Control time and temperature What Bacteria Need to Grow F T Food Acidity Temperature T O M
Time 2-10 A Oxygen Moisture What Bacteria Need to Grow Food: Most bacteria need nutrients to survive TCS food supports the growth of bacteria better than other types of food F Food
2-11 What Bacteria Need to Grow Acidity: Bacteria grow best in food that contains little or no acid A Acidity 2-12 What Bacteria Need to Grow Temperature: Bacteria grow rapidly between 41F and 135F (5C and 57C) o
2-13 This range is known as the temperature danger zone Bacteria growth is limited when food is held above or below the temperature danger zone T Temperature What Bacteria Need to Grow Time: Bacteria need time to grow The more time bacteria spend in
the temperature danger zone, the greater chance they have to grow to unsafe levels. T Time 2-14 What Bacteria Need to Grow Oxygen: Some bacteria need oxygen to grow, while others grow when oxygen isnt there O Oxygen 2-15 What Bacteria Need to Grow Moisture:
2-16 Bacteria grow well in food with high levels of moisture aw = water activity; the amount of moisture available in food for bacterial growth aw scale ranges from 0.0 to 1.0 Water has a water activity of 1.0 M Moisture
Control FAT TOM The conditions you can control: Temperature o Time o 2-17 Keep TCS food out of the temperature danger zone Limit how long TCS food spends in the temperature danger zone Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness The FDA has identified four types of bacteria that cause severe illness and are highly contagious: 2-18
Salmonella Typhi Nontyphoidal Salmonella Shigella spp. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness Bacteria: Salmonella Typhi (SAL-me-NEL-uh TI-fee) Source: People Food Linked with the Bacteria Prevention Measures
Ready-to-eat food Beverages Exclude food handlers diagnosed with an illness caused by Salmonella Typhi from the operation Wash hands Cook food to minimum internal temperatures 2-19 Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness Bacteria: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (SAL-me-NEL-uh) Source: Farm animals, People Food Linked with the Bacteria
Poultry and eggs Meat Milk and dairy products Produce Prevention Measures Cook poultry and eggs to minimum internal temperatures Prevent cross-contamination between poultry and ready-to-eat food Keep food handlers who are vomiting or have diarrhea and have been diagnosed with an illness from nontyphoidal Salmonella out of the operation 2-20 Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness Bacteria: Shigella spp. (shi-GEL-uh) Source: Human feces Food Linked with the Bacteria
Prevention Measures Food easily contaminated by hands, such as Exclude food handlers who have diarrhea salads containing TCS food (potato, tuna, and have been diagnosed with an illness shrimp, macaroni, chicken) caused by Shigella spp. from the operation Exclude food handlers who have diarrhea from the operation Food that has made contact with contaminated water, such as produce Wash hands Control flies inside and outside the operation 2-21 Major Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness Bacteria: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (ess-chur-EE-kee-UH-KO-LI), also known as E. coli Source: Intestines of cattle; infected people Food Linked with the Bacteria
Prevention Measures Ground beef (raw and undercooked) Contaminated produce Exclude food handlers who have diarrhea and have been diagnosed with a disease from the bacteria Cook food, especially ground beef, to minimum internal temperatures Purchase produce from approved, reputable suppliers Prevent cross-contamination between raw meat and ready-to-eat food 2-22 Viruses: Basic Characteristics Location: Carried by human beings and animals o
Require a living host to grow o Do not grow in food o Can be transferred through food and remain infectious in food Sources: 2-23 Food, water, or any contaminated surface Typically occur through fecal-oral routes Viruses: Basic Characteristics
Destruction: 2-24 Not destroyed by normal cooking temperatures Good personal hygiene must be practiced when handling food and food-contact surfaces Quick removal and cleanup of vomit is important Major Viruses that Cause Foodborne Illnesses The FDA has identified two viruses that are highly contagious and can cause severe illness:
Hepatitis A Norovirus Food handlers diagnosed with an illness from hepatitis A or Norovirus must not work in an operation while they are sick. 2-25 Major Viruses That Cause Foodborne Illness Virus: Hepatitis A (HEP-a-TI-tiss) Source: Human feces Food Linked with the Virus Prevention Measures Ready-to-eat food Exclude staff who have been diagnosed with hepatitis Shellfish from contaminated water A from the operation.
Exclude staff who have jaundice for seven days or less from the operation. Wash hands. Avoid bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers. 2-26 Major Viruses That Cause Foodborne Illness Virus: Norovirus (NOR-o-VI-rus) Source: Human feces Food Linked with the Virus Prevention Measures Ready-to-eat food Exclude staff who are vomiting or have diarrhea and Shellfish from contaminated water have been diagnosed with Norovirus from the operation. Wash hands. Avoid bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers.
2-27 Parasites: Basic characteristics Location: Require a host to live and reproduce Source: 2-28 Seafood, wild game, and food processed with contaminated water, such as produce Parasites: Basic characteristics Prevention: 2-29
Purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers Cook food to required minimum internal temperatures Fish that will be served raw or undercooked, must be frozen correctly by the manufacturer Fungi: Basic Characteristics Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms: 2-30 Some molds and mushrooms produce toxins
Throw out moldy food, unless mold is a natural part of the food Purchase mushrooms from approved, reputable suppliers Biological Toxins Origin: Naturally occur in certain plants, mushrooms, and seafood Seafood toxins: 2-31
Produced by pathogens found on certain fish o Tuna, bonito, mahimahi o Histamine produced when fish is timetemperature abused Occur in certain fish that eat smaller fish that have consumed the toxin o Barracuda, snapper, grouper, amberjack o Ciguatera toxin is an example Biological Toxins Illness: Symptoms and onset times vary with illness
People will experience illness within minutes General symptoms: 2-32 Diarrhea or vomiting Neurological symptoms o Tingling in extremities o Reversal of hot and cold sensations
Flushing of the face and/or hives Difficulty breathing Heart palpitations Chemical Contaminants Sources: 2-33 Certain types of kitchenware and equipment (items made from pewter, copper, zinc, and some types of painted pottery)
Cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, and pesticides Deodorizers, first-aid products, and health and beauty products (hand lotions, hairsprays, etc.) Chemical Contaminants Symptoms: 2-34 Vary depending on chemical consumed Most illnesses occur within minutes
Vomiting and diarrhea are typical Chemical Contaminants Prevention: Only use chemicals approved for use in foodservice operations Purchase chemicals from approved, reputable suppliers Store chemicals away from prep areas, food-storage areas, and service areas. o 2-35 Chemicals must be separated from food and
food-contact surfaces by spacing and partitioning Chemicals must NEVER be stored above food or food-contact surfaces Use chemicals for their intended use and follow manufacturers directions Chemical Contaminants Prevention: 2-36 Only handle food with equipment and utensils approved for foodservice use
Make sure the manufacturers labels on original chemical containers are readable Keep MSDS current, and make sure they are accessible to staff at all times Follow the manufacturers directions and local regulatory requirements when throwing out chemicals Physical Contaminants Sources: 2-37 Common objects that get into food o
Metal shavings from cans o Wood o Fingernails o Staples o Bandages o Glass o
Jewelry o Dirt Naturally occurring objects such as fruit pits and bones Physical Contaminants Symptoms: Mild to fatal injuries are possible Cuts, dental damage, and choking Bleeding and pain
Prevention: 2-38 Purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers Closely inspect food received Take steps to prevent physical contamination, including practicing good personal hygiene Deliberate Contamination of Food Groups who may attempt to contaminate food: Terrorists or activists
Disgruntled current or former staff Vendors Competitors FDA defense tool: 2-39 A.L.E.R.T. Deliberate Contamination of Food Assure Look Employees Reports
Threat 2-40 Make sure products received are from safe sources Monitor the security of products in the facility Know who is in your facility Keep information related to food defense accessible Develop a plan for responding to suspicious activity or a threat to the operation Responding to a Foodborne-Illness Outbreak 2-41 Gather information Notify authorities
Segregate product Document information Identify staff Cooperate with authorities Review procedures Responding to a Foodborne-Illness Outbreak
Gather information o Ask the person for general contact information o Ask the person to identify the food eaten o Ask for a description of symptoms o Ask when the person first got sick Notify authorities o 2-42 Contact the local regulatory authority if an outbreak is suspected
Responding to a Foodborne-Illness Outbreak 2-43 Segregate product o Set the suspected product aside if any remains o Include a label with Do Not Use and Do Not Discard on it Document the information o Log information about suspected product o
Include a product description, product date, lot number, sell-by date, and pack size Responding to a Foodborne-Illness Outbreak Identify staff o Keep a list of food handlers scheduled at time of incident o Interview staff immediately Cooperate with authorities o 2-44
Provide appropriate documentation Review procedures o Determine if standards are being met o Identify if standards are not working Food Allergens Food allergen: 2-45 A protein in a food or ingredient some people are sensitive to
These proteins occur naturally When an enough of an allergen is eaten, an allergic reaction can occur Food Allergens Allergy symptoms: Nausea Wheezing or shortness of breath Hives or itchy rashes Swelling in various parts of the body, including the face, eyes,
hands, or feet Vomiting and/or diarrhea Abdominal pain Allergic reactions: 2-46 Symptoms can become serious quickly A severe reaction, called anaphylaxis, can lead to death Food Allergens The Big Eight food allergens:
2-47 Milk Eggs Soy Fish Tree nuts, such as almonds, walnuts, and pecans
Peanuts Crustacean shellfish, including lobster, shrimp, and crab Wheat Food Allergens Know How To Read Food Labels 2-48 Check food labels for allergens Prevent Allergic Reactions Service staff: 2-49
Describe menu items to guests, identify any allergens in the item Suggest menu items without the allergen Clearly identify the guests order for kitchen and service staff Deliver food separately to prevent cross-contact Prevent Allergic Reactions Kitchen staff:
2-50 Avoid cross-contact o Do NOT cook different types of food in the same fryer oil o Do NOT put food on surfaces that have touched allergens Prevent Allergic Reactions Kitchen staff: 2-51 Avoid cross-contact o Check recipes and ingredient labels
o Wash, rinse, and sanitize cookware, utensils, and equipment before preparing an allergen special order o Make sure the allergen doesnt touch anything for customers with food allergies (food, beverages, utensils, etc.) o Wash your hands and change gloves before prepping food o Label food packaged on-site for retail use
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