Chapter 5 Environmental Emergencies Wild Animal Bites DO
Chapter 5 Environmental Emergencies Wild Animal Bites DO NOT try to capture the animal. DO NOT kill the animal. If you must kill it, DO NOT hit or shoot its head (brain). Preserve the head (brain) for a medical exam. Contact the local health department. E.M. Singletary, M.D. Used with permission.
Animal Bites: Scenario A mail carrier is heard crying for help while being attacked by a large dog. The dogs owner calls off the dog and takes it inside the house. You run up the street and help the mail carrier over to a nearby yard. You find several severe bite marks on his legs and arms. Animal Bites: Agree or Disagree? 1. Apply an ice pack to a possible bruise from an animal or human bite that does not break the skin.
2. Severe animal or human bites should be cleaned at a medical facility. 3. Apply an over-the-counter antibiotic ointment over a severe animal or human bite. 4. Wash around the outside, but never the inside, of a shallow animal or human bite wound. 5. You do not need to report a bite from someones pet to the police or animal control. Pit Viper Bite: What to Do AmeeCross/Shutterstock.
Courtesy of Ray Rauch/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services. Courtesy of South Florida Water Management District. 1. Call 9-1-1. You do not need to capture or kill the snake. 2. When possible, carry the person. If alone and capable, walk
slowly. 3. DO NOT apply a pressure bandage. Pit Viper Bite: Cautions American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. DO NOT cut the persons skin to drain venom. DO NOT use mouth suction or a suction device.
DO NOT apply cold packs or ice packs. DO NOT give alcohol. DO NOT apply electrical shock. DO NOT use a tourniquet. Coral Snake Bites: What to Do Rolf Nussbaumer/age fotostock. 1. Apply a wide elastic bandage using
overlapping turns. 2. Start wrapping at the end of the bitten arm or leg and wrap upward, covering the limbs entire length. Coral Snake Bites: What to Do 3. Use similar tightness as when wrapping a sprained ankle. You should be able to slip a finger under the wrapping.
4. Stabilize the bitten arm or leg as you would stabilize a broken bone and keep it below heart level. Snakebites: Scenario You are vacationing with your family at a cabin in the woods. One morning, your uncle walks out of the cabin and sees a rattlesnake. He picks up the snake and it bites him. Your uncle walks back into the cabin, washes his hand at the kitchen sink, and sits down on the couch.
Snakebites: Agree or Disagree? 1. Seeking medical care is the best thing you can do for a snake bite. 2. Apply an ice pack to a bite to inactivate the venom. 3. Use a suction pump to remove venom. 4. Apply a tourniquet to stop venom from spreading through the body. 5. Wash a bite with soap and running water and cover it with a dressing. Insect Stings: What to Do
1. Call 9-1-1. 2. Help the person self-administer epinephrine. 3. Monitor breathing, and if it stops, give CPR. 4. For a sting in the throat or mouth that causes swelling, have the person suck on ice or flush with cold water.
Dwight Lyman/Shutterstock. If the person is allergic to insect stings or has signs of a severe allergic reaction within 30 minutes: Insect Stings: Scenario You are at a garden shop when you hear one of the shops employees complaining about her face swelling and a feeling of tightness in her throat. She says a bee
stung her and she is having some breathing difficulty. She has a medical-alert bracelet indicating an allergy to insects and has medication for such an emergency. Insect Stings: Agree or Disagree? 1. Use a physician-prescribed epinephrine kit on a person with a severe allergic reaction to an insect sting. 2. Place an ice pack over an insect sting site. 3. Remove an embedded stinger by scraping or brushing it off.
4. Encourage a person who has been stung to move around to stay alert and awake. 5. For a sting on an arm or leg, apply a wide band between the sting site and the heart. Spider Bites: Scenario While resting on your outside patio, you feel a sharp pinprick on your arm and look down. You see a glossy black spider move across the patio. About 15 minutes later, a dull, numbing pain develops in your back. You look at your arm and see two tiny red spots. Abdominal
cramping starts about an hour later and steadily gets worse. Spider Bites: Agree or Disagree? 1. Do not worry about venomous spider bites and scorpion stings; they usually do not require medical care. 2. Most spiders that bite humans are never seen. 3. Scorpions sting and do not bite. 4. Clean the affected area with soap and water. 5. Apply heat to the area to draw the venom out of
the skin. Tick Bites: What to Do Petroleum jelly Fingernail polish Rubbing alcohol or gasoline Touching with a blown-out hot match, hot needle, or hot paper clip
DO NOT grab a tick at the rear of its body. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. DO NOT use any of the following ineffective methods to remove the tick: Tick Bites: What to Do Once the tick is removed: 1. Wash your hands and the area with soap and water. Apply rubbing alcohol to further disinfect the area.
2. Apply an ice pack to reduce pain. 3. Apply calamine lotion to relieve itching. 4. Submerge the tick in alcohol, place in a sealed bag with its contents labeled and dated, and keep it in a refrigerator for one month to show a physician should a rash, fever, or flulike symptoms develop. 5. If a rash, fever, or flulike symptoms occur in 3 to 30 days after the ticks removal, seek medical care. Tick Bites: What to Do If mouth parts broke off and remain in the skin:
1. Remove the parts with tweezers. 2. If unable to remove the parts easily, leave them alone and let the skin heal. Tick Bites: Scenario You live in tick country and have made it a practice to do a daily tick check of your children; however, youve been busy the past week and failed to do the inspections. At the end of the week, your 8-year-old comes to you and shows a dark spot that didnt come off during a shower. You look closely and see that it is a
tick attached to the skin. Tick Bites: Agree or Disagree? 1. Cover an embedded tick with petroleum jelly. 2. Remove an attached tick by touching it with a blown-out but hot match, needle, or paper clip. 3. Use tweezers or a specialized tick-removal tool to remove a tick. 4. Pull an embedded tick upward with steady, even pressure until the skin surface tents; hold it in that position until the tick lets go.
5. Seek medical care for a rash or fever that occurs 3 to 30 days after the removal of a tick. Heat-Related Emergencies: Scenario During a football teams 2-hour practice in late August, the coach has the defense running sprints without rest breaks for the last 20 minutes of practice. One of the players suddenly falls to the ground. He has extremely hot skin, is sweating, and appears disorientated.
Heat-Related Emergencies: Agree or Disagree? For muscle cramps: 1. Give the person a soda. 2. Gently stretch the painful area. 3. Call 9-1-1. For heat stroke: 4. Give several salt tablets, if available. 5. Call 9-1-1. 6. The best cooling method is whole-body cold-water
immersion. 7. Do nothing besides moving the person to a cool place and waiting for EMS to arrive. Hypothermia: Scenario You are out for a walk when you notice some commotion by a local pond. You make your way over and learn that a young woman fell through the ice of the pond while attempting to rescue her dog. Several bystanders formed a human chain and pulled her to safety. She is awake; has cold, pale skin; and has
intense, uncontrollable shivering. Hypothermia: Agree or Disagree? 1. Use a vapor barrier (eg, tarp) to trap body heat. 2. Do not give fluids containing sugar. 3. Check for breathing in an unresponsive person with hypothermia. 4. Keep the person with severe hypothermia in a flat (horizontal) position. 5. Rewarm by applying heat to the chest, armpits, and back using large electric pads or blankets with
insulation. Frostbite: Scenario You are on a vacation with some friends. One of your friends has been in the woods in below freezing temperatures all day. After coming back to the cabin, she complains that her toes are numb. They look gray and feel hard and cold. A medical facility is 15 minutes away. Frostbite: Agree or Disagree?
1. If a person has hypothermia and frostbite, first treat the hypothermia. 2. Try to rewarm frostbite regardless of the persons location. 3. Rewarm frostbite in a warm water bath for about 30 minutes. 4. Stop rewarming when the frostbitten part feels soft and pliable. 5. Break any blisters that have appeared. Swallowed Poisoning: Scenario
You find your two-year-old son vomiting. You notice that the top of a nearby medicine bottle is off. The label on the bottle reveals that the medicine belongs to your visiting mother. You realize that your son must have swallowed some of her medicine. Swallowed Poisoning: Agree or Disagree? 1. For most swallowed poisons, induce vomiting by giving syrup of ipecac. 2. For most swallowed poisons, have the person drink
as much water as possible. 3. For a responsive person who swallowed a poison, call the National Poison Control hotline. 4. For an unresponsive person who swallowed a poison, call 9-1-1. 5. Place a poisoned person on their left side. Inhaled Poisoning: Scenario A man and his son were found unresponsive inside their zipped-up tent at the group camping site you are staying at. They were discovered by other campers. A
charcoal grill was found inside the tent; the grill apparently had been brought inside to provide warmth after it had been used outside for cooking. Inhaled Poisoning: Agree or Disagree? 1. Immediately move a person exposed to an inhaled poison; you can assess the danger to yourself later. 2. Check an unresponsive persons breathing because he or she may need CPR. 3. Even if a person with inhaled poisoning appears to
have recovered, he or she needs medical care. 4. Place a person sitting up because it allows for better breathing than when lying down. 5. Only enter a dangerous scene involving toxic fumes or gas if you are properly equipped and trained. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac: Scenario While weeding a vacant lot, you pull up a batch of weeds with shiny leaves in clusters of three. You finish the job about an hour later. The next morning, your
arms are itching, and you notice a rash beginning to appear. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac: Agree or Disagree? 1. Calamine lotion can help relieve itching. 2. Allergic reactions to poison ivy, oak, or sumac are irritating but never require medical care. 3. Apply petroleum jelly to the affected area. 4. Soaking in an oatmeal bath can help reduce itching. 5. If you have contacted a poison ivy plant just a few
minutes ago, immediately wash and rinse the area with lots of cold running water. Marine Animal Injuries: Scenario You and a friend are swimming in a bay in New England and decide to go farther out where the water is cooler. While heading back to shore, your friend feels something latch around his arm. He quickly pushes it off and continues to swim to shore. When you get to the beach, your friend tells you his arm is burning and stinging and you see a rash on his arm. A lifeguard who
is stationed nearby says it looks like your friend has received a jellyfish sting. Marine Animal Injuries: Agree or Disagree? 1. Care for a marine animal sting by pouring hydrogen peroxide on the affected area. 2. Some marine animal bites and stings can cause an allergic reaction. 3. Using vinegar to care for a jellyfish sting is controversial partly because what works for one
species may worsen the sting of another species. 4. Treat a shark bite the same as you would a dog bite. 5. For a sea snake bite to an arm or leg, apply a pressure bandage over the entire extremity.
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