Report on NIST activities 2017 Michael Lombardi SIM

Report on NIST activities 2017 Michael Lombardi SIM

Report on NIST activities 2017 Michael Lombardi SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 OUTLINE Contribution to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) Primary and Secondary Frequency Standards Time Dissemination and Services Advancing GPS and its applications SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 NIST Time and Frequency Standards and Distribution Time and Frequency Distribution Services

Radio broadcasts Networks Primary Frequency Standards and NIST Time Scale Realization of SI second NIST-F2 Research on Future Standards and Distribution Optical clocks Optical frequency synthesis Satellites

Noise metrology Hydrogen Maser & Measurement system Chip-scale atomic devices Quantum computing UTC Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is the official world time scale. UTC is computed by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in France. UTC(NIST) is the local realization of UTC. The UTC(NIST) time scale consists of an ensemble of hydrogen masers and cesium clocks. NIST maintains and operates UTC(NIST)

and the U. S. Primary Frequency Standards, cesium fountain devices F1 and F2. The time transfer links between NIST and BIPM are based on Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) measurements utilizing geostationary satellites. GPS common-view measurements. SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 UTC 4 Cesium Beam standards

Two-way satellite time & frequency transfer UTC(NIST) 6 Hydrogen Masers GPS Measurement System SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 UTC CALIBRATIONS OF TIME TRANSFER LINKS USNO shares with NIST the responsibility of maintaining accurate realizations of UTC in the US GPS with SUV cal: common-view calibration GPS: common-view TWSTFT: Direct or indirect

intercontinental satellite link PTB is the pivot point for UTC SUV: TWSTFT mobile station owned by USNO, periodically driven to NIST in Boulder, CO SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 UTC BIPM issued updated Calibration Guidelines for all laboratories contributing to UTC NIST (Boulder, CO, USA) CNM (Queretaro, MEXICO) CNMP(PANAMA) INTI (Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA) INXE (Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL) NRC (Ottawa, CANADA) ONRJ (Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL)

INM (Bogota, COLOMBIA) INCP (Lima, PERU) USNO (Washington, DC, USA) APL (Laurel, MD, USA) IGNA (Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA) NRL (Washington, DC, USA) ONBA (Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA) SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 UTC Trip 1: NRC Trip 2: CNM CNMP

Trip 3: NRC EARLY 2018 G2 CALIBRATION CAMPAIGNS Trips 4-5: INTI (Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA) INXE (Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL) ONRJ (Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL) D! E T

E L P (Ottawa, CANADA) M O C (Queretaro, MEXICO) ! D E T E L P OM C(PANAMA) D! E

T E (Ottawa, CANADA) L P M O C NIST Travelling System SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 Frequency Standards PRIMARY FREQUENCY STANDARD FOR THE UNITED STATES NIST-F1 Atomic Fountain Clock 1 second is defined as the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of

the ground state of the 133Cs atom. Current accuracy (uncertainty): 3 x 10-16 second. 25 trillionths of a second per day. 1 second in 100 million years. Re-evaluation of all systematic effects after move to new labs SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 Frequency Standards SECONDARY: OPTICAL Al+ 1124 THz Ion Clocks + Hg 1064 THz Yb 520 THz Ca 456 THz Neutral Clocks Sr 429 THz Cs

SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 0.0092 THzF1, F2 Frequency Standards SECONDARY STANDARDS: OPTICAL CLOCKS f/f ~ 6 x 10f/f ~ 6 x 10-18 Al+ 1124 THz Hg+ 1064 THz Ions Yb Ca Sr Neutrals 520 THz 456 THz

429 THz Sr or YB optical lattice clocks Df/f ~ 8 x 10-18 Df/f ~ 10 x 10-18 Single Hg ion trap Al ion logic clock SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 DISSEMINATION TMAS FMAS NISTDO

NIST provides common-view GPS measurement systems to its remote customers, allowing them to compare their clocks to UTC(NIST) by using the GPS. The common-view data is processed in real-time and shows the time or frequency difference between UTC(NIST) and the customers clock. FMAS: reports frequency uncertainty to the customer TMAS: reports time uncertainty to the customer NISTDO: locks the customers clock (rubidium or cesium) to the UTC(NIST) Customers can then show traceability to the International System (SI) of units through NIST. SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 DISSEMINATION Map of Common-View GPS Systems (78 total systems deployed, 53 at customer sites and 25 in SIM Time Network) SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 DISSEMINATION A NISTDO is the station clock at WWVH in Kauai

The Boulder-Kauai baseline is long (5324 km) and Internet access at WWVH is through a satellite and is not always available. Even so, the average time offset is near 0 and peak-to-peak time variations are usually within 10 ns of UTC(NIST) in Boulder. SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 DISSEMINATION Electronics and Instrument Manufacturers Financial Markets / Stock Exchanges Nuclear Energy;1.96% 1.96% Telecommunications; Private Calibration Laboratories; 3.92% U. S. Military U. S. Government ; 7.84%

Electronics and Instrument Manufacturers; 31.37% Aerospace Defense Contractors; 9.80% Defense Contractors Aerospace; 13.73% U. S. Government Financial Markets / Stock Exchanges; 15.69% U. S. Military; 13.73% Private Calibration Laboratories Telecommunications Nuclear Energy NIST FMAS/TMAS Customers by Sector SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting

2017 Time By Radio: WWVB WWVB low frequency broadcast of time code signals (60 kHz). Began broadcasting from Fort Collins, Colorado in 1963. NEW LABORATORIES Time scale migration in process Second TW station for link with USNO Room-temperature fountain standard (F1) Optical frequency standards and frequency comb

Optical fiber link between buildings (time scale) Secondary time reference points (clock trips) SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 EXPLORING NEW IDEAS Laser-cooled Atomic clocks for GPS satellites NIST is involved in the Air Force Research Lab program to support the Navigation Technology Satellite 3 (NTS-3), as well as possible future clocks for GPS. The current clock technology is unlikely to be significantly improved Terrestrial measured in s Ke rn C 13kg < 30W

o pa ce NTS-3 on-orbit goal Volume ~ 1.3 * legacy KernCo SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 Work in Progress BIPM-sponsored pilot program with Beidou GNSS receiver for time transfer Regular measurements of maser frequency using Yb optical clocks Regular intercomparisons between optical clocks (Yb, Al and Sr) First report of optical secondary frequency standards to BIPM Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES): installation of Microwave Ground Terminal next spring

SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017 THANK YOU! SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017

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