Unit VIIII: Data Collection in nursing research Prepared
Unit VIIII: Data Collection in nursing research Prepared by: NUR 500 Research team 1ST semester 38/39. H OBJECTIVES On completing this Unit, you will be able to: - Outline the differences between structured and unstructured data collection methods -
Explain two criteria for selecting a data collecting technique - Describe the major strengths and weaknesses for one type of data collection technique Data Collection Plan Well designed data collection
Enhance the quality of the data Ensure the usefulness of study evidence Poor quality data undermines study results A prime consideration in selecting a data collection method should be the conceptual congruence between the constructs of interest & the method, and the quality of data that method yields (Polit & Beck, 2017) Garbage In = Garbage Out Polit & Beck 2017
Data Collection Methods Most Common Approaches used in Nursing Research Self Reports Observation Biophysiologic Measures Polit & Beck 2017 Types of Observation Data Scientific Structured Observation
Quantitative research studies Data collected from study participants Response categories are specified in advance Self administered questionnaires Interviews Observations Polit & Beck 2017
Scientific Observation Different than ordinary observations during daily life Objective Systematic Examines specific behaviors, activities, conditions, & characteristics Identify what you want to observe before you make the observation Polit & Beck 2017
Structured Observation Molar Approach: observe large units of behavior & treat them as a whole Combining several verbal and nonverbal behaviors to determine one global behavior Susceptible to observer error re: ambiguity in observations Polit & Beck 2017 Structured Observation
Molecular Approach : Small, specific behaviors and/or verbal phrases are the observational units Reduces behavioral observations to concrete & specific elements Action, gesture, phase = separate entity May fail to understand how smaller elements contribute to the whole pattern Polit & Beck 2017 Unstructured Observation Most qualitative research studies
Data collected from study participants Interview Participant asked questions without a predetermined plan regarding the content or flow of interview information Observation No formal, predetermined plan for observing, counting, naming, or recording the information Polit & Beck 2017
Unstructured Observation Unknown: concealed observation Real-world setting data One way mirrors, hidden cameras/people Behaviors might change if aware of researcher Unethical when done without consent Participant: social interaction Participation in the observation of a group or culture
Polit & Beck 2017 Interviews Unstructured Interviews Grand Tour Questions: Broad, open-ended question that leads to more focused questions guided by responses Descriptive Questions: Participants describe experiences in own words Contrast Questions: Differences between the meaning of terms & symbols Polit & Beck 2017
Interviews Focused or Semi-structured Interviews Pre-prepared written topic guide List of areas or questions to be covered May have follow-up or probing questions Participants speak to the listed topics freely and in their own words Polit & Beck 2017
Interviews Structured Interviews Instrument = interview schedule Questions asked orally via face-to-face or telephone interviews Various degrees of structure Open-ended vs. closed-ended questions: Open: What prevented you from making the appointment? Closed ended: rate, scale Polit & Beck 2017
Questionnaires Self Administered Questionnaires (SAG) Open and/or closed-ended questions distributed via in person, mail, e-mail, or web Advantages Reduced time and cost versus interviewing Anonymous Less interviewer bias Easy to analyze Disadvantages Low response rates
Survey fatigue: too long or too many given Polit & Beck 2017 Scales Nurse researchers often use pre-existing scales that are valid and reliable, rather than develop their own Measures degrees of something Produces a numeric score
Examples: Likert, Visual Analogue Although some scales and instruments are either free or in the public domain, many must be purchased from the publisher or developer and/or require the authors permission to use. Polit & Beck 2017 Scales Semantic Differential (SD) Scales Used to measure psychosocial traits
Rate a concept on a series of bipolar adjectives Effective/ineffective; active/passive, good/bad Advantages: flexible & easy to construct Disadvantages: Adjective pairs can be inappropriately linked to the concepts Polit & Beck 2017 Scales Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)
Polit & Beck 2017 Delphi Technique Survey technique for obtaining expert panel opinion & judgment on a specific topic or concern Individual experts are asked questions in a series of survey rounds Summary data circulated between rounds Final goal: Expert consensus; forecasting Example: Rand Corporation surveys
Polit & Beck 2017 Delphi Technique Survey technique for obtaining expert panel opinion & judgment on a specific topic or concern Individual experts are asked questions in a series of survey rounds Summary data circulated between rounds Final goal: Expert consensus; forecasting Invented by Rand Corporation
Polit & Beck 2017 Existing Databases Many healthcare institutions have preexisting databases with patient outcome measures and nurse sensitive indicators Quality Improvement & Risk Management CalNOC (Collaborative Alliance for Nursing Outcomes) Fall, Pressure Ulcers, Restraints Economical method of measuring trends Quality of data entry and database maintenance has been questioned
Polit & Beck 2017 Physiologic Measures Increased use of measures Assess biophysiologic status of patients Evaluate clinical outcomes Types of Measures In vivo: in or on living organisms Body temp, BP, HR, Oxygen Saturation In vitro: outside living organisms
Serum lab values Polit & Beck 2017 Physiologic Measures Advantages Accurate & precise, Objective Valid measures of targeted variables Thermometer always measures temperature Available equipment in most healthcare settings Disadvantages
Measuring tool might affect the variable Arterial line might block artery & alter pressure Artifact interference Possible Injury Polit & Beck 2017 Summary Available Resources Tool Reputation, Availability & Familiarity Tool Validity & Reliability
Norms & Comparability Population Appropriateness Administration Issues Ethics just because you can do, doesnt mean you should do it! Polit & Beck 2017 Conclusion When selecting data collection methods & instruments consider the following: Is the technique appropriate to the research question & study design? Do you understand the practical, technical, financial, and ethical issues?
Quality data collection methods ensure that data results are appropriate, accurate, robust, and MEANINGFUL Polit & Beck 2017 Question ?
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