ppt Part 2: 10 Slides Excluding Assignment And

ppt Part 2: 10 Slides Excluding Assignment And

ppt Part 2: 10 Slides Excluding Assignment And Photos C. Liver READ1. High regeneration capacity 2. Gross Anatomy a. *4 lobes: Give location of and which side it is best seen i) *Right ii) *Left Sternum Nipple Liver Bare area Falciform ligament Left lobe of liver Right lobe of liver Gallbladder (a)

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Round ligament (ligamentum teres) a. 4 Lobes Caudate Lobe Round Ligament Quadrate Lobe Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gallbladder B. Liver iii) *Caudate small, seen mainly postero-superiorly; next to Vena Cava iv) *Quadrate small and mainly seen postero-inferiorly below Left Lobe and next to gallbladder (Memory Aid: q like g)

READ b. Ligaments Falciform Ligament: separates Right & Left lobes anteriorly and suspends liver from diaphragm Round ligament (ligamentum teres) remnant of umbilical Vein Liver Falciform Right lobe of liver ligament Left lobe of liver Gallbladder (a) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Round ligament (ligamentum teres) c. Ducts

*Bile Duct (Previous Name: Common Bile Duct) *Common Hepatic Ducts *Cystic Duct *R & L Hepatic Right and left hepatic ducts of liver Cystic duct Common hepatic duct Bile duct Gallbladder (bile storage) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pancreas Jejunum d. Blood Vessels give where they are coming from and where they are going to *Hepatic Artery *Hepatic Portal Vein *Hepatic Vein Inferior Vena Cava Lesser omentum (in fissure)

Left lobe of liver Porta hepatis containing hepatic artery (left) and hepatic portal vein (right) Quadrate lobe of liver Ligamentum teres (b) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bare area Caudate lobe of liver Sulcus for inferior vena cava Hepatic vein (cut) Bile duct (cut) Right lobe of liver Gallbladder

3. Microscopic Anatomy of Liver a. Liver lobules = hexagonal structural and functional units i) *Hepatocytes: liver cells with a lot of what organelle? READ Functions: (1) produce bile (900 ml per day) (2)Process nutrients from blood (glucose glycogen) (3) Store fat soluble vitamins (4) Detoxification (amino acids ammonia urea) ii) Liver sinusoids = leaky capillaries between hepatic plates Carry nutrient rich/oxygen poor blood from Hepatic Portal V. and oxygenated blood from Hepatic A. Portal Triad LOBULE Kupffer cells (hepatic macrophages) in sinusoid walls Plates of Hepatocytes Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sinusoid

Capillaries Central Vein 3. Microscopic Anatomy of Liver b. Small Blood Vessels and Ducts: i) Portal triad = Bile Duct, Hepatic Arteriole (branch of Hepatic A.), Hepatic Venule (branch of Portal V.) The blood vessels branch into sinusoids and mix; then Blood flows toward central vein; -- Bile from Hepatocytes Bile canaliculi Bile Ducts READ ii) Central Vein drains filtered blood leaving hepatocytes and moves it to the Hepatic Veins Hepatic Vein Bile canaliculi Portal Triad Plates of Hepatocytes Central Vein

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 3. Bile a) * Function: and is it an enzyme? READ b) Bile Composition: Bile Salts (acids derived from cholesterol) Pigments: bilirubin break down product of RBCs Cholesterol Phospholipids c) Bile Salts Recycled: reabsorbed in ileum then Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 3. Bile d. *Health Gallstones = READ e. Control bile production Secretin: released from intestinal cells when they are exposed to fats stimulates Liver to increase production

of bile Recycled bile salts: as increase and recycle back to liver = major stimuli to liver for increased bile production Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. D. The Gallbladder a) *= describe and give duct b) b) *Function: READ c) Control: Cholecytokinin (CCK) released from duodenum when stimulus of acidic fatty chyme enters duodenum

Causes contraction to release bile Gallbladder No digestion if: Hepatopancreatic Sphincter closedthen the bile backs up into gallbladder & is stored Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. E. Pancreas a) *Parts: b) *Location: Pancreas READ c) Exocrine function: Pancreatic Juice i) Acini = round cluster of secretory cells that secrete enzymes; enzymes need alkalinity ii) Duct cells secrete bicarbonate: neutralizes stomachSmall acidduct

to pH of 8 Pancreatic Duct Acinar cells Head of Pancreas Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Tail Pancreas Islets Acinar cells Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pancreas Acinar cells Pancreatic Duct, branch

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Exocrine Function READ iii) Enzymes: Pancreas secretes enzymes for all 4 major Biochemical groups (food molecules) Amylase, Lipases, Nucleases Proteases = secreted inactive (activated in duodenum) d) Control: Secretin target Duct cells AND Cholecystokinin targets acinar cells Epithelial Cells of Duodenum with Membrane-bound enzymes (1 of many brush border enzymes) Amylase Lipases Proteases Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nucleases READ

Pancreas Endocrine Function: hormones insulin & glucagon from cells in the Islets of Langerhans Acinar cells Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. F. Large Intestine 1. Parts a) *Parts = list READ 2. *Gross Anatomy Teniae coli Reduction of the 3 bands of longitudinal smooth muscle in muscularis to a thin band Transverse colon Haustrum Ascending colon IIeum IIeocecal valve

Cecum Rectum Vermiform appendix Anal canal Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Epiploic appendages Descending colon Teniae coli Sigmoid colon F. Large Intestine 2. Gross Anatomy *Haustra = *Epiploic appendages - fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum a) *Veriform describe Appendix Transverse colon Haustrum

Ascending colon IIeum IIeocecal valve Cecum Rectum Vermiform appendix Anal canal Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Epiploic appendages Descending colon Teniae coli Sigmoid colon b. *Cecum describe c. Colon *Parts: List and describe location READ d. Rectum & Anal Canal

3 rectal valves stop feces from being passed with gas Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rectum d. Rectum and Anus Rectal valve *Rectum describe *Anal Canal describe *Sphincter name and give function Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hemorrhoidal veins Anal canal READ

3. Bacterial Flora Enter from small intestine or anus Ferment indigestible carbs Release irritating acids and gases Synthesize B complex vitamins and vitamin K Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4. Microscopic Anatomy a) Mucosa *Tissue: Anal Canal has stratified squamous ET Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Colon Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. READ 5. Functions of the Large Intestine Vitamins, water, and electrolytes reclaimed

Major function = propel feces to anus Slow segmentation by haustra gradually move contents distally Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. END Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Questions The digestive function of the liver is to produce _______ bile which functions in the chemical lipids digestion of _________. Liver _________ lobules are the functional units of the liver which contain a central vein and peripheral portal __________ with what 3 components? triads arteriole, hepatic venule, and bile duct

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Questions CCK stimulates the release of pancreatic enzymes ________ contraction of the gall bladder while ________ secretin and __________ stimulates the release of bicarbonate __________ - rich pancreatic chyme from the secretion to neutralize acidic _________ stomach. proteins Enzymes that break down __________ must be activated in the duodenum. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Questions Motilin is released during the fasting state by _________ the __________ duodenum and initiates the ___________

migrating motility complex that gradually moves residues to large intestine the _________ ____________. Conscious control of defecation is via relaxation of the ___________ external anal sphincter. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Questions Amylase, lactase, and sucrase (among others) are enzymes that help break down carbohydrates ___________. active Amino acids are absorbed from the lumen via __________ transport. emulsified by bile salts, then travel as Fats are first _________ micelles between microvilli, and are finally converted to ________ _____________ chylomicrons in the absorptive cells before being carried away in the ________ lacteals as part of the lymph.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chyme in duodenum = release of cholecystokinin (CCK) + secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bile and Pancreatic Juice Regulation Figure 23.28, step 1 1 Chyme entering duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin

(CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. 2 CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. CCK = secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice. Secretin = secretion of HCO3-rich pancreatic juice. CCK and secretin potentiate one another

3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.28, step 3 1 Chyme entering duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. 4 Bile salts returning from ileum + secretin = liver produces bile more rapidly.

2 CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. CCK induces secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice. Secretin causes secretion of HCO3-rich pancreatic juice. 3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.28, step 4 1 Chyme entering duodenum causes release of

cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. 2 CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. CCK induces secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice. Secretin causes secretion of HCO3-rich pancreatic juice. 3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Bile

salts and, to a lesser extent, secretin transported via bloodstream stimulate liver to produce bile more rapidly. 5 CCK also = gallbladder contracts + hepatopancreatic sphincter relaxes; bile enters duodenum. Figure 23.28, step 5 1 Chyme entering duodenum causes release of

cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells. 2 CCK (red dots) and secretin (yellow dots) enter the bloodstream. CCK induces secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice. Secretin causes secretion of HCO3-rich pancreatic juice. 3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Bile

salts and, to a lesser extent, secretin transported via bloodstream stimulate liver to produce bile more rapidly. 5 CCK (via bloodstream) causes gallbladder to contract and hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax; bile enters duodenum. 6Cephalic and gastric phases, vagal nerve causes weak

contractions of gallbladder. Figure 23.28, step 6 Carbohydrate digestion Foodstuff Enzyme(s) and source Site of action Starch and disaccharides Oligosaccharides and disaccharides Lactose Maltose Sucrose Galactose Glucose Fructose Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Salivary amylase Pancreatic amylase

Brush border enzymes in small intestine (dextrinase, glucoamylase, lactase, maltase, and sucrase) Mouth Small intestine Small intestine Path of absorption Glucose/galactose absorbed via cotransport w/ Na+. Fructose passes via facilitated diffusion. All monosaccharides leave epithelia via facilitated diffusion, enter capillary blood in villi, and transported to

liver via hepatic portal vein. Lumen of intestine Amino acids of protein fragments Brush border enzymes Apical membrane (microvilli) Pancreatic proteases 1 Proteins digested to amino acids by pancreatic proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase) + brush border enzymes (carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidase). Na+ Na+ Absorptive

epithelial cell 2 amino acids absorbed by active transport into absorptive cells. Amino acid carrier Active transport Passive transport 3 Capillary Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Amino acids leave villus by facilitated diffusion, enter capillary via intercellular clefts. Figure 23.33 Protein digestion

Foodstuff Protein Large polypeptides Small polypeptides, small peptides Amino acids (some dipeptides and tripeptides) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Enzyme(s) and source Pepsin (stomach glands) in presence of HCl Pancreatic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase) Brush border enzymes (aminopeptidase,

carboxypeptidase, and dipeptidase) Site of action Path of absorption Amino acids are absorbed by cotransport with Stomach sodium ions. Some dipeptides and tripeptides are absorbed via cotransport with H++ Small and hydrolyzed to amino intestine acids within the cells. Amino acids leave the epithelial cells by Small facilitated diffusion, enter intestine the capillary blood in the villi, and are transported

to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Figure 23.32 (2 of 4) Fat digestion Foodstuff Enzyme(s) and source Unemulsified fats Emulsification by the detergent action of bile salts ducted in from the liver Pancreatic lipases Monoglycerides Glycerol and fatty acids and fatty acids

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Site of action Path of absorption Fatty acids and monoglycerides enter the intestinal cells via diffusion. Small intestine Fatty acids and monoglycerides are recombined to form triglycerides and then combined with other lipids and proteins within the cells, and the resulting chylomicrons are Small extruded by exocytosis. intestine The chylomicrons enter the lacteals of the villi and are transported to the systemic circulation via the lymph in the thoracic duct. Some short-chain fatty acids

are absorbed, move into the capillary blood in the villi by diffusion, and are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Figure 23.32 (3 of 4) Nucleic acid digestion Foodstuff Enzyme(s) and source Site of action Nucleic acids Pentose sugars, N-containing bases, phosphate ions Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Path of absorption

Enter Pancreatic ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease Brush border enzymes (nucleosidases and phosphatases) Small intestine intestinal cells by active transport via membrane carriers. Small Absorbed intestine capillaries, into villi transported to liver via hepatic portal vein. Figure 23.32 (4 of 4)

E. Regulation of Bile & Pancreatic Secretion and Entry into the Sm. Intest. Regulation of Gastric Secretion-- REVIEW Stimulatory events Cephalic phase Gastric phase 1 Sight and thought of food Cerebral cortex Conditioned reflex 2 Stimulation of taste and smell receptors Hypothalamus and medulla oblongata 1 Stomach distension

activates stretch receptors Vagovagal reflexes Medulla 1 Presence of low pH, partially digested foods, fats, or hypertonic solution in duodenum when stomach begins to empty Stimulate Inhibit Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Vagus nerve Vagus

nerve Local reflexes 2 Food chemicals G cells (especially peptides and caffeine) and rising pH activate chemoreceptors Intestinal phase Inhibitory events Intestinal (enteric) gastrin release to blood Gastrin release to blood

Lack of stimulatory impulses to parasympathetic center Cerebral cortex 1 Loss of appetite, depression Gastrin secretion declines G cells Overrides parasympathetic controls Sympathetic nervous system

activation 1 Excessive acidity (pH <2) in stomach 2 Emotional upset Stomach secretory activity Enterogastric reflex Brief effect Processing in Small IntestineFigure 23.17 Local reflexes Vagal nuclei in medulla

Pyloric sphincter Release of intestinal hormones (secretin, cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide) 1 Distension of duodenum; presence of fatty, acidic, hypertonic chyme, and/or irritants in the duodenum 2 Distension; presence of fatty, acidic, partially digested food in the duodenum F. Digestion in the Small Intestine 1. Overall Function: finish digestion/absorb nutrients & water

2. Hypertonic Chyme moved slowly into Duodenum from stomach via slow peristalsis (3ml) Chyme = acidic and hypertonic w/ partially digested carbohydrates/proteins & undigested fats Pancreatic juices neutralize chime & make it isotonic 3. Segmentation Mixes chime w/ bile & pancreatic secretions and moves chime slowly towards Ileum Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. E. Regulation of Bile & Pancreatic Secretion and Entry into the Small Intestine Continuation after intestinal phase of Stomach: 1. Cholecystokinin & Secretin released Stimulus = Chyme entering Duodenum CCK & Secretin potentiate (syngergistic)one another 2. Hormones Blood 3. Hepatopancreatic Sphincter relaxes (CCK) 4. Pancreatic Juice secreted (CCK & Secretin) 5. Liver produces more bile (Secretin, Bile Salts) 6. Gallbladder contracts (CCK) 7. Secretions enter Duodenum

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8. Absorption across ample surface area (circular folds, villi, microvilli) Breakdown products of carbohydrate protein, fat, & nucleic acid digestion 9. Peristalsis: occurs after most nutrients have been absorbed; 10. Ileocecal Sphincter relaxes Next Meal, increased stomach activity increased segmentation in Ileum Gastrin from stomach relaxes ileocecal sphincter remaining substances move into Lg. Intestine Sm. Intestine is emptied START ALL OVER AGAIN WITH CYCLE Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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