Semi-Annual Safety Awareness Fall 2015 LT Clayton A.
Semi-Annual Safety Awareness Fall 2015 LT Clayton A. Martin NAS Patuxent River Aviation Safety Officer Overview
Pre-mishap plan Recent GA mishap example Recent safety inspections Changes in FAA regs, local procedures, SOP Upcoming weather/seasonal changes Runway incursion issues ADIZ, TFRs, intercept procedures 406 MHZ ELT system Mishap Preparedness Pre-mishap plan Located in PIF vol. 1
Also in each aircraft notebook Actions: Call PRNFC Safety Officer/BOD ASAP 1st report is due within 24 hours Investigation and report are required for any accident resulting in the following: Fatality Regardless of time between injury onset and death
5+ lost work days Material (property) damage requiring repair or replacement of property/equipment Incident Review Recent GA mishap Herrington, KS
16 SEP 2015 Day, VMC Cessna-172 Non-fatal, uninjured Private pilot (sole occupant) Incident Review Narrative: The pilot reported that during the landing roll, "all of a sudden the plane started ballooning up from a strong gust of wind, I lowered the nose of the airplane slightly as to avoid a stall."
He reported that, "I was then forced back to the ground violently and once again ballooned up" and that the airplane, "ballooned up and was forced down 5 times." Once the porpoising ceased, the pilot taxied off the runway without further incident. A post flight inspection revealed substantial damage to the underside of the fuselage, the firewall, and the floor boards underneath the rudder pedals. Inspections Safety Inspections Internal annual inspection is currently underway Semi-annual CNIC inspection
begins 16 NOV Course Rules/FAA/SOP Course Rules update: No changes to report FAA regulatory update: No changes to report Standard Operating Procedures update: No changes to report Prohibited Activities
Unauthorized activities: Careless or reckless operation Formation flying Straight-in approaches at non-towered airports Flying below FAR 91 min. safe altitudes Flying special VFR without instrument rating Simulated forced landings at night, off-field Use of aircraft for hire Participation in CAP, Coast
Guard or other organizational SAR ops Aerobatic maneuvers Restrictions Pilot restrictions: Max duty day of 12 hours, single pilot Steep turns, stalls, slow flight, unusual attitudes at least 2500 ft agl No night flights outside local area, unless instrument rated
Night instrument practice authorized PRNFC pilot with at least 100 logged pilot hrs may fly VFR at night to designated airfields authorized for night use Touch-and-go by students only on local hard-surfaced runways at least 3000 FT Restrictions Pilot restrictions: Min runway length for certificated pilots:
2000 FT OR Sum of aircraft takeoff and landing roll, whichever greater If emergency or precautionary landing made at unauthorized location, takeoff is prohibited without approval by club manager, ops officer, safety officer, or chief CFI Unfamiliar, non-towered
airports require fly-over before landing Cross-country flights prohibited unless formally requested and approved No student RON (except for weather or maintenance problems) Restrictions Pilot Restrictions: No student solo at night Student stage checks by PRNFC Chief CFI mandatory
before solo cross country and before recommendation for private pilot practical test Checkout in C-152, C-172, and T-41 requires 3 logged hours in model to carry passengers or leave local operating area Pilot restrictions: Checkout in Piper Arrow requires: 100 logged pilot hours 25 logged pilot hours in retractable-gear aircraft (or 10
hours in model) 5 logged pilot hours in model Aircraft restrictions: Night cross country requires IFR-equipped aircraft No commercial ops VFR Minimums DAY VFR: 1500 FT ceiling, 3 miles visibility NIGHT VFR:
2500 FT ceiling, 5 miles visibility Onboard Equipment Required Equipment Pilot is responsible to ensure: Current charts FAA minimum required equipment installed and operable Flight planning information has been obtained Weather brief NOTAMS/TFRs Aircraft is required to have appropriate survival equipment for area of intended operation
Includes life preservers for over-water flights beyond power-off gliding distance from shore Flight Checks/Currency Student Pilots: 30-day solo check Max 10 flight hours between dual flights 90-day solo logbook endorsement (per FAA) CFI approval for each solo flight Phase checks
Flight Checks/Currency Private/Commercial/ATP Pilots: Initial checkout in each model Initial night checkout Course rules written test (initial/annual) Written test for each aircraft flown (initial/annual) Annual flight review in most complex aircraft (in which currency is maintained)
3 takeoffs and landings every 90 days for PIC authorization 3 night takeoffs and landings every 90 days for night privileges 3 takeoffs and landings every 180 days in each model piloted Flight Checks/Currency Instrument-rated Pilots: Initial instrument check and written test Annual refresher instrument check and written test Every 6 months, demonstrate: 6 approaches Holding procedures NAVAID intercept and
tracking procedures Flight Checks/Currency Additionally, all PRNFC pilots must successfully complete the FAA training course DC Special Flight Rules Area in order to operate in the local area. Training is located on the FAA Safety website at: https://www.faasafety.gov/ Seasonal Hazards Winter weather preparedness Cold-weather operation Hazards associated with
winter weather phenomena Airframe icing Snow and whiteout Wet and icy runways Effective preparedness: Preflight checks Weather briefing Personal equipment Pre-Flight Following snow conditions, be
extra careful on pre-flight to check: Inside pitot tube Static opening Fuel vents
Heater intake Carburetor air intake Trim tabs and controls Tires & Brakes Engine oil Level Engine Oil Level Verify proper oil level, top off as required Engine Crankcase Breather Tube Located under the belly at the rear by firewall
Check for any ice or other blockage Pitot Tube Check for any restriction Check Pitot Heat Tire Inflation Use a tire gauge to check pressure prior to each flight Inflate or deflate as required to achieve proper pressure
Nose Strut Check Clearance 3 fingers Check for cracks Check linkage Stall Horn Check Operation Suction Operated Check for Restriction Brakes
Check pads Check fluid leaks Rotor thickness Check for Ice Keep out of slush Cold Weather Starting General rule for engine starters: after three, 10-second periods of operation, with a pause
between each, a five minute cooling period is required Failure to observe this can lead to starter overheating and damage/failure DO NOT Continue cranking until the battery is dead. This can cause a battery to freeze over a short period of time depending on the temperature. Engine Priming PRIMING IS NOT NECESSARY if the A/C is plugged in & or in a heated
hangar. Standard Procedure is NO PRIMING on C172! If the A/C has been out on the ramp and has cooled down, A slight amount of priming may be necessary. One pump! No More than Two! However, DO NOT OVERPRIME! This can lead to engine fire! flooding, washing down the cylinders and oil contamination. Throttle position should be slightly closer to idle position, on start-up, because of colder, more dense air Engine Start up After start, DO NOT IDLE BELOW 1000 RPM - Cold temperatures increase probability of lead fouling of plugs. SLOWLY INCREASE THROTTLE. Too rapid of a throttle increase will cause the engine to stall in cold weather. Exercise constant speed props to prevent congealing of oil in
prop dome Engine Operation Allow extra time for oil to warm up after startup. 10-15 minutes at idle (1000 RPM) may be required to bring oil to minimum operating temperature Engine Operations
Plan descents earlier Reduce power gradually Maintain power throughout descent Keep fuel/air mixture leaned during descent Use Carburetor heat as required Fuel Considerations Exercise special caution regarding any possible water contamination of fuel - water can freeze in fuel line; drain tanks and sump Check fuel selector valve for freedom of movement; statistics document cases of frozen selector Keep tanks full (or to the level indicated in the NDWg Supplement to CAPR 60-1) to prevent moisture or frost inside
tank Frost-Snow-Ice FAR 91.527 Operating in icing conditions. (a) No pilot may takeoff an airplane that has(1)Frost, snow, or ice adhering to any propeller, windshield, or power plant installation or to an airspeed, altimeter, rate of climb, or flight attitude instrument system; (3)Any frost adhering to the wings or stabilizer or control surfaces, unless that frost, has been polished to make it smooth. Frost-Snow-Ice Assuming that a thin coating of frost or ice is of no consequence, or that snow
will blow off during takeoff is asking for trouble! Frost/snow/ice on wing and tail surfaces during takeoff has been a contributing factor in several aircraft accidents. Frost-Snow-Ice All frost/snow/ice should be removed before attempting flight For frost or ice, place aircraft in heated hangar, if possible (be sure water doesnt run into control surfaces & re-freeze when aircraft is brought outside again)
If no hangar is available, face aircraft control surfaces towards the sun to utilize/maximize radiation heating Frost-Snow-Ice For snow, brush off (dont count on snow blowing off during takeoff roll!) Note: Sometimes frost adheres to surfaces below snow covering Alcohol, glycol or other ice-removal chemicals can be used Exercise extra care when warm aircraft has been pulled from hangar and left out in snow conditions Frost-Snow-Ice
Unseen Frost Same conditions which cause frost formation on external surfaces can cause internal problems Moisture in fuel tanks can freeze (good reason for topping tanks after flight) and can cause blockage of fuel flow to engine Frost-Snow-Ice Typically, even small buildup of ice can cause 30% reduction in maximum coefficient of lift, decreasing the stall angle-ofattack Drag builds up, and if it exceeds max. thrust (full throttle), leads to descent, whether desired or not! Thrust also lost due to ice accumulation on propeller
Frost-Snow-Ice First place ice accumulates is small-radius or sharp-edged surfaces (fuel vent, temp. probe, etc) Small leading edge on tail surfaces make them more efficient collectors of ice (almost twice as fast as wing ice accumulation); tail may reach stall angle-of-attack before wing becomes problem Frost-Snow-Ice Since horizontal tail produces down lift, stall results in tail going up, and aircraft nose pitching down Flap deflection increases downwash on tail, leading to higher (more negative) angle-of-attack, and earlier stall, if tail is iced
Frost-Snow-Ice Allow extra time for pre-flight planning, aircraft preparation and engine warm-up Understand the effects that frost, snow and ice have on an aircraft When flying in cold weather, keep in mind the impact that the temperature has on the aircraft and plan maneuvers accordingly Avoid flight in/through visible moisture Fly Safe!! Personal Preparation Consider bringing along:
Hat Gloves Winter coat
Thermal socks Boots Mobile phone Blanket(s) Survival Kit Extra water Hand warmers Runway Incursion Continues as FAA-cited problem Causes Pilot deviations (58%) Operational errors (23%) Vehicle/pedestrian deviations (19%)
Corrective action Listen carefully When uncertain .say again When in line up and wait position, call tower if excessive time has elapsed 43 Washington DC SFRA DC SFRA 30-NM ring centered on DCA VOR/DME, extending up to FL 180 Required for entry/operations:
2-way radio communication SFRA flight plan Mode C transponder Discrete assigned transponder code Communication with ATC Max airspeed 180 KIAS 44
Washington DC SFRA Completion of web-based training is required for any VFR flight within 60 NM of DCA VOR/DME See https://www.faasafety.gov DC Flight Restricted Zone (FRZ) is within and part of DC SFRA; subject to additional security requirements. for practical purposes, consider it a no fly zone. 45
Intercept Procedures INTERCEPTOR MEANING RESPONSE DAY: ROCKING WINGS FROM AHEAD AND LEFT NIGHT: SAME WITH FLASHING LIGHTS YOU HAVE BEEN INTERCEPTED. FOLLOW ME.
DAY: ROCK WINGS AND FOLLOW. NIGHT: SAME WITH FLASHING LIGHTS ABRUPT BREAK AWAY YOU MAY PROCEED. ROCK WINGS. CLIMBING TURN OF 90 DEG. OR MORE WITHOUT CROSSING FLIGHT PATH DAY: LOWERING GEAR AND
OVERFLYING AIRPORT IN DIRECTION OF LANDING NIGHT: SAME WITH STEADY LANDING LIGHT. LAND AT THIS AERODROME. DAY: LOWER GEAR, LAND WHEN SAFE. NIGHT: SAME WITH STEADY LANDING LIGHT 46 406 MHZ ELT
High number of false positives caused worldwide SAR community to switch from 121.5 MHZ (analog) to 406 MHZ (digital) ELT Since 01 FEB 2009 SAR community no longer monitors 121.5 via satellite 121.5 is line of sight only, limiting probability of signal being picked-up after a mishap, if satellites not monitored 47 406 MHZ ELT International flights (and domestic flights in Canada and Mexico) require 406 ELT equipment
FAA not requiring switch to 406 MHZ ELT (yet) Note that SAR responds in minutes to 406 MHZ signal; may take hours for SAR to respond to 121.5 MHZ signal 48 Conclusion Topics discussed:
Pre-mishap plan Recent GA mishap example Recent safety inspections Changes in FAA regs, local procedures, SOP Upcoming weather/seasonal changes Runway incursion issues ADIZ, TFRs, intercept procedures 406 MHZ ELT system Any questions?
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