Independence and Decolonization In India and Africa Indian

Independence and Decolonization In India and Africa Indian

Independence and Decolonization In India and Africa Indian Independence Internal conflict between Hindus (majority) and Muslims (minority) India struggles against British rule

Amritsar Massacre Indian Independence Mohandas Gandhi leader of Indian independence movement Civil disobedience and passive resistance to protest British rule (ex. = Salt March)

Indian Independence Other leaders Jinnah leader of Muslims (Muslim League) Nehru leader of Hindus (Indian National Congress) WWII ends in 1945, independence movement gains strength British agree to grant

independence Aug 15th, 1947 (but partition India) Indian Independence Partition of India Hindu India Muslim Pakistan and

East Pakistan - Ceylon Bangladesh Sri Lanka Partition of India

African Independence UN Charter grants right of self-determination to all people SELF-DETERMINATION = the right of a people to decide their own political status or government African colonies began to

demand their independence Map of African Independence African Independence People of Africa have: Pride in African cultures and heritage (Negritude Movement) Resentment against imperial

rule of Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal Resentment of the economic exploitation of their lands by these countries African Independence Independence movements also influenced by superpowers

rivalry during the Cold War After WWII, there were both peaceful and violent revolutions against imperial rule Differences in African Independence West Africa had little foreign

settlement = peaceful transition to independence (ex. Ghana) Algeria/Kenya/South Africa/Angola/Congo sizeable foreign settlement = violent transition to independence African Independence

Algeria French settlers, called colons, did not want independence from France. Algerians did. Bloody war resulted in independence in July, 1962. Algeria Wins Independence

Seven years of guerrilla warfare cost tens of thousands of lives Algeria had the largest white settler population of any French African colony,

with a million people of French descent holding power over eight million Algerian Muslims. African Independence

Kenya British settlers did not want independence. Kenyans, under the leadership of Jomo Kenyatta, did. Armed rebellion by the Mau Maus led to British army intervention. Independence came in 1963.

Mau Mau Rebellion Kenya, during the 1950s, was dominated by the Mau Mau uprising against the British. A central feature of this revolt was a desire on the part of the Kikuyu, along

with some Embu and Meru people, for land taken by the Europeans. African Independence South Africa White settlers, British and Afrikaners (settlers of Dutch descent), won independence from

Britain in 1931. 1948 Afrikaners, believers in white supremacy, came to power. African Independence Afrikaner govt established official policy of apartheid. Apartheid = racial separation

between blacks and whites. Blacks were treated as secondclass citizens without any personal freedoms or civil rights African Independence African National Congress (a black nationalist group) led opposition to apartheid and

the white-led govt The ANC and other opposition groups along with international pressure finally ended policy of apartheid in the late 1980s. Challenges Faced by Latin America, Africa, and Asia in

the Post WWII Era Latin America Challenges to the spread of Democracy Powerful militaries which suppress opposition Poor economies (little industrialization) Large income gaps between rich and poor

Responses Land Reform Huge Economic Development Programs Reform the Political Process Latin America Brazil 2002 - Conservative and pro-business govt gave way to a more

moderate/socialist govt Mexico 2000 - 50+ years of one party rule of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (or PRI) ends New President Vincente Fox vows to end corruption and advocates free-market economy

India 1947 - Largest democracy in the world 1948 - Gandhi killed by Hindu nationalist Nehru industrialized India through direct government action

India Challenges Internal conflict between Hindus and Muslims 60+ million Muslims remain in India Territorial Conflicts Pakistan Kashmir and Jammu China

India Challenges Rapid population growth Urbanization Growing gap b/w rich and poor Nuclear arms race with Pakistan

Africa Challenges Faced National boundaries based on colonial borders of 19th century Ethnic/religious conflicts over power Trouble attracting foreign investment West is still seen as trying to

take/control Africas natural resources = neo-colonialism Africa South Africa 1990s - International pressure and internal resistance helps to end the policy of apartheid in

South Africa 1992 Political equality granted to all S. Africans 1994 Nelson Mandela wins presidency in 1st all-race elections China Pragmatists Communist

officials who wanted to modernize the Chinese economy Cultural Revolution Maos attempt to purge the pragmatists 1971 - More moderate govt under Zhou Enlai takes over begins dtente with USA China

Economic Reform 1976 Mao dies. China under Deng Xiaoping opens economy = allows for limited capitalism Four Modernizations set of goals to modernize/reform Chinas economy Chinese society becomes more open people allowed to listen to

Western music, more tourists, etc. China Dissidents in China Tiananmen Square 1989 Students protest against Chinese govt want more democratic freedoms Deng Xiaoping used Chinese army to

end protest thousands of protesters killed or wounded China cracks down on political dissidents and advocates for democracy China Challenges Faced by China Balance rapid economic growth

with Pressure for democratic change Effects of the environment Rising population/urbanization

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