Text Complexity & The KY Core Academic Standards for ELA and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science & Technical Subjects Denise Amos OVEC ELA Content Specialist www.DeniseAmos.com [email protected] 502-552-5735 Kansas Department of Education Text Complexity Resources http://www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid=4778#TextRes Learning Targets: Understand the CCSS text complexity model. Explore the quantitative measures tools. Examine the qualitative rubrics for both literary and informational texts. Ponder reader and task considerations and scaffolding possibilities for texts. Introduce the final recommendation form (i.e., the
placemat). 2 Activity Ripe Figs As a small group, read Ripe Figs and answer the three questions provided. 3 Ripe Figs by Kate Chopin Maman-Nainaine said that when the figs were ripe Babette might go to visit her cousins down on Bayou-Lafourche, where the sugar cane grows. Not that the ripening of figs had the least thing to do with it, but that is the way Maman-Nainaine was. It seemed to Babette a very long time to wait; for the leaves upon the trees were tender yet, and the figs were like little hard, green marbles. But warm rains came along and plenty of strong sunshine; and though Maman-Nainaine was as patient as the statue of la Madone, and Babette as restless as a humming-bird, the first thing they both knew it was hot
summer-time. Every day Babette danced out to where the fig-trees were in a long line against the fence. She walked slowly beneath them, carefully peering between the gnarled, spreading branches. But each time she came disconsolate away again. What she saw there finally was something that made her sing and dance the whole day long. 4 Ripe Figs When Maman-Nainaine sat down in her stately way to breakfast, the following morning, her muslin cap standing like an aureole about her white, placid face, Babette approached. She bore a dainty porcelain platter, which she set down before her godmother. It contained a dozen purple figs, fringed around with their rich, green leaves. "Ah," said Maman-Nainaine, arching her eyebrows, "how early the figs have ripened this year!" "Oh," said Babette, "I think they have ripened very late." "Babette," continued Maman-Nainaine, as she peeled the very plumpest figs with her pointed silver fruit-knife, "you will carry my love to them all down on Bayou-Lafourche. And tell your Tante Frosine I shall look for her at Toussaintwhen the chrysanthemums are in bloom." 5
Discussion On a scale of 1 to 10, how would you rate the overall complexity of this text? What features of this text support your rating of its complexity? At what grade level might this text be appropriate for instruction? Why? 6 WHY: Rationale for Text Complexity Text Complexity Why Is This Important? Complexity of texts students are expected to read is below what is required to achieve college and career readiness: High school textbooks have declined in all subject areas over the last several decades.
Average length of sentences in K-8 textbooks has declined from 20 to 14 words. Vocabulary demands have declined since the 1960s: 8th grade textbooks = former 5th grade texts 12th grade anthologies = former 7th grade texts Complexity of college and career texts has remained steady or increased, resulting in a gap. 8 Text Complexity Grade Bands ** Stretch Texts are needed Text Complexity: What does it mean to you? Specifically, reading standard #10:
Anchor Standard: R.CCR.10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. Example Grade-level Standard (6th grade): RI.6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 10 Guiding Questions So What do the Common Core State Standards mean by text complexity? What is a text complexity band? and How do we ensure the texts our students are reading are in the appropriate text complexity band? 11
CCSS Text Complexity Model Text complexity is defined by: Page 31, Elementar y Page 57, Secondary t ita ive 12 nt 3. Reader and Task considerations background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned often best made by educators employing their
professional judgment. a Qu 2. Qualitative measures levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands often best measured by an attentive human reader. Qu ali tat ive 1. Quantitative measures readability and other scores of text complexity often best measured by computer software. Reader and Task
CCSS Text Complexity Model 13 Determining Text Complexity t ita ive Qu ali tat iv nt 14 a Qu 1. Determine the quantitative
measures of the text. 2. Analyze the qualitative measures of the text. 3. Reflect upon the reader and task considerations. 4. Recommend placement in the appropriate text complexity band. e A Four-step Process: Reader and Task Step 1: Quantitative Measures Measures such as: Word length tiv ita e
Qu ali tat iv Word difficulty t an Qu e Word frequency Reader and Task 15 Sentence length Text length Text cohesion
3. 4. 5. 16 Lexile Text Measures Accelerated Reader (ATOS Book Levels) Frye DRA Other readability measures Qu ali tat iv e ve a ti 1. 2.
tit an The Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity: This document outlines the suggested ranges for each of the text complexity bands using: Qu Step 1: Quantitative Measures Reader and Task http://lexile.com/fab/ ky tit an ve
a ti Qu ali tat iv e Qu Step 1: Quantitative Measures Reader and Task Lets imagine we want to see where a text falls on the quantitative measures leg of the text complexity triangle, using either the Lexile text measures or the ATOS book level (or both). For illustrative purposes, lets choose Harper Lees 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird. 18
ATOS Book Level: 5.6 Qu ali tat iv e ve a ti 870L tit an Lexile Text Measure: Qu Step 1: Quantitative Measures
Reader and Task In which of the text complexity bands would this novel fall? 19 20 tit an ve a ti Qu ali tat iv e Qu Step 1: Quantitative Measures Reader and Task
e Qu ali tat iv tiv ita 21 t an Qu Our final recommendation may be validated, influenced, or even overruled by our examination of qualitative measures and the reader and task considerations.
e Remember, however, that the quantitative measures aspect is only the first of three legs of the text complexity triangle. Reader and Task Step 2: Qualitative Measures Measures such as: Levels of meaning t ita iv e Qu ali tat t an
Qu ive Levels of purpose Reader and Task Structure Organization Language conventionality Language clarity Prior knowledge demands 22 ve tit an ve a ti
Qu ali tat i Qu Step 2: Qualitative Measures Reader and Task The Qualitative Measures Rubrics for Literary and Informational Text: The rubric for literary text and the rubric for informational text allow educators to evaluate the important elements of text that are often missed by computer software that tends to focus on more easily measured factors. 23 24
ve Qu ali tat i ve a ti And because these factors represent continua rather than discrete stages or levels, numeric values are not associated with these rubrics. Instead, four points along each continuum are identified from slightly complex to very complex. tit an Because the factors for literary texts are different from
information texts, these two rubrics contain different content. However, the formatting of each document is exactly the same. Qu Step 2: Qualitative Measures Reader and Task ve tit an Reader and Task So How is the rubric used? And how would To Kill a Mockingbird fare when analyzed through the lens of the Literary Text Rubric?
25 ve a ti Qu ali tat i Qu Step 2: Qualitative Measures 26 27 ve Qu ali tat i
ve a ti On the back side of each rubric is list of springboard questions to help educators begin thinking about the kinds of instructional scaffolding the text may also require. tit an Questions to Consider in Planning for Instructional Scaffolding Qu Step 2: Qualitative Measures
Reader and Task ve tit an Reader and Task From examining the quantitative measures, we knew: Lexile Text Measure: 870L ATOS Book Level: 5.6 But after reflecting upon the qualitative measures, we believed: 28 ve
a ti Qu ali tat i Qu Step 2: Qualitative Measures Step 2: Qualitative Measures ve Qu ali tat i v ati e
e Qu ali tat iv ve a ti it nt 29 a Qu The reader and task considerations still remain. tit an
Reader and Task Our initial placement of To Kill a Mockingbird into a text complexity band changed when we examined the qualitative measures. Remember, however, that we have completed only the first two legs of the text complexity triangle. Qu Step 2: Qualitative Measures Reader and Task Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations Considerations such as: Motivation t ita
iv e Qu ali tat t an Qu ive Knowledge and experience Reader and Task Purpose for reading Complexity of task assigned regarding text Complexity of questions asked regarding text
30 31 ve Qu ali tat i ve a ti The questions provided in this resource are meant to spur teacher thought and reflection upon the text, students, and any tasks associated with the text. tit an
Questions for Professional Reflection on Reader and Task Considerations: Qu Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations Reader and Task ve tit an ve a ti Qu ali tat i
Qu Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations Reader and Task The questions included here are largely open-ended questions without single, correct answers, but help educators to think through the implications of using a particular text in the classroom. 32 ve a ti ve Qu
ali tat i tit an Reader and Task What aspects of the text will likely pose the most challenge for my students? Content or theme concerns or challenges? Text structure challenges? Language feature challenges? Knowledge and experience demands? Motivation for and interest in the text? 33 Qu Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations
ve tit an ve a ti Qu ali tat i Qu Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations Reader and Task What aspects of the text will likely pose the most challenge for my students? What are natural areas of focus for this text?
With what standards do my students need the most practice? Will the complexity of any before, during, and after reading tasks or the complexity of any questions asked about the text interfere with the reading experience? What supports do I need to provide so all of my students (even those who are struggling readers)can access the text? 34 ve a ti ve Qu ali tat i tit an e
e Qu ali tat iv tiv ita 35 Reader and Task t an Qu Based upon our examination of the Reader and Task Considerations, we have completed the third leg of the text complexity model and are
now ready to recommend a final placement within a text complexity band. Qu Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations Reader and Task t an Qu tiv ita e Qu ali tat ive
Step 4: Recommended Placement Reader and Task 36 After reflecting upon all three legs of the text complexity model we can make a final recommendation of placement within a text and begin to document our thinking for future reference. ATOS Book Level: 37 5.6 Qu ali tat
i ve ve ati tit an Lexile Text Measure: 870L Qu Step 4: Recommended Placement Reader and Task ve ati tit an Qu ali
tat i ve Qu Step 4: Recommended Placement Reader and Task Based upon all the informationall three legs of the model the final recommendation for To Kill a Mockingbird 38 39 Qu ali tat i ve ve
ati tit an In this instance, Appendix B confirms our evaluation of the novel. To Kill a Mockingbird is placed within the grade 9-10 text complexity band. Qu Step 4: Recommended Placement Reader and Task 40
41 ve ati tit an Qu ali tat i ve Qu Step 4: Recommended Placement Reader and Task Discussion! How might classroom teachers make use of the recommended placement forms? How might administrators make use of the
recommended placement forms? How can I apply this model in the work that I do and encourage others I work with to embrace the model as well? Be prepared to share your thoughts. 42 Questions? 43 Resources All of the resources mentioned today and numerous others are available at the following URL: www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid=4778#TextRes 44
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