Chapter 8 Regional Economic Integration 8-2 Case: Increasing

Chapter 8 Regional Economic Integration 8-2 Case: Increasing

Chapter 8 Regional Economic Integration 8-2 Case: Increasing competition in the European automotive market In 2002 significant variances remained in price of Automobiles across different countries Primary reasons for price differentials is the Bloc exemption clause In 2002 European commission scrapped the clause and introduced new legislation to encourage competition

New rules aimed at weakening control of auto companies on pricing in different markets McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-3 Levels of economic integration McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e Free trade area Customs union Common market

Economic union Political union 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-4 Levels of economic integration Fig 8.1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-5 Economic case for integration Stimulates economic growth in countries

Increases FDI and world production Countries specialize in those goods and services efficiently produce. Additional gains from free trade beyond the international agreements such as GATT and WTO Because they may be easier to negotiate outside of the GATT and WTO McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-6 The political case for integration Economic interdependence creates incentives for political cooperation

This reduces potential for violent confrontation. Together, the countries have more economic clout to enhance trade with other countries or trading blocs McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-7 Impediments to integration Integration is hard to achieve and sustain

Nation may benefit but groups within countries may be hurt Potential loss of sovereignty and control over domestic issues McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-8 Regional economic integration in Europe Europe has two trade blocks European Union

Seen as the emerging power with almost 25 members European Free Trade Association Has only four members McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-9 Evolution of the European Union Product of two political factors:

Devastation of WWI and WWII and desire for peace Desire for European nations to hold their own, politically and economically, on the world stage 1951 - European Coal and Steel Community. 1957- Treaty of Rome establishes the European Community 1994 - Treaty of Maastricht changes name to the European Union McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-10 European Union countries Map 8..1

McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-11 Political structure of the European Union European council Heads of state and commission President resolves policy issues and sets policy direction European Commission 20 Commissioners appointed by members for 4 year terms Proposing, implementing and monitoring legislation McGraw-Hill/Irwin

International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-12 Political structure of the European Union European parliament 630 directly elected members Propose amendments to legislation, veto power over budget and single-market legislation, appoint commissioners Court of justice Council of ministers McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e

2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-13 Political structure of the European Union European council European commission Heads of state and commission President resolves policy issues and sets policy direction 20 Commissioners appointed by members for 4 year

terms Proposing, implementing and monitoring legislation European parliament 630 directly elected members Propose amendments to legislation, veto power over budget and single-market legislation, appoint McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-14 Political structure of the European Union Court of justice

One judge from each country Hears appeals of EU laws Council of ministers One representative from each member country Ultimate controlling authority No EU laws without approval McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-15 European Act: The causes

Disharmony among the EC member countries: Trade policy Technical standards Resulted in establishment of the Delors Commission in 1985 Basis for Single European Act McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-16 European Act

Single market program predicted to give EC firms greater opportunities to exploit economies of scale Removal of trade barriers increases competition forces EC firms to be more efficient Name changed to EU McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-17 Establishment of the EU Objectives:

Remove frontier controls Mutual recognition of product standards Open public procurement to non nationals Lift barriers to banking and insurance competition Remove restrictions on foreign exchange transactions Abolish cabotage restrictions McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-18 The Euro: Benefits and costs

Benefits: Savings from using only one currency Easy to compare prices, resulting in lower prices Forces efficiency and slashing costs. Creates liquid pan-Europe capital market. Increases range of investments for individuals and institutions As of 2004 Euro strong against the dollar and expected to rise McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-19 The Euro: Costs and benefits Costs: Countries lose monetary policy control.

European Central Bank controls policy for the Euro zone EU is not an optimal currency area. Country economies are different Euro puts the economic cart before the political horse Strong Euro (2004) makes it harder for Euro zone exporters to sell their goods McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-20 Enlargement of the EU EU in 2004 is the single largest market with a population greater than the US 10 new countries formally accepted into EU in 2002

Population of EU will increase to 450 million Create European barriers to trade from the outside? Might effect EU bureaucracy and decision making process McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-21 EU after enlargement Map 8.2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

8-22 Regional economic integration of the Americas Regional economic integration is on the rise in the Map 8.3 Americas NAFTA MERCOSUR Plans for FTAA McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e

2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-23 NAFTA Enforced in January, 1994, Over 10 year period: tariffs reduced (99% of goods traded) Removal of most barriers on cross border flow of services Removal of restrictions on FDI except in certain sectors Mexican railway and energy US airline and radio communications Canadian culture McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e

2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-24 NAFTA Protection of intellectual property rights Applies national environmental standards Establishment of commission to police violations McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-25

PROS NAFTA Enlarged and productive regional base Labor-intensive industries move to Mexico Mexico gets investment and employment Increased Mexican income to buy US/Canada goods Demand for goods increases jobs Consumers get lower prices McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e

CONS Loss of jobs to Mexico Mexican firms have to compete against efficient US/Canada firms Mexican firms become more efficient Environmental degradation Loss of national sovereignty 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-26

ANCOM: Andean Pact Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela Nearly failed. Rejuvenated in 1990 in the Galapagos Declaration Changed from FTA to customs union in 1992 Still has many political and economic problems McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-27

Mercosur 1988: Argentina, Brazil. 1990: Paraguay, Uruguay 1995: Agreed to move toward a full customs union Trade quadrupled between 1990-1998 Has significant trade diversion issues Revival in 2003 by Brazils president to be modeled after EU with common currency and elected parliament McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-28

Other Hemisphere Associations Central American Common Market CARICOM 1960s: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua. Collapsed in 1969 1973: English-speaking Caribbean countries 191: Failed for third time to establish common external tariff Free Trade Area of the Americas

1998: 34 heads of state met in Santiago, Chile and inaugurated talks to create a FTAA by 2005 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-29 Regional trade blocs in Asia : ASEAN Created in 1967 Objective to achieve free trade between member countries and achieve cooperation in their industrial Brunei, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the

Philippines, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam Progress limited by Asian financial crisis of the 90s McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-30 Regional trade blocs in Asia : APEC Founded in 1990 to promote open trade and practical economic cooperation

Promote a sense of community 18 members 50% of worlds GNP 40% of global trade Despite slow progress, if successful, could become the worlds largest free trade area McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-31 APEC members Map 8.4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-32

Regional trade blocs in Africa 9 trade blocs on the continent Many countries are members of more than one group Progress slow due to political turmoil and deep suspicion of free trade Less developed, less diversified economies need protection In 2001 Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania relaunched the East African Community (EAC) to establish a customs union 24 years after it had collapsed

McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-33 Regional trade blocs in Africa Map 8.5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 8-34 Impact on business Opportunities: Creation of single markets Protected markets, now open

Lower costs doing business in single market Threats: Differences in culture and competitive practices make realizing economies of scale difficult More price competition Outside firms shut out of market EU intervention in mergers and acquisitions McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

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