Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Project: IEEE P802.15

Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Project: IEEE P802.15

Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [Merged UWB proposal for IEEE 802.15.4a Alt-PHY] Date Submitted: [22 Feb 2005] Source: [Francois Chin, et.al.] Company: [Institute for Infocomm Research, Singapore] Address: [21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Singapore 119613] Voice: [65-68745687] FAX: [65-67744990] E-Mail: [[email protected]] Re: [Response to the call for proposal of IEEE 802.15.4a, Doc Number: 15-04-0380-02-004a ] Abstract: [Merged Proposal to IEEE 802.15.4a Task Group] Purpose: [For presentation and consideration by the IEEE802.15.4a committee] Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15. Submission Slide 1 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a This contribution is a technical merger between*: Institute for Infocomm Research [05/032] General Atomics [05/016] Thales & Cellonics [05/008] KERI & SSU & KWU [05/033] Create-Net & China UWB Forum [05/019] Staccato Communications [04/0704] Wisair [05/09] Tennessee Technological University [05/03]

* For a complete list of authors, please see page 3. Submission Slide 2 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Authors Institute for Infocomm Research: Francois Chin, Xiaoming Peng, Sam Kwok, Zhongding Lei, Kannan, Yong-Huat Chew, Chin-Choy Chai, Rahim, Manjeet, T.T. Tjhung, Hongyi Fu, Tung-Chong Wong General Atomics: Naiel Askar, Susan Lin Thales & Cellonics: Serge Hethuin, Isabelle Bucaille, Arnaud Tonnerre, Fabrice Legrand, Joe Jurianto KERI & SSU & KWU: Kwan-Ho Kim, Sungsoo Choi, Youngjin Park, Hui-Myoung Oh, Yoan Shin, Won cheol Lee, and Ho-In Jeon Create-Net & China UWB Forum: Zheng Zhou, Frank Zheng, Honggang Zhang, Xiaofei Zhou, Iacopo Carreras, Sandro Pera, Imrich Chlamtac Staccato Communications: Roberto Aiello, Torbjorn Larsson Wisair: Gadi Shor, Sorin Goldenberg Tennessee Technological University: Robert Qiu, Nan Guo Submission Slide 3 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005

doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Multiband Ternary Orthogonal Keying (M-TOK) for IEEE 802.15.4a UWB based Alt-PHY Submission Slide 4 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Goals Good use of UWB unlicensed spectrum Good system design Path to low complexity CMOS design Path to low power consumption Scalable to future standards Graceful co-existence with other services Graceful co-existence with other UWB systems Support different classes of nodes, with different reliability requirements (and $), with single common transmit signaling Submission Slide 5 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005

doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Main Features Proposal main features: Impulse-radio based (pulse-shape independent) Common preamble signaling for different classes of nodes / type of receivers (coherent / differential / noncoherent) Band Plan based on multiple 500 MHz bands Robustness against SOP interference Robustness against other in-band interference Scalability to trade-off complexity/performance Submission Slide 6 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Proposed System Parameters Chip rate 24 Mcps # Pulse / Chip Period 1 Pulse Rep. Freq. 24 MHz # Chip / symbol (Code length)

32 Symbol Rate 24/32 MHz = 0.75 MSps info. bit / sym (Mandatory Mode) 4 bit / symbol Mandatory bit rate 4 bit/sym x 0.75 MSps = 3 Mbps #Code Sequences/ piconet 16 (4 bit/symbol) Code position modulation (CPM) Lower bit rate scalability Symbol Repetition Modulation {+1,-1} bipolar and {+1,-1, 0} ternary pulse train Total # simultaneous piconets supported 6 per FDM band Multple access for piconets Fixed sequence & FDM band for each piconet Submission Slide 7 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005

doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a System Description Each piconet uses one set of code sequences for different classes of nodes / type of receivers (coherent / differential / non-coherent receivers) 16 Orthogonal Sequences of code length 32 to represent a 4-bit symbol PRF (chip rate): 24 MHz Low enough to avoid significant interchip interference (ICI) with all 802.15.4a multipath models High enough to ensure low pulse peak power FEC: optional (or low complexity type) Submission Slide 8 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Band Plan BAND_ID Lower frequency Center frequency Upper frequency 1 3168 MHz 3432 MHz 3696 MHz 2

3696 MHz 3960 MHz 4224 MHz 3 4224 MHz 4488 MHz 4752 MHz 4 4752 MHz 5016 MHz 5280 MHz 5 5280 MHz 5544 MHz 5808 MHz 6 5808 MHz 6072 MHz 6336 MHz 7 6336 MHz 6600 MHz

6864 MHz 8 6864 MHz 7128 MHz 7392 MHz 9 7392 MHz 7656 MHz 7920 MHz 10 7920 MHz 8184 MHz 8448 MHz 11 8448 MHz 8712 MHz 8976 MHz 12 8976 MHz 9240 MHz 9504 MHz 13

9504 MHz 9768 MHz 10032 MHz 14 10032 MHz 10296 MHz 10560 MHz Submission Slide 9 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Multiple access Multiple access within piconet: TDMA+CSMA/CA same as 15.4 Multiple access across piconets: CDM + FDM Different Piconet uses different Base Sequence & different 500 MHz band Submission Slide 10 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Types of Receivers Supported Coherent Detection: The phase of the received carrier waveform is known, and utilized for

demodulation Differential Chip Detection: The carrier phase of the previous signaling interval is used as phase reference for demodulation Non-coherent Detection: The carrier phase information (e.g.pulse polarity) is unknown at the receiver Submission Slide 11 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Criteria of Code Sequence Design 1. The sequence Set should have orthogonal (or near orthogonal) cross correlation properties to minimise symbol decision error for all the below receivers a. For coherent receiver b. For differential chip receiver c. For non-coherent symbol detection receiver d. Energy detection receiver 2. Each sequence should have good auto-correlation properties Submission Slide 12 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Criteria of Code Sequence Design 2. To minimise impact of DC noise effect on energy collector based non-coherent receiver For OOK signaling, the transmitter transmits {+1,-1,0} ternary sequences Conventional receive unipolar code sequence follows transmit

sequence After the energy capture in the receiver, the noise has positive DC components in each chip; error occurs in thresholding, especially at lower SNR This will accumulate noise unevenly in symbol decision An ideal receive despreading chip sequence should then have bipolar chip values, preferrably with equal number of +1 and -1 chips This, to certain extent, will nullify DC noise energy in symbol decision This, will also nullify energy components from other interfering piconets Submission Slide 13 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Base Sequence Set Seq 1 0+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0-+00-- Seq 2 0-0+--000+0+0+-0+0000+-00+00+--- Seq 3 0-+0++---0+000-00-0+0++0000-+-00 Seq 4 00+0+--0--000-+-++00++0-00+0000- Seq 5 0+-+-00-00++0000+0--0-0+000--+0+ Seq 6

000-+-0000++0+0-00-000+0---++0+- 31-chip Ternary Sequence set are chosen Only one sequence and one fixed band (no hopping) will be used by all devices in a piconet Logical channels for support of multiple piconets 6 sequences = 6 logical channels (e.g. overlapping piconets) for each FDM Band The same base sequence will be used to construct the symbol-tochip mapping table Submission Slide 14 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Symbol-to-Chip Mapping: Gray coded 16-ary Ternary Orthogonal Keying Symbol Cyclic shift to right by n chips, n= 32-Chip value 0000 0 0+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0-+00-- 0001 2 0--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0-+00 0011

4 000--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0-+ 0010 6 0-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0 0110 8 00-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00 0111 10 0000-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+ 0101 12 00+000-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0-000 0100 14 0000+000-+00--+--000+-0+++0+00 1100 15 00000+000-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0 1101 17

000000+000-+00--+--000+-0+++0+ 1111 19 00+00000+000-+00--+--000+-0+++ 1110 21 0++0+00000+000-+00--+--000+-0+ 1010 23 00+++0+00000+000-+00--+--000+- 1011 25 0+-0+++0+00000+000-+00--+--000 1001 27 000+-0+++0+00000+000-+00--+--0 1000 Submission 29 0-000+-0+++0+00000+000-+00--+Slide 15 To obtain 32-chip per symbol, cyclic shift the Base Sequence first, then append a 0-chip in front Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.

Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Good Properties of the Mapping Sequence 1. Cyclic nature, leads to simple implementation 2. Zero DC for each sequence 3. No need for carrier phase tracking (i.e. coherent receiver) Submission Slide 16 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Synchronisation Preamble Correlator output for synchronisation Code sequences has good autocorrelation properties Preamble is constructed by repeating 0000 symbols Long preamble is constructed by further symbol repetition Submission Slide 17 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Frame Format Octets: 2 MAC Sublayer

1 0/4/8 Frame Seq. # Address Cont. MHR Octets: PHY Layer 4? Preamble SHR n Data Payload MSDU Data: 32 (n=23) 1 1 SFD Frame Length MPDU PHR PSDU 2 CRC MFR

For ACK: 5 (n=0) PPDU Submission Slide 18 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Transmission Mode Mo de Data Rate (Mbps) Bit / symbo l Sym. Rep. 1a 3 4 1 Ternary - Short Preamble for all receivers - High Data Rate Mode (for Energy Collection receivers) 1b 0.75

4 4 Ternary - Long Preamble for all receivers - Low Data Rate Mode (for Energy Collection receivers) 2a 3 4 1 Binary - High Data Rate Mode (for Coherent / Differential Chip Receiver) 2b 0.75 4 4 Binary - Low Data Rate Mode (for Coherent / Differential Chip Receiver) Submission TX Signaling Slide 19

Receiver type Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Modulation & Coding (Mode 1) Binary data From PPDU Bit-toSymbol Symbolto-Chip Symbol Repetition Pulse Generator {0,1,-1} Ternary Sequence Bit to symbol mapping: group every 4 bits into a symbol Symbol-to-chip mapping: Each 4-bit symbol is mapped to one of 16 32-chip sequence, according to 16-ary Ternary Orthogonal Keying Symbol Repetition: for data rate and range scalability Pulse Genarator: Transmit Ternary pulses at PRF = 24MHz Submission Slide 20 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005

doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Modulation & Coding (Mode 2) Binary data From PPDU Bit-toSymbol Symbolto-Chip Symbol Repetition {0,1,-1} Ternary Sequence Pulse Generator TernaryBinary {1,-1} Binary Sequence Bit to symbol mapping: group every 4 bits into a symbol Symbol-to-chip mapping: Each 4-bit symbol is mapped to one of 16 32-chip sequence, according to 16-ary Ternary Orthogonal Keying Symbol Repetition: for data rate and range scalability Ternary to Binary conversion: (-1/+1 1,0 -1) Pulse Genarator: Transmit bipolar pulses at PRF = 24MHz Submission Slide 21 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005

doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Auto Correlation Properties for NonCoherent Symbol Detection Receiver Submission Slide 22 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Cross Correlation Properties for NonCoherent Symbol Detection Receiver TxSeqSet * RxSeqSet' (Mode 1) = Submission TxSeqSet * RxSeqSet' (Mode 2) = Slide 23 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Differential Multipath Combining Re x1,n 1 x1*,n Re x 2,n 1 x 2* ,n Re x 3,n 1 x 3*,n

x 1, n x 2,n x x1,n 1 2,n 1 x 3,n Submission x 3,n 1 Slide 24 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Auto Correlation Properties for Differential Chip Detection Receiver Submission Slide 25 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Cross Correlation Properties for Differential Chip Detection Receiver DifferentialChip(TxSeqSet) * DifferentialChip(RxSeqSet) (Mode 2) = DifferentialChip(TxSeqSet) * DifferentialChip(RxSeqSet) (Mode 1) = Submission

Slide 26 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Non-Coherent Receiver Architectures (Mode 1) BPF ( )2 LPF / integrator ADC Soft Despread Sample Rate 1/Tc Energy detection technique rather than coherent receiver, for low cost, low complexity Soft chip values gives best results Oversampling & sequence correlation is used to recovery chip timing recovery Synchronization fully re-acquired for each new packet received (=> no very accurate timebase needed) Slide 27 Submission Francois Chin (I R), et. al. 2 Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Auto Correlation Properties for Energy Detection Receiver (Mode 1)

Submission Slide 28 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Cross Correlation Properties for Energy Detection Receiver (Mode 1) TxSeqSet * RxSeqSet ' = Submission Slide 29 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a AWGN Performance Submission Slide 30 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a AWGN Performance AWGN performance @ 1% PER Submission @ 3 Mbps

Non-coherent symbol detection Differential chip detection Energy detection Mode 1 8.5 dB 13 dB 13.5 dB Mode 2 7.5 dB 11.5 dB - Slide 31 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Basic Data Rate Throughput (Low Rate Modes) ACK Data Frame (38 bytes) tACK LI FS

Tframe (Time Slot for Multiple Piconet) Useful data rate calculation for 32 byte PSDU (Xo = 0.75 Mbps) Symbol Period = 1.33us Data frame time : 38 x 8 / 0.75= 405.3 sec ACK frame time : 11 x 8 / 0.75 = 117.3 sec tACK (considering 15.4 spec) : 192 sec LIFS (considering 15.4 spec) : 640 sec Tframe = 1355 sec Useful Basic Data Rate = 189.0 kbps Submission Slide 32 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Basic Data Rate Throughput (High Rate Modes) ACK Data Frame (38 bytes) tACK LI FS Tframe (Time Slot for Multiple Piconet) Useful data rate calculation for 32 byte PSDU (Xo = 3 Mbps) Symbol Period = 1.33us Data frame time : 38 x 8 / 3 = 101.3 sec ACK frame time : 11 x 8 / 3 = 29.3 sec tACK (considering 15.4 spec) : 192 sec LIFS (considering 15.4 spec) : 640 sec Tframe = 963 sec Useful Basic Data Rate = 265.9 kbps Submission

Slide 33 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Basic Data Rate Throughput (High Rate Modes) ACK Data Frame (38 bytes) tACK LI FS Tframe (Time Slot for Multiple Piconet) Useful data rate calculation for 127 byte PSDU (Xo = 3 Mbps) Symbol Period = 1.33us Data frame time : 127 x 8 / 3 = 354.7 sec ACK frame time : 11 x 8 / 3 = 29.3 sec tACK (considering 15.4 spec) : 192 sec LIFS (considering 15.4 spec) : 640 sec Tframe = 1216 sec Useful Basic Data Rate = 853.5 kbps Submission Slide 34 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Link Budget Submission Slide 35

Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Ranging and Positioning Submission Slide 36 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Asynchronous Ranging Scheme Synchronous ranging One way ranging Simple TOA/TDOA measurement Universal external clock Transmitted packets Asynchronous ranging Received packets Two way ranging TOA/TDOA measurement by RTTs Half-duplex type of signal exchange TOF : Time Of Flight RTT : Round Trip Time SHR : Synchronization Header Reference Time

A SHR But, High Complexity Payload RTT SHR B TOFAB C SHR TOFAC Payload SHR TOF Payload Payload SHR SHR Payload Payload Pre- determined delay time(T) TOF = (RTT- 2k- T)/2

Asynchronous Ranging Synchronous Ranging Submission SHR k TDOABC TOF Payload Slide 37 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Proposed Positioning Scheme Features - Sequential two-way ranging is executed via relay transmissions - PAN coordinator manages the overall schedule for positioning - Inactive mode processing is required along the positioning - PAN coordinator may transfer all sorts of information such as observed - TDOAs to a processing unit (PU) for position calculation P_FFD3 P_FFD2 TOA24 TOA34 RFD PAN coordinator TOA14 PU P_FFD : Positioning Full Function Device

RFD : Reduced Function Device Benefits - It does not need pre-synchronization among the devices P_FFD1 - Positioning in mobile environment is partly accomplished Submission Slide 38 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Process of Proposed Positioning Scheme PAN coordinator RTT12 P_FFD1 RTT14 RTT13 T RTT24 RTT23 P_FFD2 T T12 RTT34 P_FFD3 T13

T23 T RFD T T14 T24 : Transmited packets : Received packets Submission T34 Slide 39 TOA measurement Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a More Details for obtaining TDOAs Distances among the positioning FFDs are calculated from RTT measurements and known time interval T RTT12 = T + 2T12 T12 = (RTT12 T)/2 RTT23 = T + 2T 23 RTT 13 = T12 + 2T + T23 + T13

T23 = (RTT23 T)/2 T13 = (RTT13 T12 T23 2T) Using observed RTT measurements and calculated distances, TOAs/ TDOAs are updated TOA34 = (RTT34 - T)/2 RTT34 = T34 + T + T34 RTT24 = T23 + T + T34 + T + T24 RTT14 = T12 + T + T23 + T + T34 + T + T14 TOA24 = (RTT24 - T23 - TOA34 2T) TOA14 = (RTT14 - T12 - T23 - TOA34 3T) TDOA12 = TOA14 TOA24 TDOA23 = TOA24 TOA34 Submission Slide 40 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Position Calculation using TDOAs The range difference measurement defines a hyperboloid of constant range difference When multiple range difference measurements are obtained, producing multiple hyperboloids, the position location of the device is at the intersection among the hyperboloids A TOATag_A TDOAA_B B Tag TOATag_C

C TOATag_B TDOAB_C Ri , j c TDOAi , j c (TOAi TOA j ) ( X i x ) 2 (Yi y ) 2 Submission Slide 41 ( X j x ) 2 (Y j y ) 2 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Positioning Scenario Overview Case 1 Cluster 1 Using static reference nodes in relatively large scaled cluster : Power control is required Power consumption increases All devices in cluster must be in inactive data transmission mode PAN Coordinator FFD Case 2 RFD Positioning FFD(P_FFD) Sequential positioning is executed

in each sub-cluster Low power consumption Associated sub-cluster in positioning mode should be in inactive data transmission mode Cluster 1 Submission Using static and dynamic nodes in overlapped small scaled subclusters : Slide 42 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Positioning Scenario for Star topology Star topology PAN coordinator activated mode Positioning all devices Re-alignment of positioning FFDs list is not required Target device activated mode Positioning is requested from some device Re-alignment of positioning FFDs list is required PAN coordinator FFD2 FDD P_FFD1 P_FFD3 P_FFD2

FFD1 PAN coordinator RFD3 RFD1 FFD3 RFD2 RFD Broadcasting to all P_FFDs S_addr. S_addr. S_addr. S_addr. S_addr. PAN_co. P_FFD1 P_FFD2 P_FFD3 T_RFD1 D_addr. D_addr. D_addr.

D_addr. P_FFD1 P_FFD2 P_FFD3 T_RFD1 P_addr. P_addr. P_addr. P_addr. P_FFD1 P_FFD2 P_FFD3 T_RFD1 P_FFD2 P_FFD3 T_RFD1 P_FFD3 T_RFD1 T_addr. T_addr. T_RFD1 T_RFD1

Submission T_addr. T_RFD1 Slide 43 S_addr. : Source Address D_addr. : Destination Address P_addr. : Positioning Address T_addr. : Target Address Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Positioning Scenario for Cluster-tree Topology RFD2 Cluster-tree topology RFD4 RFD1 RFD0 RFD1 FFD0 P_FFD1 FFD1 RFD3 RFD3 P_FFD2

FFD1 PAN coordinator FFD0 RFD6 FFD1 RFD2 P_addr. RFD4 FFD2 P_FFD3 RFD7 RFD5 P_FFD3 addition P_FFD3 PAN coordinator P_FFD1 P_FFD2 P_FFD3 RFD Broadcasting to all P_FFDs N_addr.

N_P_addr. S_addr. S_addr. S_addr. S_addr. S_addr. FFD0 FFD1 RFD6 P_FFD2 P_FFD1 PAN_co. P_FFD1 P_FFD2 P_FFD3 T_RFD5 D_addr. D_addr. D_addr. D_addr. P_FFD1 P_FFD2 P_FFD3

T_RFD5 P_addr. P_addr. P_addr. T_addr. P_FFD1 P_FFD2 P_FFD3 T_RFD5 P_FFD2 P_FFD3 re- arragement P_FFD3 T_addr. T_addr. T_addr. S_addr. : Source Address D_addr. : Destination Address P_addr. : Positioning Address T_addr. : Target Address N_addr. : Neighbor Address N_P_addr. : Neighbor Positioning Address T_RFD5 T_RFD5 T_RFD5 Submission

Slide 44 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Analog Energy Window Bank Submission Slide 45 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Ranging Accuracy Improvement Technical requirement for positioning It can be related to precise (tens of centimeters) localization in some cases, but is generally limited to about one meter Parameters for technical requirement Minimum required pulse duration : 1[ m] 3.333 [nsec] 3 10 8 [ m / sec] Minimum required clock speed for the correlator in the conventional coherent systems 1 300 [ MHz ] 3.333 [nsec] High Cost !

Fast ADC clock speed in the conventional coherent receiver is required for the digital signal processing Submission Slide 46 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Analog Energy Window Bank (1) Digital signal processing with fast clock can be replaced by using analog energy window bank with low clock speed Why analog energy window bank? Conventional single energy window may support the energy detection for data demodulation in the operation mode However, this cannot guarantee the correct searching of the signal position in the timing mode (that also means the ambiguity of ranging accuracy) Analog energy window bank can sufficiently support timing and calibration as well as operation mode Widow Bank Size : ~4 nsec (smallest pulse duration) The number of energy windows in a bank : 11 Operation clock speed of each energy window : 24 MHz Number of the required energy windows depends on the power delay profile of the multipath channel (effective multipath components) Submission Slide 47 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

Analog Energy Window Bank (2) I ntegrator Bank for Timing and Calibration Mode I ntegrator Bank for Operation Mode (Demodulation) Size of the Integrated Bank (S) 2n sec ()2 dt 2nsec 2nsec ()2 dt 2nsec Buffer Buffer 2 () dt Buffer

2nsec ()2 dt 2nsec ()2 dt Buffer First Estimating Path Estimation or andAveraging Calibration Submission ()2 dt Bit 1 Slide 48 Threshold Comparison Bit 0 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Modifying MAC Submission

Slide 49 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 Features doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Modifications of MAC Command Frame (1) Frame control field frame type : positioning (new addition using a reserved bit) Command frame identifier field Positioning request/response (new addition) Positioning parameter information field Absolute coordinates of positioning FFDs POS range List of positioning FFDs and target devices Power control Pre-determined processing time (T) Octets : 2 1 0/4/8 1 Frame control Sequence number Addressin g

fields comman d frame identifier Submission MHR variable Positionin g paramete r Slide 50 MAC payload Command payload 2 FCS MF 2 Francois Chin R (I R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Modifications of MAC Command Frame (2) Frame Control bits : 0~2 3

4 5 6 7~9 10~11 12~13 14~15 Frame type Securit y enabled Frame pendin g Ack. request IntraPAN Reserve d Dest. addressing mode Reserve d Source addressing mode

Frame type value Description 000 Beacon 001 Data 010 Acknowledgment 011 Command frame identifier Command frame identifier Command frame 0x01 Association request 0x02 Association response MAC command 0x03 Disassociation notification 100 Positioning

0x04 Data request 101~111 Reserved 0x05 PAN ID conflict notification 0x06 Orphan notification 0x07 Beacon request 0x08 Coordinator realignment 0x09 GTS request 0x0a Positioning request 0x0b Positioning response 0x0c~0xff Reserved Positioning parameter Fixed coordinat e

Submission POS range positioning FFDs Address & Target devices lists Predetermined processing time(T) Power Control Slide 51 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al. Feb 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a Summary The proposed system: Impulse-radio based system coupled with a Common ternary signaling allows operation among different classes of nodes / type of receivers, with varying cost / power / performance trade-off Has Band Plan based on multiple 500+MHz bands Is robust against SOP interference Is robust against other in-band interference Submission Slide 52 Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.

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    Jude 1:14-15 14 Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, ALSO PROPHESIED about these men, saying, "Behold, the Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints, 15 to execute judgment on all, to convict all who are ungodly among them of...
  • Landmark Data Copy - Nogalis, Inc.

    Landmark Data Copy - Nogalis, Inc.

    Landmark Data Copy (CONNECTED) Verify database, actors, identities. LSF productline copy (apps not gen) Sync encryption keys. Export data & identities. Import data. Load identities, assignments. Manually setup LSF users (or use LSFIQ) Verify system. NOTE: Destination envs remain connected...
  • Dissociative and Somatic Symptom Disorders

    Dissociative and Somatic Symptom Disorders

    Illness Anxiety disorder. Formerly called Hypocondriasis. Illness Anxiety Disorder is a somatic symptom disorder characterized by the misinterpretation of normal bodily functions as signs of serious illness. People with this disorder fear or mistakenly believe that normal bodily reactions represent...