Reproduction: Female Tony Serino, Ph.D. Biology Department Misericordia

Reproduction: Female Tony Serino, Ph.D. Biology Department Misericordia

Reproduction: Female Tony Serino, Ph.D. Biology Department Misericordia University Female Repro.: Topic Objectives Be able to identify all anatomical structures of the female and their functions. Be able to identify the parts of a human ovum and its outer

layers with their functions. Be able to identify the functions of the oviduct. Be able to explain how the ovarian and uterine cycles control reproductive function through hormone secretion. Be able to describe the events in both female arousal and orgasm as well as menopause. Be able to describe internal and external genitalia development. Be able to describe major STDs symptoms and causes. Be able to explain methods for contraception.

Female Reproduction Gonad: Ovary

Gametes: Ova Duct System: Transport ovum from ovary to uterus

Site of fertilization; Receive and transport sperm to ovum Capacitate sperm House and support fetus Deliver fetus Supporting Structures Sensory and protective functions

Female Anatomy (oviduct or Fallopian tube) Vulva Oogenesis *

* First polar body may not divide to form others. Development of Ovum and Follicle Developing follicles Ovulation

Ovulated Ovum Secondary oocyte Zona Pellucida Corona Radiata Oviduct (Uterine or Fallopian tube) Ampulla

Isthmus Relationship between mesovarium and mesosalpinx Oviducts: Anatomy Functions: transportation of ovum, sperm and zygote

-capacitation of sperm -site of fertilization Oviduct: three layers mucosa composed of ciliated simple columnar epithelium muscularis -smooth muscle layer, undergoes peristaltic and segmentation contractions serosa same as visceral peritoneum

Uterus: houses and supports fetus Curvature and Position of Uterus n Anteversion and anteflexion are normal n

Uterine Layers Perimetrium Layers of Endometrium Functional Zone (stratum functionalis) -contains endometrial glands and spiral arteries

-is shed each month Basilar Zone (stratum basale) -regenerative layer that creates functional zone Endometrial changes during cycle 1

2 3 4 Female External Genitalia (Vulva)

Vaginal lining Female Hormones Hypothalamus secretes GnRH Anterior Pituitary secretes FSH and LH Theca cells of ovary secrete estrogens Granulosa cells secrete inhibin

Luteal cells (modified granulosa cells) secrete progesterone Ovarian and Uterine Cycles Arousal Female Sexual Response

Triggered by: Touching of genital skin and other areas of skin Mechanical stimulation of pressure receptors in clitoris Erotic sights, sounds, and smells

Thoughts and memories Increased myotonia throughout body, BP, breathing and HR Sexual stimulation leads to accumulation of blood in vaginal tissues, labia minora, clitoris, and breasts (including areola and nipple) Vestibular glands secrete lubricating fluid into vestibule and mucous is secreted into vagina The vagina may expand its width and some of its length

Plateau Increased swelling of vagina and labia minora, and become more sensitive Clitoris may withdraw into its hood (prepuce) Orgasm Pleasurable rhythmic contractions of uterus, vagina and clitoris Followed by relaxation but no refractory period Development of Reproductive System

Gonads of embryo are sexually indistinguishable Two sets of ducts present: Mullerian (female) and Wolfian (male) Female pattern will develop as default If XY, then testes develop and secrete testosterone Testosterone stimulates growth of male pattern and degeneration of female pattern Internal Genital

Development Both Wolfian and Mullerian ducts form With advent of functional testis and testosterone secretion; Wolfian ducts stimulated to develop; Mullerian ducts inhibited by AMH

Without functioning testes, Wolfian ducts degenerate and Mullerian ducts develop female pattern External Genitalia Development Reproductive Development

Much of the systems development occurs after birth during adolescence Generation of functional sex cells and secondary characteristics dependent on fully functional gonads in both sexes Menopause Cessation of reproductive function with age Occurs only in women (men slow down function

but do not cease unless pathology occurs) Women see steep decline in pituitary and ovarian hormone production that eventually stops both ovarian and uterine cycles Woman said to complete menopause after one year without menses STDs sexually transmitted diseases Syphilis bacterial (Treponema)

Invades mucosae and abraded skin, can be transmitted at birth Incubation period from 2-3 weeks, then primary chancre develops This heals in a week, several weeks later the secondary lesion develops The secondary lesion (skin rash) disappears in 3-12 weeks Tertiary lesion (gummas) completely destructive lesions may erupt Treatable with penicillin STDs sexually transmitted diseases

Gonorrhea Bacterial (Nisseria) Commonly calledthe Clap Infects mucosa layers, spreads by contact with genital, anal or oropharyngeal mucosae Symptoms vary but can include urethritis, whitish discharge, abnormal bleeding, sterility Treatable with antibiotics

New strains have developed that are resistant to antibiotics STDs sexually transmitted diseases Warts viral, human papillomavirus (HPV) Increases risk of certain cancers (penile, vaginal, cervical, and anal) Treatment is difficult

STDs sexually transmitted diseases Herpes viral (herpes simplex 2 and others) long incubation period (weeks to years) Flares up as painful, itchy blister like lesions Secretions from lesions are infectious Little threat to individual (though linked

with cancers) Definite threat to fetus, triggering severe malformations New antiviral drugs helpful, but no cure Remain infected for life STDs sexually transmitted diseases Chlamydia bacterial most common STD in US (4-5 million infected)

women may be asymptomatic Incubation period is one week Symptoms: urethritis, painful urination, discharge, painful sex, abdominal pain, and sterility Can infect fetus causing eye and respiratory infections Treatable with antibiotics Pubic Lice (pediculosis)arthropod (Crabs) Caused by Phthirus pubis, itching and small pale

blue spots present Lives principally in hair of pubic region (but may inhabit facial hair), acquired through sexual relations, contaminated clothing, bedding or toilet seats STDs sexually transmitted diseases AIDS viral (HIV), an RNA retrovirus Transmitted by exchange of infected cells between hosts

Only antibody test available to determine exposure Incubations period measured in months to years (8-10 in some cases) Symptoms: severe weight loss, night sweats, swollen lymph nodes, increase infections and cancer rates 100% fatal, 30 million infect worldwide Leading cause of death in Americans 25-44 years of age Contraception


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