Twelfth-Year Update on a 200-yr Soil Monitoring Study

Twelfth-Year Update on a 200-yr Soil Monitoring Study

Twelfth-Year Update on a 200-yr Soil Monitoring Study Don Ross, University of Vermont Thom Villars, USDA NRCS Scott Bailey, USFS Northern Res. Sta. Nancy Burt, Angie Quintana-Jones, USFS Sandy Wilmot, Vermont Dept. of Forest, Parks and Recreation Deane Wang, University of Vermont Jamie Shanley, USGS Project Goals: 1. Establish five 50 x 50 m relatively uniform plots in sites associated with the VMC. 2. Sample plots at 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 years. Year 0 = 2002 3. Archive samples for later comparisons. 4. Analyze initial samples to determine baseline values. 5. Protect the plots for future monitoring.

Sites: Mt. Mansfield Ranch Brook northern hardwood Mt. Mansfield Forehead high elevation spruce/fir Mt. Mansfield Underhill State Forest transitional SCAN site Lye Brook Road northern hardwood SCAN site Lye Brook Trail transitional Mansfield Forehead 50 m

NW 50 m SW 5m 91 92 93 94 95 96 97

98 99 100 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

89 90 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

80 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 31 32

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 21 22 23

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 11 12 13 14

15 16 17 18 19 20 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 NE A typical plot plan. Plots with red numbers were sampled in 2002 (Year 0). SE

Sampling Scheme 2002: All samples taken by horizon (no depth increments) 2007, 2012: 4 large samples from each pit Litter layer (Oi) Oa or A (near-surface humified horizon) Top 10 cm of B horizon 60-70 cm (usually C horizon) (Also small samples of each genetic horizon) Lye Road Lye Road Lye Road Lye Trail Lye Trail Ranch Brook 2002

Underhill State Park or Polka-Dot, 2400 Polka-dot Forehead, 3600 Forehead Samples taken by horizon Horizon 2002 2007 Oi 39 Oi/Oe 9 Oe 36 Oa 49 48

A 22 21 E 30 30 B 91 129 BC 12 C 28 Total 204 340 Samples taken by horizon or depth increment Sample type 2007 2012 Oi/Oe 50

50 Oa or A 50 50 A 2 E 8 9 top 10 cm of B 44 46 60-70 cm 40 40 Total 192 197 2012 50 48 48

25 32 126 42 371 60-70 cm particle size from 2012 (only one sample from Forehead) All averages are fine sandy loam LT LR RB PD FH Clay % 1.6 2.9 5.6 5.8

7.3 Silt % 43.1 42.7 35.1 36.1 32.9 Sand % 55.3 54.4 59.3 58.1 59.8 60-70 cm total elemental analysis 2012 (only one sample from Forehead) Ca mg/kg

Lye Trail 14572 Lye Road 16148 Ranch Brk 5684 PolkaDot 5416 Forehead 4105 Fe mg/kg 21482 24658 38579 38980 50681 P mg/kg 357 154 751 523 624

Mn mg/kg 345 461 920 961 1399 Sr mg/kg 311 337 110 110 90 Ti mg/kg 3198 2963 6525 5739

6263 Carbon in the Oa/A horizon Carbon in the 60-70 cm samples Carbon in the B horizons Exchangeable Ca in B horizons Ranch exchangeable Ca in the uppermost B horizon red = 2002, blue = 2007, green = 2012 91 92 0.45 94 95

96 1.50 81 82 83 84 85 86 3.71 3.69 71 72

73 74 0.74 76 61 0.31 63 51 0.74 53 54

55 56 57 58 41 0.41 43 44 45 46 47

48 0.33 32 0.34 34 37 38 39 40 21 22

23 24 25 26 2.66 28 29 2.98 14 15 16

0.72 1.76 19 0.93 0.70 5 1.31 9 10 11 0.46 0.55 0.44

2 3 77 98 78 0.34 0.78 2.46 3.01 1.51 0.37 0.31 7 8 99 1.85

89 90 79 80 69 70 59 60 1.51 3.45 N Challenges facing the project: Separating natural soil variation from actual

long-term changes Developing a permanent archive plan Funding for lab work and unsupported personnel costs 200 years??? - Institutionalizing the program into agencies and passing on the project to a new generation of scientists Power analysis Lye Road B 0-10 cm Exchangeable Ca cmolc/kg 0.114 0.118 0.119 0.157 0.140 0.118 0.160 0.179 0.184

0.216 n 10 std dev 0.0348 mean 0.150 diffe rence to detect P 0.05 0.071 P 0.10 0.060 Detecting change Detecting change (Almost) everyone involved in 2012:

Ashley Walker, UVM Ben Dillner, Vermont Forest, Parks and Rec Charlotte Ford, UVM Courtney Dyche, UVM Funding generousy provided by Dana Andrews, UVM

VMC and Green Mountain and Deane Wang, UVM Finger Lakes National Forests Don Ross, UVM Doug Morin, UVM Thanks Carl Waite and Nancy Burt! Emily Piche, UVM Meghan Knowles, UVM Nancy Burt, US Forest Service Noah Ahles, UVM Rebecca Bourgault, UVM Ryan Melnichuk, UVM Ryan Morra, UVM Sandy Wilmot, Vermont Forest, Parks and Rec Scott Bailey, US Forest Service Thom Villars, NRCS Vermont Youth Conservation Corp Lye Trail Polka-dot

Forehead Young volunteers needed!

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